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Cambridge 


XX 
XX 


Essential 


Grammar 


in Use 


A self-study reference and practice book 
for elementary learners of English 


Fourth Edition 

with answers 


Raymond Murphy 


Essential 

Grammar 

in Use 

A self-study reference and practice book 
for elementary learners of English 

Fourth Edition 


with answers 


Raymond Murphy 



Cambridge 

UNIVERSITY PRESS 






Cambridge 

UNIVERSITY PRESS 

University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom 

Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. 

It furthers the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of 
education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. 

www.cambridge.org 

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/essentialgrammarinuse 


Fourth Edition © Cambridge University Press 2015 


This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception 
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, 
no reproduction of any part may take place without the written 
permission of Cambridge University Press. 


Essential Grammar in Use first published 1990 
Fourth edition 2015 

Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press 



A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library 


ISBN 978-1-107-48055-1 
ISBN 978-1-107-48053-7 
ISBN 978-1-107-48056-8 
ISBN 978-1-107-48061-2 
ISBN 978-1-107-48060-5 


Edition with answers 

Edition with answers and Interactive eBook 
Edition without answers 
Edition with Supplementary Exercises 
Interactive eBook 


Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy 
of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, 
and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, 
accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other 
factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but 
Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information 
thereafter. 



Contents 


Acknowledgements vii 
To the student viii 
To the teacher x 

Present 

1 am/is/are 

2 am/is/are (questions) 

3 I am doing (present continuous) 

4 are you doing? (present continuous questions) 

5 I do/work/like etc. (present simple) 

6 I don’t ... (present simple negative) 

7 Do you ... ? (present simple questions) 

8 I am doing (present continuous) and I do (present simple) 

9 I have ... and I've got... 

Past 

10 was/were 

11 worked/got/went etc. (past simple) 

12 I didn't... Did you... ? (past simple negative and questions) 

13 I was doing (past continuous) 

14 I was doing (past continuous) and I did (past simple) 

Present perfect 

15 I have done (present perfect 1) 

16 I've just... I've already... I haven't ... yet (present perfect 2) 

17 Have you ever ... ? (present perfect 3) 

18 How long have you ... ? (present perfect 4) 

19 for since ago 

20 I have done (present perfect) and I did (past) 

Passive 

21 is done was done (passive 1) 

22 is being done has been done (passive 2) 

Verb forms 

23 be/have/do in present and past tenses 

24 Regular and irregular verbs 

Future 

25 What are you doing tomorrow? 

26 I’m going to ... 

27 will/shall 1 

28 will/shall 2 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS TO STUDY USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 271 



Modals, imperative etc. 

29 might 

30 can and could 

31 must mustn’t don’t need to 

32 should 

33 I have to... 

34 Would you like... ? I'd like... 

35 Do this! Don't do that! Let's do this! 

36 I used to... 

There and it 

37 there is there are 

38 there was/were there has/have been there will be 

39 It... 

Auxiliary verbs 

40 I am, I don’t etc. 

41 Have you? Are you? Don’t you? etc. 

42 too/either so am I / neither do I etc. 

43 isn’t, haven’t, don’t etc. (negatives) 

Questions 

44 is it...? have you...? do they... ? etc. (questions 1) 

45 Who saw you? Who did you see? (questions 2) 

46 Who is she talking to? What is it like? (questions 3) 

47 What... ? Which ... ? How... ? (questions 4) 

48 How long does it take... ? 

49 Do you know where... ? I don’t know what... etc. 
Reported speech 

50 She said that... He told me that... 

-ing and to ... 

51 work/working go/going do/doing 

52 to... (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing) 

53 I want you to... I told you to... 

54 I went to the shop to ... 

Co, get, do, make and have 

55 go to... go on ... go for... go -ing 

56 get 

57 do and make 

58 have 

Pronouns and possessives 

59 I/me he/him they/them etc. 

60 my/his/their etc. 

61 Whose is this? It's mine/yours/hers etc. 

62 l/me/my/mine 

63 myself/yourself/themselves etc. 

64 -'s (Kate's camera / my brother’s car etc.) 


iv 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 173 




A and the 

65 a/an ... 

66 train(s) bus(es) (singular and plural) 

67 a bottle / some water (countable/uncountable 1) 

68 a cake / some cake / some cakes (countable/uncountable 2) 

69 a/an and the 

70 the... 

71 go to work go home go to the cinema 

72 I like music I hate exams 

73 the... (names of places) 

Determiners and pronouns 

74 this/that/these/those 

75 one/ones 

76 some and any 

77 not + any no none 

78 not + anybody/anyone/anything nobody/no-one/nothing 

79 somebody/anything/nowhere etc. 

80 every and all 

81 all most some any no/none 

82 both either neither 

83 a lot much many 

84 (a) little (a) few 

Adjectives and adverbs 

85 old/nice/interesting etc (adjectives) 

86 quickly/badly/suddenly etc (adverbs) 

87 old/older expensive / more expensive 

88 older than ... more expensive than ... 

89 not as ... as 

90 the oldest the most expensive 

91 enough 

92 too 

Word order 

93 He speaks English very well, (word order 1) 

94 always/usually/often etc (word order 2) 

95 still yet already 

96 Give me that book! Give it to me! 

Conjunctions and clauses 

97 and but or so because 

98 When ... 

99 If we go ... If you see... etc 

100 If I had... If we went... etc. 

101 a person who ... a thing that/which ... (relative clauses 1) 

102 the people we met the hotel you stayed at (relative clauses 2) 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 271 


V 


Prepositions 

103 at 8 o’clock on Monday in April 

104 from... to until since for 

105 before after during while 

106 in at on (places 1) 

107 in at on (places 2) 

108 to in at (places 3) 

109 under, behind, opposite etc. 

110 up, over, through etc. 

111 on at by with about 

112 afraid of..., good at ... etc. of/at/for etc. (prepositions) + -ing 

113 listen to..., look at ... etc. (verb + preposition) 


Phrasal verbs 

114 go in, fall off, run away etc. (phrasal verbs 1) 

115 put on your shoes put your shoes on (phrasal verbs 2) 


Appendices 
Appendix 1 
Appendix 2 
Appendix 3 
Appendix 4 
Appendix 5 
Appendix 6 
Appendix 7 


Active and passive 243 

List of irregular verbs 244 

Irregular verbs in groups 245 

Short forms (he’s / I’d / don't etc.) 246 

Spelling 248 

Phrasal verbs (take off / give up etc.) 250 

Phrasal verbs + object (put out a fire / give up your job etc.) 


251 


Additional exercises 252 


Study guide 271 

Key to Exercises 283 

Key to Additional exercises 310 

Key to Study guide 313 

Index 315 


vi 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH UNITS TO STUDY, USE THE STUDY GUIDE ON PAGE 271 


To the student (working without a teacher) 



Contents 


This is a grammar book for elementary 
students of English. There are 115 units 
in the book and each unit is about a 
different point of English grammar. 

There is a list of units at the beginning 
of the book (Contents). 

Do not study all the units in order from 
beginning to end. It is better to choose 
the units that you need to do. For 
example, if you have a problem with the 
present perfect (I have been, he has done 
etc.), study Units 15-20. 

Use the Contents or the Index (at the 
back of the book) to find the unit 
(or units) that you need. 


1 Mi'ts.in 
7 am/b/ar* (nuunnm) 

1 iMniloMtg (prv*MM •nnilruinu*/ 

4 tint you doingr (|*ry«ii ctrcnicun 

5 I do. worV'Ukc etc (pwwn »irrf4H 

6 (don't... ^pieveni amp* revival 

) Do you... I (present omplr lAinlium) 

t» I »m doiof (present cont*n»x*) and I do (prrvrr* umpb) 

* i have ... »rnJ I’ve fot... 


10 tMt'wrm 

worKeo/goi v*#m . 


If you are not sure 
which units you 
need to study, use 
the Study guide 
at the back of the 
book. 



Study guide (pages 271-282) 






















Each unit is two pages. 
The information is on 
the left-hand page and 
the exercises are on the 
right: 


Information 



Study the left-hand page (information), and then 
do the exercises on the right-hand page. 

Use the Key to check your answers. The Key is on 
pages 283-309. 

Study the left-hand page again if necessary. 



Don't forget the seven Appendices at 
the back of the book (pages 243-251). 
These will give you information about 
active and passive forms, irregular 
verbs, short forms, spelling and 
phrasal verbs. 



There are also Additional 
exercises at the back of the book 
(pages 252-270). 

There is a list of these exercises 
on page 252. 



IX 








































































To the teacher 


The most important features of this book are: 

O It is a grammar book. It does not deal with other aspects of the language. 

O It is for elementary learners. It does not cover areas of grammar which are not normally taught at 
elementary level. 

O It is a reference book with exercises. It is not a course book and is not organised progressively. 

O It is addressed to learners and intended for self-study. 

Organisation of the book 

There are 115 units in the book, each one focusing on a particular area of grammar. The material is organised 
in grammatical categories, such as tenses, questions and articles. Units are not ordered according to difficulty, 
and should therefore be selected and used in the order appropriate for the learner(s). The book should not 
be worked through from beginning to end. The units are listed in the Contents and there is a comprehensive 
Index at the end of the book. 

Each unit has the same format consisting of two facing pages. The grammar point is presented and explained 
on the left-hand page and the corresponding exercises are on the right. There are seven Appendices (pages 
243-251) dealing with active and passive forms, irregular verbs, short forms (contractions), spelling and phrasal 
verbs. It might be useful for teachers to draw students' attention to these. 

At the back of the book there is a set of Additional exercises (pages 252-270). These exercises provide 'mixed' 
practice bringing together grammar points from a number of different units (especially those concerning verb 
forms). There are 35 exercises in this section and there is a full list on page 252. 

Also at the back of the book there is a Study guide to help students decide which units to study - see page 271. 

Finally, there is a Key (pages 283-309) for students to check their answers to all the exercises in the book. An 
edition without the Study guide and Key is available for teachers who would prefer it for their students. 

Level 

The book is for elementary learners, i.e. learners with very little English, but not for complete beginners. It is 
intended mainly for elementary students who are beyond the early stages of a beginners’ course. It could also 
be used by low-intermediate learners whose grammar is weaker than other aspects of their English or who 
have problems with particular areas of basic grammar. 

The explanations are addressed to the elementary learner and are therefore as simple and as short as possible. 
The vocabulary used in the examples and exercises has also been restricted so that the book can be used at 
this level. 

Using the book 

The book can be used by students working alone (see To the student ) or as supplementary course material. 

In either case the book can serve as an elementary grammar book. 

When used as course material, the book can be used for immediate consolidation or for later revision or 
remedial work. It might be used by the whole class or by individual students needing extra help and practice. 

In some cases it may be desirable to use the left-hand pages (presentation and explanation) in class, but it 
should be noted that these have been written for individual study and reference. In most cases, it would 
probably be better for teachers to present the grammar point in their preferred way with the exercises being 
done for homework. The left-hand page is then available for later reference by the student. 

Some teachers may prefer to keep the book for revision and remedial work. In this case, individual students or 
groups of students can be directed to the appropriate units for self-study and practice. 


x 




Unit 

i 



am/is/are 


^My name is U s^ 


(l'm American. I'm from Chica g^ 


positive 


My father is a doctor and 
my mother is a journalist. 


negative 


My favourite sports are 
football and swimming. 


^mmterested in art.") 
(l^TMiot interested in politics.^ 


USA 


1 

am 

(I'm) 

he 


(he’s) 

she 

is 

(she's) 

it 


(it’s) 

we 


(we're) 

you 

are 

(you're) 

they 


(they’re) 


1 

am not 

(I’m not) 

he 

she 

it 

is not 

(he’s not or he isn't) 

(she’s not or she isn’t) 

(ic’s not or it isn’t) 

we 

you 

they 

are not 

(we’re not or we aren't) 
(you’re not or you aren’t) 
(they’re not or they aren’t) 


shortform 


short forms 


I'm cold. Can you close the window, please? 

I'm 32 years old. My sister is 29. 

Steve is ill. He's in bed. 

My brother is scared of dogs. 

It's ten o'clock. You're late again. 

Ann and I are good friends. 

Your keys are on the table. 

I'm tired but I'm not hungry. 

Lisa isn't interested in politics. She's interested in art. 
James isn't a teacher. He's a student. 

Those people aren't English. Tliey're Australian. 

It's sunny today, but it isn't warm. 

that's = that is there's = there is here's = here is 

O Thank you. That's very kind of you. 

O Look! There's Chris. 

'Here's your key.' 'Thank you.' 


m scared of dog 


Woof ???? 




( am/is/are (questions) -» Unit 2 there is/are-» Unit 37 a/an-» Unit 65 shore forms-» Appendix 4 ) 
















































Exercises 


Write the short form (she’s / we aren’t etc.). 

1 she is she’s 3 it is not 

2 they are. 4 that is 


5 I am not 

6 you are not 


Write am, is or are. 


1 The weather is nice today. 

2 I not rich. 

3 This bag heavy. 

4 These bags heavy. 


5 Look! There Helen. 

6 My brother and I good tennis players. 

7 Emily at home. Her children at school. 

8 I a taxi driver. My sister a nurse. 


Complete the sentences. 

1 Steve is ill. He's. j n bed. 

2 I’m not hungry, but thirsty. 

3 Mr Thomas is a very old man.98. 

4 These chairs aren't beautiful, but.comfortable. 

5 The weather is nice today. warm and sunny. 

6 '..late.' 'No, I'm not. I'm early!' 

7 Catherine isn't at home.at work. 

8 ' your coat.' 'Oh, thank you very much.' 


Look at Lisa’s sentences in 1 A. Now write sentences about yourself. 


1 (name?) My 

2 (age?) I 

3 (from?) I. 

4 (job?) I. 


5 (favourite colour or colours?) 

My. 

6 (interested in ... ?) 


Write sentences for the pictures. Use: 

angry cold hot hungry scared th i r s ty 



Write true sentences, positive or negative. Use is/isn't or are/aren't. 

1 (it / hot today) It i s n’t ho t tod a y . or I t’s hot today. 

2 (it / windy today) It. 

3 (my hands / cold) My . 

4 (Brazil / a very big country) 

5 (diamonds / cheap) 

6 (Toronto / in the US) . 


Write true sentences, positive or negative. Use I’m / I'm not. 

7 (tired) I’m tired. or I’m n o t tir ed . 

8 (hungry) I. 

9 (a good swimmer) 

10 (interested in football) . 


-* Additional exercise 1 (page 252) 


13 


































































Unit 

2 


am/is/are (questions) 


positive 


question 


1 

am 

he 

she 

it 

is 

we 

you 

they 

are 


am 

i? 

is 

he? 

she? 

it? 

are 

we? 

you? 

they? 



^ ^What's your name?^ 
^ ^Are you married?) 
^^How old are you?^ 
^v^Are you a student?^ 


(David. ^ 


& 



We say: 

O 

o 


'Am I late?' 'No, you're on time.' 

Is your mother at home?' No, she's out.' 

Are your parents at home?' No, they're out.' 
is it cold in your room?' 'Yes, a little.' 

Your shoes are nice. Are they new? 

Is she at home? / Is your mother at home? (not Is at home your mother?) 
Are they new? / Are your shoes new? (not Are new your shoes?) 


Where ... ? / What... ? / Who ... ? / How ... ? / Why ... ? 

O Where is your mother? Is she at home? 

, O 'Where are you from?' 'Canada.' 

O 'What colour is your car?' it's red.' 

O 'How old is Joe?' 'He's 24.' 

O How are your parents? Are they well? 

O These shoes are nice. How much are they? 

O This hotel isn't very good. Why is it so expensive? 

what's = what is who's - who is how's = how is where's = where is 
□ What's the time? O Who's that man? 

O Where's Lucy? O How's your father? 

Short answers 



or 


No, 


he 

she 

it 

isn't. 

we 

you 

they 

aren't. 


O Are you tired?' Yes, I am.' 

O 'Are you hungry?' 'No, I'm not, but I'm thirsty.' 

O Is your friend English?' Yes, he is.' 

O Are these your keys?' Yes, they are.' 

O That's my seat.' No, it isn't.' 



14 


f am/is/are “♦ Unit 1 questions -♦ Unit 44 what/which/how -> Unit 47 














































Exercises 


Find the right answers for the questions. 


1 Where's the camera? 


A London. 

2 Is your car blue? 


B No, I'm not. 

3 Is Kate from London? 


C Yes, you are. 

4 Am 1 late? 


D My sister. 

5 Where’s Amy from? 


E Black. 

6 What colour is your bag? 


F No, it’s black. 

7 Are you hungry? 


G In your bag. 

8 How is George? 


H No, she's American. 

9 Who’s that woman? 


1 Very well. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 


Make questions with these words. 

(is / at home / your mother) . !.syour.mother at home 

(your parents / are / well) . Are your ,parents wel l . 

(interesting / is / your job) . 

(the shops / are / open today) . 

(from / where / you / are) . 

(interested in sport / you / are) . 

(is / near here / the station) . 

(at school / are / your children) . 

(you / are / late / why) 


Complete the questions. Use What... / Who... / Where... / How... 



Write the questions. 

r 




/Z_ 


PAUL 


1 

^(name 7 ) What’s your name? ^ 


^Paul. > 

2 

(American?) . 


No, I'm Australian. 

3 

(how old?) . 


I'm 30. 

4 

(a teacher?) . 


No, I’m a lawyer. 

5 

(married?) . 


Yes, 1 am. 

6 

(wife a lawyer?) . 


No, she's a designer. 

7 

(from?) . 


She's Italian. 

8 

(her name?) . 


Anna. 

9 

(how old?) . 


She's 27. 

v J 


Write short answers (Yes, I am. / No, he isn't, etc.). 

1 Are you married? . No t ,r.m.not, . 4 Are your hands cold? 

2 Are you thirsty? . 5 1$ it dark now? . 

3 Is it cold today? . 6 Are you a teacher? . 


► Additional exercises 1-2 (pages 252-53) 




















































I am doing (present continuous) 



She's eating It's raining They're running. 

She isn't reading The sun isn't shining They aren't walking 


The present continuous is: 

am/is/are + doing/eating/running/writing etc. 


1 

am (not) 


O I'm working. I’m not watching TV. 

he 



O Maria is reading a newspaper. 

she 

is (not) 


O She isn’t eating, (or She's not eating.) 

it 


-ing 

O The bus is coming. 

we 



O We’re having dinner. 

you 

are (not) 


O You’re not listening to me. (or You aren’t listening ...) 

they 



O The children are doing their homework. 


am/is/are + -ing = something is happening now: 


I'm working 
she's wearing a hat 
they're playing football 
I'm not watching TV 


past now future 

O Please be quiet. I'm working (- I'm working now) 

O Look, there's Sarah. She's wearing a brown coat. (= she is wearing it now) 

O The weather is nice. It's not raining. 

O 'Where are the children?' 'They're playing in the park' 

O (on the phone) We're having dinner now. Can I call you later? 

O You can turn off the television. I'm not watching it. 

Spelling Appendix 5): 

come — > coming write —> writing dance —> dancing 

run —> running sit —> sitting swim —> swimming 

lie —> lying 


am/is/are -4 Unit 1 are you doing? (questions) -4 Unit 4 I am doing and I do -4 Unit 8 
What are you doing tomorrow? -4 Unit 25 



















Exercises 


What are these people doing? 

-eat- have lie play 


Use these verbs to complete the sentences: 
sit wait 



1 . She's eating .an apple. 

2 He.for a bus. 

3 They.football. 


4 .on the floor. 

5 .breakfast. 

6 .on the table. 


Complete the sentences. Use these verbs: 

build cook go have stand stay 


swim work 


1 Please be quiet. I. m working . 

2 'Where’s John?' 'He's in the kitchen. He..' 

3 'You on my foot.’ 'Oh, I'm sorry.' 

4 Look! Somebody.in the river. 

5 We're here on holiday. We at the Central Hotel. 

6 'Where’s Sue?' 'She.a shower.' 

7 They a new hotel in the city centre at the moment. 

8 I now. Goodbye. 



Jane 


Look at the picture. Write sentences about Jane. Use She's -ing or She isn’t -ing. 

1 (have dinner) . Jane isn't haying dinner,.. 

2 (watch TV) . Sheswatching TV . 

3 (sit on the floor) She. 

4 (read a book) . 

5 (play the piano) . 

6 (laugh) . 

7 (wear a hat) . 

8 (drink coffee) . 



What’s happening now? Write true sentences. 

1 (I / wash / my hair) I m not washing my hair . 

2 (ic / snow) it’s snowing, or It isn't snowing, 

3 (I / sit / on a chair) . 

4 (I / eat) . 

5 (it / ra n) . 

6 (I / learn / English) . 

7 (I / listen / to music) .*. 

8 (the sun / shine) . 

9 (I / wear / shoes) . 

10 (I / read / a newspaper) . 



























































are you doing? 

(present continuous questions) 


positive question 


1 

am 



am 

i 


he 


doing 



he 

doing 

she 

is 

working 


is 

she 

working 

it 


going 



it 

going 

we 


staying 



we 

staying 

you 

they 

are 

etc. 


are 

you 

they 

etc. 


O 'Are you feeling OK?’ 'Yes, I'm fine, thanks.’ 

O 'Is it raining?’ 'Yes, take an umbrella.' 

O Why are you wearing a coat? It's not cold. 

O 'What's Paul doing?' 'He's studying for his exams.' 

O 'What are the children doing?' 'They're watching TV.' 
O Look, there's Emily! Where’s she going? 

O Who are you waiting for? Are you waiting for Sue? 



Study the word order: 


is/are + subject + -ing 



Is 

he 

working today? 


Is 

Ben 

working today? (not Is working Ben today?) 

Where 

are 

they 

going? 

Where 

are 

those people 

going? (not Where are going those people?) 


Short answers 




he 



she 

isn't. 

No, 

it 


we 



you 

they 

aren't. 


O 'Are you going now?’ 'Yes, I am.' 

O 'Is Ben working today?' 'Yes, he is.’ 

O Is it raining?' No, it isn't.' 

O 'Are your friends staying at a hotel?' ‘No, they aren't. They're staying with me.' 


f I am doing -► Unit 3 What are you doing tomorrow? -* Unit 25 questions Units 44-47 
















































Look at the pictures and complete the questions. Use: 

cry eat go laugh look at ^eacl 



Make questions from these words. Put the words in the right order. 

1 (is/working / Ben / today) . Is Ben workingtoday .? 

2 (what / the children / are / doing) . What are the children doing .? 

3 (you / are / listening / to me) .? 

4 (where / your friends / are / going) .? 

5 (are / watching / your parents / TV) .? 

6 (what / Jessica / is / cooking) ? 

7 (why / you / are / looking / at me) .? 

8 (is / coming / the bus) .? 

Write short answers (Yes, I am. / No, he isn't, etc.). 

1 Are you watching TV? . Nd, I’m not- . 4 Is it raining? . 

2 Are you wearing a watch? . 5 Are you sitting on the floor? . 

3 Are you eating something? 6 Are you feeling well? 


-* Additional exercise 3 (page 253) 


19 



























































































Unit 

5 


I do/work/like etc. (present simple) 


r \ like ice cream *) 


& 


They have a loc of books. 
They read a loc. 


He's eating an ice cream. 
He likes ice cream. 


They read / he likes /1 work etc = the present simple: 


l/we/you/they 

read 

like 

work 

live 

watch 

do 

have 

he/she/it 

reads 

likes 

works 

lives 

watches 

does 

has 


Remember: 

he works / she lives / it rains etc 

□ I work in a shop. My brother works in a bank, (not My brother work) 

O Lucy lives in London. Her parents live in Scotland. 

□ It rains a lot in winter. 

I have —> he/she/it has: 

O Joe has a shower every day. 

Spelling {—> Appendix 5): 

-es after -s / -sh / -ch 
-y —»-ies 


also: 


pass — > passes 
study —»studies 
do does 


finish —» finishes 
try —> tries 
go -> goes 


watch -»watches 


We use the present simple for things that are true in general, or for things that happen sometimes or all 
the time: 

O I like big cities. 

O Your English is good. You speak very well. 

O Tom works very hard. He starts at 7.30 and finishes at 8 o'clock in the evening. 

O The earth goes round the sun. 
d We do a lot of different things in our free time. 

O It costs a lot of money to build a hospital. 

always/never/often/usually/sometimes + present simple 
O Sue always gets to work early, {not Sue gets always) 

O I never eat breakfast, {not I eat never) 

□ We often go away at weekends. 

O Mark usually plays football on Sundays. 

O I sometimes walk to work, but not very often. 


20 


I don't... (negative) -4 Unit 6 Do you ... ? (questions) - 

always/usually/often etc. (word order) -4 Unit 94 


- Unit 7 I am doing and I do -4 Unit 8 



















Exercises 



Our house. 


My piano. 


We love films. 


Tennis is my 
favourite sport 


Write these verbs with -s or -es. 

1 (read) she reads . 3 (fly) it. 5 (have) she. 

2 (think) he. 4 (dance) he. 6 (finish) it 


Complete the sentences about the people in the pictures. Use: 
eat go live play play sleep 


SEVEN HOURS 
ANIGHT t 


1 He plays .the piano. 

2 They.in a very big house. 

3 .a lot of fruit. 


4 .tennis. 

5 .to the cinema a lot. 

6 .seven hours a night. 


Complete the sentences. Use: 

boil close cost cost like like meet open sp e a k- teach wash 


1 Maria. speaks .four languages. 

2 The shops in the city centre usually.at 9 o'clock in the morning. 

3 The City Museum.at 5 o'clock in the evening. 

4 Tina is a teacher. She.mathematics to young children. 

5 My job is very interesting. I.a lot of people. 

6 Peter’s car is always dirty. He never.it. 

7 Food is expensive. It a lot of money. 

8 Shoes are expensive. They.a lot of money. 

9 Water.at 100 degrees Celsius. 

10 Laura and I are good friends. I.her and she.me. 


Write sentences from these words. Use the right form of the verb (arrive or arrives etc.). 

1 (always / early / Sue / arrive) Sue.always arrives .early, . 

2 (to the cinema / never /1 / go) I. 

3 (work / Martina / hard / always) . 

4 (like / chocolate / children / usually) . 

5 (Jackie / parties / enjoy / always) . 

6 (often / people's names /1 / forget) . 

7 (TV / Sam / watch / never) . 

8 (usually / dinner / we / have / at 7.30) . 

9 (Kate / always / nice clothes / wear) . 


Write sentences about yourself. Use always/never/often/usually/sometimes. 

1 (watch TV in the evening) . I usually watch TV'jn the evening, . 

2 (read in bed) I. 

3 (get up before 7 o'clock) . 

4 (go to work/school by bus) . 

5 (drink coffee in the morning) . 



















































I don't ... (present simple negative) 


The present simple negative is don't/doesn't + verb: 



She doesn't drink coffee. He doesn't like his job. 


positive 


1 

we 

you 

they 

work 

like 

do 

have 

he 

she 

it 

works 

likes 

does 

has 


negative 


i 

we 

don’t 


you 

(do not) 

work 

they 


like 

he 

she 

it 


do 

doesn't 
(does not) 

have 


I drink coffee, but I don't drink tea. 

Sue drinks tea, but she doesn't drink coffee. 

You don't work very hard. 

We don't watch TV very often. 

The weather is usually nice. It doesn't rain very often. 

Sam and Chris don't know many people. 

Remember: 

l/we/you/they don't... O I don't like football, 

he/she/it doesn't... O He doesn't like football. 

O I don't like Fred and Fred doesn't like me. (not Fred don't like) 

O My car doesn't use much petrol. (not My car don't use) 

O Sometimes he is late, but it doesn't happen very often. 

We use don't/doesn't + infinitive (don't like / doesn't speak / doesn't do etc.): 

O I don't like washing the car. I don't do it very often. 

O Sarah speaks Spanish, but she doesn't speak Italian, (not doesn't speaks) 
O David doesn't do his job very well, (not David doesn't his job) 

O Paula doesn't usually have breakfast, (not doesn't... has) 


( I do/work/like etc. (present simple) Unit 5 Do you ... ? (present simple questions) Unit 7 






























Exercises 


Write the negative. 

1 I play the piano very well. 

2 Anna plays the piano very well. 

3 They know my phone number. 

4 We work very hard. 

5 He has a bath every day. 

6 You do the same thing every day. 


I don't play the piano very .well. 

Anna. 

They. 


Study the information and write sentences with like. 



1 classical music? 

yes 

no 


2 boxing? 

no 

yes 

? 

3 horror movies? 

yes 

no 

• 


1 Ben and Sophie Ijke classical music. . 

Kate. 

I.classical music. 

2 Ben and Sophie. 

Kate. 

I. 


Write about yourself. Use: 

I never ... or I often ... 


or I don't... very often. 

I don't watch TV very often. . or . I never watch TV. . or 


I often watch TV. 


1 (watch TV) 

2 (go to the theatre) .. 

3 (ride a bike) . 

4 (eat in restaurants) . 

5 (travel by train) 

Complete the sentences. All of them are negative. Use don’t/doesn’t + these verbs: 

cost go know ^aki 


see 


use 


wear 


1 The weather here is usually nice. It. doesn’t rain. much. 

2 Paul has a car, but he.it very often. 

3 Paul and his friends like films, but they.to the cinema very often. 

4 Amanda is married, but she.a ring. 

5 I.much about politics. I'm not interested in it. 

6 The Regent Hotel isn't expensive. It.much to stay there. 

7 Ed lives very near us, but we. him very often. 

Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative. 

1 Margaret. speaks .four languages - English, French, German and Spanish, (speak) 

2 I. don t like. my job. It's very boring, (like) 

3 'Where's Steve?' 'I'm sorry. I..' (know) 

4 Sue is a very quiet person. She.very much, (talk) 

5 Andy.a lot of tea. It's his favourite drink, (drink) 

6 It's not true! I.it! (believe) 

7 That's a very beautiful picture. I.it very much, (like) 

8 Mark is a vegetarian. He.meat, (eat) 





















































Unit 

7 


4 


Do you ... ? (present simple questions) 


We use do/does in present simple questions: 


positive 


1 

we 

you 

they 

work 

like 

do 

have 

he 

she 

it 

works 

likes 

does 

has 


question 


do 

1 

we 

you 

work? 


they 

like? 

does 

he 

she 

do? 

have? 


it 




B 


Study the word order: 


do/does + subject + infinitive 



Do 

you 

play 

the guitar? 


Do 

your friends 

live 

near here? 


Does 

Chris 

work 

on Sundays? 


Does 

it 

rain 

a lot here? 

Where 

do 

your parents 

live? 


How often 

do 

you 

wash 

your hair? 

What 

does 

this word 

mean? 


How much 

does 

it 

cost 

to fly to Rome? 


Questions with always and usually: 



Does 

Chris 

always 

work 

on Sundays? 

What 

do 

you 

usually 

do 

at weekends? 



What do you do? = What's your job? 

O 'What do you do?' 'I work in a bank/ 

Remember: 


do l/we/you/they... O Do they like music? 

does he/she/it... O Does he like music? 


D 



Short answers 


Yes, 

l/we/you/they do. 

he/she/it does. 


No, 

l/we/you/they don't. 

he/she/it doesn't 


O 'Do you play the guitar?' 'No, I don't.' 

O Do your parents speak English?' Yes, they do.' 

O Does James work hard?’ Yes, he does.' 

O Does your sister live in London?' No, she doesn’t.' 


24 


( I do/work/like etc, (present simple) -» Unit 5 I don't... (negative) -» Unit 6 questions -» Units 44-47 ) 












































Exercises 


Write questions with Do ... T and Does ... ? 

1 I like chocolate. How about you? 

2 I play tennis. How about you? 

3 You live near here. How about Lucy? 

4 Tom plays tennis. How about his friends? 

5 You speak English. How about your brother? 

6 I do yoga every morning. How about you? 

7 Sue goes away a lot. How about Paul? 

8 I want to be famous. How about you? 

9 You work hard. How about Anna? 


Do you (ike chocolate 

.you. 

.Lucy. 


Make questions from these words + do/does. Put the words in the right order. 


1 (where / live / your parents) 

2 (you / early / always / get up) 

3 (how often / TV / you / watch) 

4 (you / want / what / for dinner) 

5 (like / you / football) 

6 (your brother / like / football) 

7 (what / you / do / in your free time) 

8 (your sister / work / where) 

9 (breakfast / always / you / have) 

10 (what / mean / this word) 

11 (in winter / snow / it / here) 

12 (go / usually / to bed / what time / you) 

13 (how much / to phone New York / it / cost) 

14 (you / for breakfast / have / usually / what) 

Complete the questions. Use these verbs: 

do enjoy go 




.Where do 

.P.Q..yo^ 



like start teach work 


* 


1 

f 

What .doyoudo. .? 


1 work in a bookshop. 

2 


.it? 


It's OK. 

3 

What time. 

.in the morning? 


At 9 o'clock. 

4 


.on Saturdays? 


Sometimes. 

5 

How. 

.to work? 


Usually by bus. 

6 

And your husband. What. 

? 


He's a teacher. 

7 

What. 

? 


Science. 

8 

_ 

.his job? 


Yes, he loves it. 

V V 


Write short answers (Yes, he does. / No, I don't, etc.). 

1 Do you watch TV a lot? . No,..! don’t. or Yes,..I do... 

Do you live in a big city? . 

Do you often ride a bike? 

Does it rain a lot where you live? . 

Do you play the piano? . 


Additional exercises 4-7 (pages 253-54) 






















































I am doing (present continuous) and 
I do (present simple) 


Jack is watching television. 

He is not playing the guitar. 

But Jack has a guitar. 

He often plays it and he plays very well. 

Jack plays the guitar, 
but he is not playing the guitar now. 

Is he playing the guitar? No, he isn't, (present continuous) 

Does he play the guitar? Yes, he does, (present simple) 

Present continuous (I am doing) = now, at the time of speaking: 

I’m doing 


past now future 

O Please be quiet. I'm working, (not I work) 

O Tom is having a shower at the moment. ( not Tom has) 

O Take an umbrella with you. It’s raining. 

O You can turn off the television. I’m not watching it. 

O Why are you under the table? What are you doing? 

Present simple (I do) = in general, all the time or sometimes: 

I do 

past now future 

O I work every day from 9 o'clock to 5.30. 

O Tom has a shower every morning. 

O It rains a lot in winter. 

O I don't watch TV very often. 

O What do you usually do at weekends? 

We do not use these verbs in the present continuous (I am -ing): 

like want know understand remember 

prefer need mean believe forget 

Use only the present simple with these verbs (I want / do you like? etc.): 

O I'm tired. I want to go home, (not I'm wanting) 

O 'Do you know that girl?’ 'Yes, but I don’t remember her name.' 

O I don't understand What do you mean? 



( present continuous ^ Units 3-4 present simple ^ Units 5-7 present for the future *♦ Unit 25 | 






Exercises 



Answer the questions about the pictures. 



Does he take photographs? Yes, .he does. Is she driving a bus? 

Is he taking a photograph? No, he isn’t.. Does she drive a bus? 

What is he doing? What is she doing? 

. He’s having a bath. . 



Does he clean windows? Are they teaching? 

Is he cleaning a window? . Do they teach? 

What is he doing? What do they do? 


Complete the sentences with am/is/are or do/don’t/does/doesn’t. 

1 Excuse me,. do you speak English? 

2 'Where's Kate?' 'I know.' 

3 What’s funny? Why you laughing? 

4 'What your sister do?’ 'She's a dentist.’ 

5 It raining. I want to go out in the rain. 

6 ‘Where you come from?’ 'Canada.' 

7 How much it cost to stay at this hotel? Is it expensive? 

8 Steve is a good tennis player, but he play very often. 


Put the verb in the present continuous (I am doing) or the present simple (I do). 

1 Excuse me, doypu speak (you/speak) English? 

2 'Where's Tom?’ ' ties having (he/have) a shower.' 

3 . 1 don’t watch (l/not/watch) TV very often. 

4 Listen! Somebody (sing). 

5 Sarah is tired. (she/want) to go home now. 

6 How often (you/use) your car? Everyday? 

7 'Excuse me, but (you/sit) in my seat.' 'Oh, I’m sorry.’ 

8 I'm sorry, (l/not/understand). Can you speak more slowly? 

9 It's late.(I/go) home now. . 

(you/come) with me? 

10 What time (your father / finish) work every day? 

11 You can turn off the radio. (I/not/listen) to it. 

12 'Where's Paul?’ 'In the kitchen. (he/cook) something.' 

13 Mark (not/usually/drive) to work. He 

.(usually/walk). 

14 Sue.(not/like) coffee. .(she/prefer) tea. 


-» Additional exercises 8-9 (page 255) 





















































You can say I have or I've got, he has or he's got: 


or 


or 


O I have blue eyes, or I've got blue eyes. 

O Tom has two sisters, or Tom has got two sisters. 

O Our car has four doors, or Our car has got four doors. 

O Sarah isn't feeling well. She has a headache, or She's got a headache. 

O They like animals. They have a horse, three dogs and six cats, or They've got a horse ,.. 

! don't have / 1 haven't got etc (negative) 


or 


O I don't have a car. or I haven't got a car. 

O They don't have any children, or They haven't got any children. 

O It's a nice house, but it doesn't have a garden, or ... it hasn't got a garden. 
O Amy doesn't have a job at the moment, or Amy hasn't got a job ... 

do you have? / have you got? etc. (questions) 


or 


O 'Do you have a camera?' 'No, I don't.' or 
'Have you got a camera?' 'No, I haven't.' 

O 'Does Helen have a car?' 'Yes, she does.' or 
'Has Helen got a car?' 'Yes, she has.' 

O What kind of car does she have? or ... has she got? 

O How many children do they have? or ... have they got? 


had / didn't have (past) Units 11-12 have breakfast / have a shower etc. ^ Unit 58 
some and any -♦ Unit 76 


have 

I/you 

we/they 

has 

he/she 

it 


got 


You can say: 


do 

I/you 

we/they 

does 

he/she 

it 


have 


l/you 

we/they 

haven’t 

got 

he/she 

it 

hasn’t 


You can say: 


I/you 

we/they 

don't 

he/she 

it 

doesn’t 


have 


1 

we 

you 

they 

have 

he 

she 

it 

has 


1 

we 

you 

they 

have got 

(I've got) 
(we’ve got) 
(you've got) 
(they’ve got) 

he 

she 

it 

has got 

(he’s got) 
(she's got) 

(it's got) 


shortform 









































Exercises 


Write these sentences with got. The 

1 They have two children. 

2 She doesn't have a key. 

3 He has a new job. 

4 Do you have an umbrella? 

5 We have a lot of work to do. 

6 I don't have your phone number. 

7 Does your father have a car? 

8 How much money do we have? 

Write these sentences with do/does/don’t/doesn't. The meaning is the same. 

1 Have you got any money? . P.Q. you. have any money? . 

2 I haven't got many clothes. I. 

3 Has Tom got a brother? . 

4 How many children have they got? 

5 Have you got any questions? . 

6 Sam hasn’t got a job. 


meaning is the same. 

. They ve ^ot.tvyo. children, 

. 5he hasn’t a key . 

He. 


Read the questions and answers. Then write sentences about Mark. 

w _ __ 


Have you got a car? 
Have you got a bike? 
Have you got a dog? 
Have you got a mobile phone? 
Have you got a watch? 
Have you got any brothers or 
sisters? 



What about you? Write sentences with I’ve got or I haven’t got. 


7 (a dog) 

8 (a bike) 

9 (brochers/siscers) 


Complete the sentences. Use have, has, don't have or doesn't have. 

1 Sarah. doeen 't have .a car. She goes everywhere by bike. 

2 They like animals. They. haye .three dogs and two cats. 

3 Charles isn't happy. He.a lot of problems. 

4 They are always busy. They.much free time. 

5 'What's wrong?' 'I.something in my eye.' 

6 'Where's my pen?' 'I don't know. !.it.' 

7 Amy wants to go to the concert, but she.a ticket. 

Complete the sentences. Use have/has got or haven't/hasn't got with: 
six legs a key a h e adach e a lot of friends a job much time 


1 I'm not feeling very well. I. Y.Q.QQt a headache.,. 

2 Everybody likes Tom. He. 

3 She can't open the door. She.. 

4 Quick!. We. 

5 An insect. 

6 I'm unemployed. I. 


«♦ Additional exercises 5-7 (page 254) 


















































was/were 


last night now 



Now Robert is at work. 

At midnight last night 
he wasn't at work. 

He was in bed. 

He was asleep. 


am/is (present) —> was (past): 

O I am tired, (now) I was tired last night. 

O Where is Kate? (now) Where was Kate yesterday? 

O The weather is good today. The weather was good last week 

are (present) — > were (past): 

O You are late, (now) You were late yesterday. 

O They aren’t here, (now) They weren’t here last Sunday. 


positive negative question 



□ Last year Rachel was 22, so she is 23 now. 

O When I was a child, I was scared of dogs. 

O We were hungry after the journey, but we weren’t tired. 

□ The hotel was comfortable, but it wasn’t expensive. 

O Was the weather nice when you were on holiday? 

O Your shoes are nice. Were they expensive? 

O Why were you late this morning? 


Short answers 


Yes, 

l/he/she/it was. 

we/you/they were. 


No, 

l/he/she/it wasn't. 

we/you/they weren't 


O Were you late?’ No, I wasn't.' 

O 'Was Tom at work yesterday?’ 'Yes, he was.' 

O Were Sue and Steve at the party?' No, they weren’t.' 


C am/is/are -» Units 1 -2 I was doing ^ Unit 13 


) 




























Exercises 

Where were these people at 3 o’clock yesterday afternoon? 



JOE JACK KATE SUE MR AND MRS HAU 




BEN 


1 Joe was in. bed. 

2 Jack and Kate. 

3 Sue. 


4 . 

5 . 

6 And you? I 


Write am/is/are (present) or was/were (past). 

1 Last year she. was .22, so she. is. 23 now. 

2 Today the weather nice, but yesterday it very cold. 

3 I hungry. Can I have something to eat? 

4 I feel fine this morning, but I very tired last night. 

5 Where you at 11 o'clock last Friday morning? 

6 Don’t buy those shoes. They.very expensive. 

7 I like your new jacket. .it expensive? 

8 This time last year I.in Paris. 

9 'Where Sam and Joe?’ ‘I don't know. They here a few minutes ago.’ 


Write was/were or wasn't/weren’t. 

1 We weren't happy with the hotel. Our room. was .very small and it. wasn’t clean. 

2 Mark at work last week because he ill. He's better now. 

3 Yesterday a public holiday, so the banks.closed. They're open today. 

4 '.Kate and Ben at the party?' 'Kate.there, but Ben..' 

5 Where are my keys? They on the table, but they're not there now. 

6 You.at home last night. Where.you? 



Write questions from these words + was/were. Put the words in the right order. 

1 

2 

3 



31 































































Unit 



worked/got/went etc (past simple) 


They watch TV every evening. 

(present simple) 

They watched TV yesterday evening. 
(past simple) 


watched is the past simple: 


l/we/you/they 

he/she/it 


watched 




The past simple is often -ed (regular verbs). For example: 

work —> worked dance —» danced 

clean —» cleaned stay —> stayed 

start — > started need —> needed 

O I clean my teeth every morning. This morning I cleaned my teeth. 

O Terry worked in a bank from 2005 to 2011. 

O Yesterday it rained all morning. It stopped at lunchtime. 

O We enjoyed the party last night. We danced a lot and talked to a lot of people. 

The party finished at midnight. 

Spelling (—> Appendix 5): 

try —> tried study —> studied copy —> copied 

stop —> stopped plan —> planned 

Some verbs are irregular (= not regular). The past simple is not -ed. Here are some important irregular 
verbs (see also Appendix 2-3): 


begin —> 

began 

fall 

fell 

leave —> 

left 

sell —> 

sold 

break 

broke 

find 

found 

lose 

lost 

sit 

sat 

bring 

brought 

fly 

flew 

make 

made 

sleep 

slept 

build 

built 

forget 

forgot 

meet 

met 

speak 

spoke 

buy 

bought 

get 

got 

pay 

paid 

stand 

stood 

catch 

caught 

give 

gave 

put 

put 

take 

took 

come 

came 

go 

went 

read 

read (red)* 

tell 

told 

do 

did 

have 

had 

ring 

rang 

think 

thought 

drink 

drank 

hear 

heard 

say 

said 

win 

won 

eat 

ate 

know 

knew 

see 

saw 

write 

wrote 


* pronounced 'red' 


I usually get up early, but this morning I got up at 9 o'clock. 
We did a lot of work yesterday. 

Caroline went to the cinema three times last week. 

James came into the room, took off his coat and sat down. 


( was/were -» Unit 10 I didn't / Did you ... ? (negative and questions) Unit 12 ago ^ Unit 19 


3 















Exercises 



Complete the sentences. Use a verb from the box. 

c le an die enjoy finish happen open 


rain 


start stay want 


1 I. cleaned .my teeth three times yesterday. 

2 It was hot in the room, so I.the window. 

3 The film was very long. It.at 7.15 and.at 10 o'clock. 

4 When I was a child, I.to be a doctor. 

5 The accident.last Sunday afternoon. 

6 The weather is nice today, but yesterday it.all day. 

7 We our holiday last year. We.at a very nice place. 

8 Anna’s grandfather.when he was 90 years old. 

Write the past simple of these verbs. 

1 
2 
3 


gee . QQt . 

4 pay 

. 7 go . 

. 10 

know 

see . 

. 5 visit . 

. 8 think . 

. 11 

put .. 

play . 

. 6 buy . 

. 9 copy . 

. 12 

speak 


Read about Lisa's journey to Madrid. Put the verbs in the correct form. 



MADRID AIRPORT 






V 


Last Tuesday Lisa (i). fey .from London to Madrid. She (2) .up 

at 6 o'clock in the morning and (3) .a cup of coffee. At 6.30 she 

(4).home and (5).to the airport. When she 

(6).there, she ( 7 ).the car, (8).to the airport 

building, and (9) .in. Then she (10) .breakfast at a cafe 

and (11) .for her flight. The plane (12) .on time and 

(13) .in Madrid two hours later. Finally she (14) .a taxi 

from the airport to her hotel in the centre of Madrid. 


fly, get 
have 

leave, drive 
get, park, walk 
check, have 
wait, depart 
arrive, take 


Write sentences about the past (yesterday / last week etc.). 

1 James always goes to work by car. Yesterday. he went to work by,car . 

2 Rachel often loses her keys. She.last week. 

3 Kate meets her friends every evening. She.yesterday evening. 

4 I buy a newspaper every day. Yesterday I. 

5 We often go to the cinema at weekends. Last Sunday we. 

6 I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I. 

7 Tom always has a shower in the morning. This morning he. 

8 Our friends often come to see us. They.last Friday. 

Write sentences about what you did yesterday. 

1 . l.wenttothaM^Tre, . 4 . 

2 . S . 

3 . 6 . 


Additional exercise 10 (page 256) 


33 




























































Unit I didn't... Did you...? 

12 (past simple negative and questions) 


We use did in past simple negatives and questions: 


infinitive positive 


negative 


question 


1 

played 

we 

started 

you 

watched 

they 

had 

he 

saw 

she 

did 

it 

went 


1 


play 

we 


start 

you 

they 

he 

did not 
(didn't) 

watch 

have 

see 

she 


do 

it 


go 



I 

play? 


we 

start? 


you 

watch? 

did 

they 

have? 


he 

see? 


she 

do? 


it 

go? 


do/does (present) -> did (past): 

O I don't watch TV very often. 

I didn't watch TV yesterday 

O Does she often go away? 

Did she go away last week? 

We use did/didn't + infinitive (watch/play/go etc.): 
but 


I watched 
they went 
he had 
you did 


I didn't watch 
did they go? 
he didn't have 
did you do? 


(not I didn't watched) 
(not did they went?) 


O I played tennis yesterday but I didn't win. 

O 'Did you do the shopping?' 'No, I didn't have time.' 
O We went to the cinema, but we didn't enjoy the film. 

Study the word order in questions: 

did + subject + infinitive 



Did 

your sister 

call 

you? 

What 

did 

you 

do 

last night? 

How 

did 

the accident 

happen? 


Where 

did 

your parents 

go 

for their holiday? 


Short answers 


Yes, 


l/we/you/they 

he/she/it 


did 


No, 


l/we/you/they 

he/she/it 


didn't. 


O 'Did you see Joe yesterday?' 'No, I didn't.' 

O 'Did it rain on Sunday?' 'Yes, it did.' 

O Did Helen come to the party?' 'No, she didn't.' 

O Did your parents have a good holiday?' Yes, they did.' 


34 


f worked/got/went etc. (past simple) Unit 11 

































exercises 


U Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative. 

1 I saw Barbara, but I didn't see .Jane. 

2 They worked on Monday, but they.on Tuesday. 

3 We went to the post office, but we to the bank. 

4 She had a pen, but she.any paper. 

5 Jack did French at school, but he.German. 

^ Write questions with Did... ? 

I watched TV last night. How about you? . P.id.yo.U.watch TVJaet night . 

2 I enjoyed the party. How about you? . 

3 I had a good holiday. How about you? . 

» I finished work early. How about you? . 

; I slept well last night. How about you? . 

What did you do yesterday? Write positive or negative sentences. 

1 (watch TV) . I watched TV. or I didn't watch TV. . 

2 (get up before 7 o’clock) I. 

3 (have a shower) . 

4 (buy a magazine) . 

5 (eat meat) . 

6 (go to bed before 10.30) . 

Write Bs questions. Use: 

arrive cost go go to bed late happen have a nice time stay win 


1 a: We went to New York last month. 

b: Where did.you.stay .? 

a: With some friends. 

S a: We came home by taxi. 

b: How much.? 

a: Ten pounds. 

2 a: 1 was late for the meeting. 

B What time ? 

6 a: I'm tired this morning. 

B: . ? 

a: Half past nine. 

a: No, but 1 didn't sleep very well. 

3 a: 1 played tennis this afternoon. 

B: ? 

7 a: We went to the beach yesterday. 

b: . ? 

a: No, 1 lost. 

a: Yes, it was great. 

4 a: 1 had a nice holiday. 

b Good. Where.? 

a: To the mountains. 

8 a: The window is broken. 

b: How . ? 

a: 1 don't know. 


: ut the verb in the correct form - positive, negative or question. 

We went to the cinema, but the film wasn't very good. We didn’t enjoy .it. (enjoy) 

I Tom some new clothes yesterday - two shirts, a jacket and a pullover, (buy) 

yesterday?' 'No, it was a nice day.' (rain) 

- We were tired, so we long at the party, (stay) 

: : was very warm in the room, so I.a window, (open) 

- Did you phone Chris this morning?’ 'No, I time.’ (have) 

! cut my hand this morning.’ 'How. that?’ (do) 

■ Why weren’t you at the meeting yesterday?' 'I.about it.' (know) 


oonai exercises 10-13 (page 256) 

















































now (6 o'clock) 



It is 6 o’clock now. 

Paul is at home. 

He is watching TV. 

At 4 o’clock he wasn’t at home. 
He was at the sports club. 

He was swimming in the pool. 

He wasn't watching TV. 



was/were + -ing is the past continuous: 


positive 


1 

he 

she 

ic 

was 

we 

you 

they 

were 


doing 

watching 

playing 

swimming 

living 

etc. 


negative 


i 

he 

she 

it 

was not 
(wasn't) 

we 

you 

they 

were not 
(weren't) 


doing 

watching 

playing 

swimming 

living 

etc. 


question 


was 

i 

he 

she 

it 

were 

we 

you 

they 


doing? 

watching? 

playing? 

swimming? 

living? 

etc. 


O What were you doing at 1130 yesterday? Were you working? 

O 'What did he say?' 'I don't know. I wasn't listening.’ 

O It was raining, so we didn't go out. 

O In 2009 we were living in Canada. 

O Today she's wearing a skirt, but yesterday she was wearing trousers. 

O I woke up early yesterday. It was a beautiful morning. The sun was shining and the birds 

were singing 


Spelling (live -> living / run —» running / lie —> lying etc.) -> Appendix 5 

am/is/are + -ing (present) —>was/were + -ing (past): 


present 

I'm working (now). 

It isn't raining (now). 

What are you doing (now)? 


O I was working at 10.30 last night. 

O It wasn't raining when we went out. 
O What were you doing at 3 o'clock? 


( was/were Unit 10 I was doing and I did (past continuous and simple) -fr Unit 14 

























Exercises 

Look at the pictures. Where were these people at 3 o’clock yesterday afternoon? And what were 
they doing? Write two sentences for each picture. 




RACHEL JACK KATE TOM TRACEY MR AND MRS HALL 

at home at the cinema in his car ac the station in the park 

watch TV wacch a film drive waic for a crain walk 


1 Rachel was at home.,,She was .watching. TV. . 

2 Jack and Kate.They 

3 Tom. 

4 . 

5 . 

6 And you? I. 





pictures and complete the sentences. 

1 At 8.45. she was.washing her car, 

2 At 10.45 she. 


Sarah did a lot of things yesterday morning. Look at the 

7.10 -725 7.30 - 8.10 8.30 - 9.00 


* 


# * 

breakfast 

9.20- 10.00 10.15- 11.45 12 



3 At 8 o'clock 


4 At 12.10 


5 At 7.15 


6 At 9.30 



Complete the questions. Use was/were -ing. Use what/where/why if necessary. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 


(you/live) . Where werTe you living .m 2012? 

(you/do) .at 2 o'clock? 

(it/rain) .when you got up? 

(Sue/drive) .so fast? 

(Tom/wear) .a suit yesterday? 


yZ_ 


In London. 

I was asleep. 

No, it was sunny. 
Because she was lace. 
No, a T-shirt and jeans. 


Look at the picture. You saw Joe in the street yesterday afternoon. What was he doing? Write 
positive or negative sentences. 



{\. I'm going^ 

shopping. ^ 


1 (wear / a jacket) . .He.vyajsn’t .vyearing[.ajacket. 

2 (carry / a bag) . 

3 (go / to the dentist) . 

4 (eat / an ice cream) . 

5 (carry / an umbrella) . 

6 (go / home) . 

7 (wear / a hat) . 

8 (ride / a bicycle) . 


37 

















































I was doing (past continuous) and 
I did (past simple) 



Jack was reading His phone rang He stopped reading, 

a book. 


He answered his 
phone. 


What happened? His phone rang, (past simple) 
What was Jack doing when his phone rang? 

He was reading a book. 


(past continuous) 


What did he do when his phone rang? 

He stopped reading and answered his phone. 


(past simple) 


Jack began reading before his phone rang. 
So when his phone rang, he was reading. 




he started 

his phone 

he stopped 

he answered 

reading 

rang 

1 

reading 

his phone 

i 


he was reading 


past simple 

O a: What did you do yesterday morning? 
b: We played tennis, (from 10 to 11.30) 

start finish 

10 o'clock 11.30 

i-1 


we played 

complete action 

O Jack read a book yesterday. (= from 
beginning to end) 

O Did you watch the game on TV last 
night? 

O It didn't rain while we were on holiday. 


past continuous 

O a: What were you doing at 10.30? 
b: We were playing tennis. 

start 
10 o'clock 

\ \ t / / 

we were playing 

unfinished action 

O Jack was reading a book when his 
phone rang. 

Were you watching TV when I phoned 
you? 

It wasn't raining when I got up. 


O I started work at 9 o'clock and finished at 430. At 2.30 I was working. 

O It was raining when we went out. (= it started raining before we went out) 
O I saw Lucy and Steve this morning. They were waiting at the bus stop. 

O Kelly fell asleep while she was reading. 


C I did (past simple) ■» Units 11-12 I was doing (past continuous) Unit 13 while Unit 105 























Exercises 



Look at the pictures. Put the verbs in the correct form, past continuous or past simple. 


1 




Lucy. .broka. (break) her arm last week. 

It.(happen) when 

she..(paint) her 

room. She.(fall) 

off the ladder. 



The train..(arrive) 

at the station and Paula. 

(get) off. Two friends of hers, Jon and Rachel, 
.(wait) to 


meet her. 


Yesterday Sue.(walk) 

along the road when she (meet) 

James. He (go) 

to the station to catch a train and he 

.... (carry) a bag. 

They.(stop) to 

talk for a few minutes. 


Put the verb into the past continuous or past simple. 

1 a: What was the weather like when you. got . (get) up this morning? 

b: It. yyasrajning. (rain). 

2 a: Was Jane busy when you went to see her? 

b: Yes, she.(study). 

3 a: .(Paul/call) you this morning? 

b: Yes, he. .(call) while I.(have) breakfast. 

4 a: Was Tracey at work today? 

b: No, she.(not/go) to work. She was ill. 

5 a: How fast .(you/drive) when the police 


6 

7 

8 
9 

10 


.(stop) you? 

b: I'm not sure, but I.(not/drive) very fast. 

a: .(your team / win) the football match yesterday? 

b: The weather was very bad, so we.(not/play). 

a: How .(you/break) the window? 

b: We..(play) football. I. .(kick) the ball and 

it.(hit) the window. 

a: .(you/see) Jessica last night? 

b: Yes, she .(wear) a very nice jacket. 

a: What .(you/do) at 2 o'clock this morning? 

b: I was asleep. 

a: I (lose) my key last night. 

b: How .(you/get) into your room? 

a: I.. (climb) in through a window. 


■4 Additional exercises 14-15 (pages 257-58) 


39 










































Unit 


15 | have done (present perfect 1) 


a 


Ive cleaned my shoeaj 




His shoes are dirty. 


They are at home. 


He is cleaning his shoes. 

I 


They are going out. 


He has cleaned his shoes. 
(= his shoes are clean now) 



They have gone out. 

(= they are not at home now) 


has cleaned / have gone etc. is the present perfect (have + post participle ): 


1 

we 

you 

they 

have (’ve) 
have not (haven't) 

he 

she 

it 

has ('s) 

has not (hasn't) 


cleaned 

finished 

started 

lost 

done 

been 

gone 



1 

cleaned? 

have 

we 

finished? 


you 

started? 


they 

lost? 


he 

done? 

has 

she 

been? 


it 

gone? 


regular verbs 


irregular 

verbs 


past participle 

Regular verbs The past participle is -ed (the same as the past simple): 

clean — > i have cleaned finish — > we have finished start —» she has started 

Irregular verbs The past participle is not -ed. 

Sometimes the past simple and past participle are the same: 

buy —> I bought /1 have bought have —> he had / he has had 

Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different: 

break —> I broke /1 have broken see -> you saw / you have seen 
fall —> it fell / it has fallen go —> they went / they have gone 

We use the present perfect for an action in the past with a result now: 

O I've lost my passport. (= I can't find my passport now) 

O 'Where's Rebecca?' 'She's gone to bed.' (= she is in bed now) 

O We've bought a new car. (= we have a new car now) 

O It's Rachel's birthday tomorrow and I haven't bought her a present. (= I don't have a present 
for her now) 

O 'Bob is away on holiday.' 'Oh, where has he gone?' (= where is he now?) 

O Can I take this newspaper? Have you finished with it? (= do you need it now?) 


40 


' present perfect Units 16-19 present perfect and past simple • 
irregular verbs Unit 24, Appendix 2-3 


Unit 20 





















Exercises 


Look at the pictures. What has happened? Choose from the box. 

go to bed c le an h i s shoes stop raining 

close the door fall down have a shower 


before now 



Complete the sentences with a verb from the box. 


break buy decide finish forget 

invite lose see not/see take 


go 

tell 


go 

not/tell 


1 I. Y.e.J.QSt . my keys. I don't know where they are. 

2 I.some new shoes. Do you want to see them? 

3 'Where is Helen?' 'She's not here. She.out.' 

4 I'm looking for Paula.you.her? 

5 Look! Somebody.that window. 

6 'Does Lisa know that you're going away?' 'Yes, I.her.' 

7 I can't find my umbrella. Somebody.it. 

8 'Where are my glasses?' 'I don't know. I.them.' 

9 I'm looking for Sarah. Where.she.? 

10 I know that woman, but I.her name. 

11 Sue is having a party tonight. She.a lot of people. 

12 What are you going to do? .you.? 

13 a: Does Ben know about the meeting tomorrow? 

B: I don't think so. I.him. 

14 I.with this magazine. Do you want it? 


41 



































I've just... I've already... 

I haven't... yet (present perfect 2) 


I've just... 

just = a short time ago 

O a: Are Laura and Paul here? 
b: Yes, they've just arrived. 

O a: Are you hungry? 

b: No, I've just had dinner. 

O a: Is Tom here? 

b: No, I'm afraid he's just gone. 

(= he has just gone) 

I've already 

already = before you expected / before I expected 
O a: What time are Laura and Paul coming? 

b: They've already arrived. 

(= before you expected) 

O It's only 9 o'clock and Anna has already 
gone to bed. (= before I expected) 

O a: Jon, this is Emma. 

b: Yes, I know. We've already met. 



They have just arrived. 


( Yes, I know. We’ve > 

l a I read v met. 



I haven't yet / Have you yet? 


yet = until now 

We use yet in negative sentences and questions. Yet is usually at the end. 


yet in negative sentences (I haven't... yet) 

O a: Are Laura and Paul here? 

B. No, they haven't arrived yet. 

(but B expects Laura and Paul to arrive soon) 

O a: Does James know that you're going away? 

b: No, I haven't told him yet. 

(but B is going to tell him soon) 



The film hasn't started yet. 


O Silvia has bought a new dress, but she hasn't worn it yet. 


yet in questions (Have you ... yet?) 

O a: Have Laura and Paul arrived yet? 

b: No, not yet. We're still waiting for them. 

O a: Has Nicola started her new job yet? 
b: No, she starts next week. 

O a: This is my new dress. 

b: Oh, it's nice. Have you worn it yet? 



( present perfect -4 Units 15,17-20 word order 4 Unit 94 still yet and already 4 Unit 95 


D 
















Exercises 




1 . Theyyejust arrived . 3 They. 

2 He 4 Hie race 


Write a sentence with just for each picture. 


[ This is our 
I new car 


STfcRT 


Complete the sentences. Use already + present perfect. 

w_ _ 


What time is Paul arriving? 
Do your friends want to see the film 7 
Don't forget to phone Tom. 
When is Mark going away? 
Do you want to read the newspaper? 
When does Sarah start her new job? 


. He's a \re$ciy arrived, . 

No, they.it. 

I. 

He. 


She 


Write a sentence with just (They've just... / She's just ... etc.) or a negative sentence with yet 
(They haven't... yet / She hasn't... yet etc.). 



now 



CD a few minutes 
ago 

11 


..She hasn’t.gpne out yet, . The bus 


(the train / leave) 


© a few minutes / now © a few minutes j now 




Write questions with yet. 

1 Your friend has a new job. Perhaps she has started it. You ask her: 

. Have you sta.rted.ypur newjpbyrt?. . 

2 Your friend has some new neighbours. Perhaps he has met them. You ask him: 

.you. 

3 Your friend has to pay her electricity bill. Perhaps she has paid it. You ask her: 


4 Tom was trying to sell his car. Perhaps he has sold it. You ask a friend about Tom: 































































Unit 

17 Have you ever ... ? (present perfect 3) 




We use the present perfect (have been / have had / have played etc.) when we talk about a time from 
the past until now - for example, a persons life: 


Have you ever been to Japan? 

- time from the past until now - 

past now 

O 'Have you been to France?' 'No, I haven't.' 

O l # ve been to Canada, but I haven't been to the United States. 

O Mary is an interesting person. She has had many different jobs and has lived in many places. 
O I've seen that woman before, but I can't remember where. 

O How many times has Brazil won the World Cup? 

O 'Have you read this book?' 'Yes, I've read it twice.' (twice = two times) 



present perfect + ever (in questions) and never: 

O 'Has Ann ever been to Australia?' 'Yes, once.' (once = one time) 
O 'Have you ever played golf?' 'Yes, I play a lot.' 

O My sister has never travelled by plane. 

□ I've never ridden a horse. 

O 'Who is that man?' 'I don't know. I've never seen him before.' 



gone and been 



Ben has gone to Spain. Ben has been to Spain. 

(= he is in Spain now ) (= he went to Spain, but now he is back) 


Compare: 

O I can't find Susan. Where has she gone? (= where is she now?) 
O Oh, hello Susan! I was looking for you. Where have you been? 


( present perfect ■» Units 15-16,18 present perfect and past simple *4 Unit 20 


































Exercises 



You are asking Helen questions beginning Have you ever ... T Write the questions. 


1 (be / London?) 

2 (play/golf?) 

3 (be / Australia?) 

4 (lose / your passport?) 

5 (fly / in a helicopter?) 

6 (win / a race?) 

7 (be / New York?) 

8 (drive / a bus?) 

9 (break / your leg?) 


Y v_ 

. Have ypu ever bean to London? 

. Have you ever played ^olf? . 

Have. 


No, never. 

Yes, many times. 
Yes, once. 

No, never. 

Yes, a few times. 
No, never. 

Yes, twice. 

No, never. 

Yes, once. 


^ Write sentences about Helen. (Look at her answers in Exercise 17.1.) 

1 (be / New York) She’s been to..New York twice, . 

2 (be / Australia) She. 

3 (win / a race) . 

4 (fly / in a helicopter) . 


Now write about yourself. How often have you done these things? 

5 (be / New York) I. 

6 (play / tennis) . 

7 (drive / a lorry) . 

8 (be/late for work or school) . 

She has had an interesting life. What has she done? 

-have be all over the world a lot of interesting things 

do write many d i ff e r e nt jobs a lot of interesting people 

travel meet ten books married three times 


1 . She has had many different jobs. . 

2 She. 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

Write gone or been. 

1 Ben is on holiday at the moment. He's. gone. .to Spain. 

2 'Have you ever to Mexico?' 'No, never.' 

3 My parents aren't at home at the moment. They’ve out. 

4 There's a new restaurant in town. Have you.to it? 

5 Rebecca loves Paris. She’s there many times. 

6 Helen was here earlier, but I think she’s.now. 

7 'Where's Jessica?' 'She's not in the office. I think she’s home.' 

8 Hello, Sue. I was looking for you. Where have you.? 


Mary is 65 years old. 


Mary 



■+ Additional exercises 16,18 (pages 258-60) 















































How long have you ... ? (present perfect 4) 


Helen is on holiday in Ireland. 
She is there now. 


[ How long have you | 

f 5ince | 

l been in Ireland? L 

$ 1 Monday. 1 


Today is Thursday. 


She has been in Ireland 


Monday. 

r 

in Ireland? 


since Monday 


for three days. 

O* 



Compare is and has been: 


She is in Ireland is = present 

now. 


She has been in Ireland 


since Monday 
for three days. 


has been = present perfect 


Monday 


now 

Thursday 


Compare: 


present simple 


present perfect simple (have been / have lived / have known etc) 


Dan and Kate are married. 
Are you married? 

Do you know Lisa? 

I know Lisa. 

Vicky lives in London. 

I have a car. 


They have been married for five years. 
(not They are married for five years.) 
How long have you been married? 

(not How long are you married?) 

How long have you known her? 

(not How long do you know her?) 

I've known her for a long time. 

(not I know her for...) 

How long has she lived in London? 
She has lived there all her life. 

How long have you had your car? 

I've had it since April. 


present continuous 


present perfect continuous (have been + -ing) 


I'm learning German. 


David is watching TV. 
It's raining. 


How long have you been learning German? 

(not How long are you learning German?) 

I've been learning German for two years. 

How long has he been watching TV? 

He's been (= He has been) watching TV since 5 o'clock 
It's been (= It has been) raining all day. 


f for and since -4 Units 19,104 














Exercises 

Complete these sentences. 

1 Helen is in Ireland. She. has been .in Ireland since Monday. 

2 I know Lisa. I have known .her for a long time. 

3 Sarah and Andy are married. They married since 2005. 

4 Ben is ill. He.ill for the last few days. 

5 We live in Scott Road. We.there for a long time. 

6 Catherine works in a bank. She.there for five years. 

7 Alan has a headache. He.a headache since he got up this morning. 

8 I'm learning English. I.English for six months. 



Make questions with How long .. 



Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with: 

for ten minutes all day all her life 

for ten y e ars since he was 20 since Sunday 



1 Thay have .been ma rried for ten yea rs, . 

2 She. 

3 They. 

4 The sun. 

5 She. 

6 He. 

Which is right? 

1 Mark - live s -- / has lived in Canada since April, ( has lived is right ) 

2 Jane and I are friends. I know / I've known her very well. 

3 Jane and I are friends. I know / I've known her for a long time. 

4 a: Sorry I'm late. How long are you waiting/ have you been waiting ? 
b: Not long. Only five minutes. 

5 Luke works / has worked in a hotel now. He likes his job a lot. 

6 Ruth is reading a newspaper. She is reading / She has been reading it for two hours. 

7 'How long do you live / have you lived in this house?' About ten years.' 

8 'Is that a new coat?' 'No, I have / I've had this coat for a long time.' 

9 Tom is / has been in Spain at the moment. He is / He has been there for the last three days. 


47 



















































1 


for since ago 


for and since 

We use for and since to say how long. 

Helen is in Ireland. She has been there j ^° X 

| since Monday. 


We use for + a period of time 

(three days / two years etc ): 


for three days 


Monday Tuesday Wednesday 


past 


O Richard has been in Canada for six 
months. (not since six months) 

We've been waiting for two hours. 

(not since two hours) 

O I've lived in London for a long time. 


We use since + the start of the period 

(Monday / 9 o'clock etc): 

start of the 
period 


Monday 


since Monday 




now 

past 



for 



since 

three days 

ten minutes 



Monday 

Wednesday 

an hour 

two hours 



9 o'clock 

1230 

a week 

four weeks 



24 July 

Christmas 

a month 

six months 



January 

1 was ten years old 

five years 

a long time 



1985 

we arrived 


O Richard has been in Canada since 
January. (= from January to now) 

O We've been waiting since 9 o'clock. 
(= from 9 o'clock to now) 

O I've lived in London since I was ten 
years old. 


ago = before now: 

O Susan started her new job three weeks ago. (- three weeks before now) 

O 'When did Tom go out?' Ten minutes ago. 1 (= ten minutes before now) 
O I had dinner an hour ago. 

O Life was very different a hundred years ago. 

We use ago with the past (started/did/had/was etc.). 

Compare ago and for: 

O When did Helen arrive in Ireland? 

She arrived in Ireland three days ago. 

O How long has she been in Ireland? 

She has been in Ireland for three days. 


> 


now 


[ present perfect + for/since Unit 18 from/until/since/for Unit 104 for and during ■» Unit 105 ) 






















Exercises 

Write for or since. 

1 Helen has been in Ireland since Monday. 

2 Helen has been in Ireland for three days. 


3 My aunt has lived in Australia 15 years. 

4 Tina is in her office. She has been there 7 o'clock. 

5 India has been an independent country.1947. 

6 The bus is late. We've been waiting.20 minutes. 


7 Nobody lives in those houses. They have been empty many years. 

8 Michael has been ill a long time. He has been in hospital 

Answer these questions. Use ago. 

1 When was your last meal? . TViree hours agp, . 

2 When was the last time you were ill? . 

3 When did you last go to the cinema? . 

4 When was the last time you were in a car? . 

5 When was the last time you went on holiday? 

Complete the sentences. Use for or ago with these wo rds. 

1 Helen arrived in Ireland. three days ago. . 

2 Helen has been in Ireland. for.three days, . 

3 Lynn and Mark have been married. 

4 Lynn and Mark got married. 

5 Dan arrived. 

6 I bought these shoes. 

7 Silvia has been learning English 

8 Have you known Lisa. 

Complete the sentences with for or since. 

1 (Helen is in Ireland - she arrived there three days ago) 

. He len has been in Ireland for three days. . 

2 (Jack is here - he arrived on Tuesday) 

Jack has. 

3 (It’s raining - it started an hour ago) 

It’s been. 

4 (I know Sue - I first met her in 2008) 

I've. 

5 (Claire and Matt are married - they got married six months ago) 

Claire and Matt have. 

6 (Laura is studying medicine at university - she started three years ago) 

Laura has. 

7 (David plays the piano - he started when he was seven years old) 

David has. 



October. 


(three days) 
(three days) 
(20 years) 

(20 years) 

(an hour) 

(a few days) 
(six months) 
(a long time) 


Write sentences about yourself. Begin your sentences with: 

I’ve lived ... I’ve been ... I’ve been learning... I’ve known ... 


I’ve had. 


1 l ye Jived in This town for three years. 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 


•* Additional exercises 16-18 (pages 258-60) 


49 














































I have done (present perfect) and I did (past) 


With a finished time (yesterday / last week etc.), we use the past (arrived/saw/was etc.): 


yesterday 
last week 
six months ago 

finished time 


past now 

Do not use the present perfect (have arrived / have done / have been etc.) with a finished time: 

O I saw Paula yesterday. 

(not I have seen) 

O Where were you on Sunday afternoon? 

(not Where have you been) 

□ We didn’t have a holiday last year 
(not We haven't had) 

□ 'What did you do last night?' 'I stayed at home.' 

O William Shakespeare lived from 1564 to 1616. He was a writer. He wrote many plays 
and poems. 

Use the past to ask When ... ? or What time .. . ?: 

O When did you buy your computer? (not When have you bought) 

O What time did Andy go out? (not What time has Andy gone out) 


past + finished time 



yesterday. 


last week. 

We arrived 

at 3 o’clock. 


in 2002. 


six months ago. 


Compare: 

present perfect 

O I have lost my key. 

(= I can't find it now) 

O Ben has gone home. 

(= he isn't here now) 

O Have you seen Kate? 

(= where is she now?) 

time until now 

past now 

O Have you ever been to Spain? 

(= in your life, until now) 

O My friend is a writer. He has written 
many books. 

O Sam hasn't phoned me yet. 

O We've lived in Singapore for six years. 
(= we live there now) 


O I lost my key last week. 

O Ben went home ten minutes ago. 

O Did you see Kate on Saturday? 

finished time 

past now 

O Did you go to Spain last year? 

O Shakespeare wrote many plays and 
poems. 

O Sam didn't phone me yesterday. 

O We lived in Glasgow for six years, but 
now we live in Singapore. 


( past simple -> Units 11-12 present perfect *♦ Units 15-18 


D 




















Exercises 

Complete the answers to the questions. 


/L 


1 

f N 

Have you seen Kate? 


\es r 1 saw her 

.five minutes ago 

2 

Have you started your new job? 


Yes. 1. 

.last week. 

3 

Have your friends arrived? 


Yes. they. 

at 5 o'clock. 

A 

Has Sarah gone away? 


Yes.. 

.on Friday. 

5 

Have you worn your new suit?J 

1 

Yes. 

.yesterday. 


Are these sentences OK? Correct the verbs that are wrong. (The verbs are underlined ) 


1 IVe lost my key. I can't find it. 

2 Have you seen Kate yesterday? 

3 I've finished my work at 2 o'clock. 

4 I'm ready now. I've finished my work. 

5 What time have you finished your work? 

6 Sue isn't here. She's gone out. 

7 Steve's grandmother has died two years ago. 

8 Where have you been last night? 


OK . 

.Pidyou.sae. 


Put the verb in the present perfect or past. 

1 My friend is a writer. He. has written .(write) many books. 

2 We didn't have .(not/have) a holiday last year. 

3 I.(play) tennis yesterday afternoon. 

4 What time.(you/go) to bed last night? 

5 .(you ever meet) a famous person? 

6 The weather.(not/be) very good yesterday. 

7 Kathy travels a lot. She..(visit) many countries. 

8 I.(switch) off the light before going out this morning. 

9 I live in New York now, but I.(live) in Mexico for many years. 

10 'What's Canada like? Is it beautiful?' 'I don't know. I.(not/be) there.' 

Put the verb in the present perfect or past. 


1 

a: Ha ye you . eve rbeen (you/ever/be) to Florida? 


b: Yes, we. went .(go) there 

on holiday two years ago. 


a: . 

(you/have) a good time? 


b: Yes, it. 

.(be) great. 

2 

a: Where's Alan? . 

.(you/see) him? 


b: Yes, he. 

.(go) out a few minutes ago. 


a: And Rachel? 



B: 1 don’t know. 1 

.(not/see) her. 

3 

Rose works in a factory. She. 

.(work) there for six months. 


Before that she. 

.(be) a waitress in a restaurant. She 


(work) rhpre for rwo vears. bur she 


(not/enjoy) it very much. 


4 

a: Do you know Mark's sister? 



b: 1. 

... (see) her a few times, but 1. 


(never/speak) to her.. 

.(you/ever/speak) to her? 


a: Yes. 1. 

.(meet) her at a party last week. She's very nice. 


Additional exercises 19-23, 29-31 (pages 260-62, 265-67) 































































Unit 


21 is done was done (passive 1) 



7 


The office is cleaned every day. 
The office was cleaned yesterday. 


Compare active and passive: 


Somebody cleans the office everyday. 
_1 

(active) 

1 

The office is cleaned every day. 

( passive) 

Somebody cleaned the office yesterday. 

, _1 

(active) 

1 

The office was cleaned yesterday. 

(passive) 


52 


The passive is: 


present simple 
past simple 


past participle 


am/is/are 

was/were 


(not) 


cleaned 

done 

invented 

built 

injured 

taken etc. 


The past participle of regular verbs is -ed (cleaned/damaged etc.). 

For a list of irregular past participles (done/built/taken etc.), see Appendix 2-3. 

□ Butter is made from milk. 

O Oranges are imported into Britain. 

O How often are these rooms cleaned? 

O I am never invited to parties. 

O This house was built 100 years ago. 

O These houses were built 100 years ago. 

O When was the telephone invented? 

O We weren’t invited to the party last week. 

O 'Was anybody injured in the accident?' 'Yes, two people were taken to hospital.’ 

was/were born 

O I was born in Berlin in 1993. (not I am born) 

□ 'Where were you born?' ‘In Cairo.’ 

passive + by 

O The telephone was invented by Alexander Bell in 1876. (- Alexander Bell invented it) 
O I was bitten by a dog a few days ago. 

O Do you like these paintings? They were painted by a friend of mine. 


is being done / has been done -♦ Unit 22 irregular verbs Unit 24, Appendix 2-3 by *♦ Unit 111 

active and passive *4 Appendix 1 

















Exercises 


Write sentences from these words. Some of the sentences are questions. 

Sentences 1-7 are present. 

1 (the office / clean / every day) . TheoMceJeclemMeyeryday, . 

2 (how often / these rooms / clean?) . How often are these rooms cleaned? 

3 (glass / make / from sand) Class. 

4 (the windows / clean / every two weeks) . 

5 (this room / not / use / very much) 

6 (we /allow/to park here?) 

7 (how / this word / pronounce?) 

Sentences 8-15 are past. 

8 (the office / clean / yesterday) 

9 (the house/paint / last month) 

10 (my phone / steal / a few days ago) 

11 (three people / injure / in the accident) 

12 (when / this bridge / build?) 

13 (I / not / wake up / by the noise) 

14 (how / these windows / break?) 

15 (you / invite / to Jon’s party last week?) 

These sentences are not correct. Correct them. 

1 This hous e b uilt 100 years ago. . This house was. built . 

2 Football plays in most countries of the world. . 

3 Why did the letter send to the wrong address? . 

4 A film studio is a place where films make. . 

5 Where are you born? . 

6 How many languages are speaking in Switzerland? . 

7 Somebody broke into our house, but nothing stolen. 

8 When was invented the bicycle? . 

Complete the sentences. Use the passive (present or past) of these verbs: 

c le an damage find give invite make make show steal take 


. Th e office wM.clMOMy.^Mrdsy.-.. 

The house. 


1 The room. Is .clean ed .every day. 

2 I saw an accident yesterday. Two people. were taker .to hospital. 

3 Paper.from wood. 

4 There was a fire at the hotel last week. Two of the rooms. 

5 'Where did you get this picture?' 'It.to me by a friend of mine.' 

6 Many American programmes.on British TV. 

7 'Did James and Sue go to the wedding?' 'No. They., but they didn't go.' 

8 'How old is this film?' 'It.in 1985.’ 

9 My car.last week, but the next day it.by 

the police. 


Where were they born? 

1 (Ian / Edinburgh) 

2 (Sarah / Manchester) 

3 (her parents / Ireland) 

4 (you/???) 

5 (your mother / ???) 


. .vay-born in ^lnbu.O|.h. 

Sarah 
Her 














































Unit 


is being done has been done (passive 2) 


is/are being ... (present continuous passive) 


Somebody is painting the door 


The door is being painted. 


(active) 

(passive) 


O My car is at the garage. It is being repaired. (= somebody is repairing it) 

O Some new houses are being built opposite the park. (= somebody is building them) 
Compare the present continuous and present simple: 

O The office is being cleaned at the moment, (continuous) 

The office is cleaned every day. (simple) 

O Football matches are often played at the weekend but no matches are being played next 
weekend. 

For the present continuous and present simple, see Units 8 and 25. 


has/have been ... (present perfect passive) 
before now 


Somebody has painted the door . (active) 


The door has been painted 


( passive) 



m I 


O My key has been stolen. (= somebody has stolen it) 

O My keys have been stolen. (= somebody has stolen them) 

O I'm not going to the party. I haven't been invited. (= nobody has invited me) 
O Has this shirt been washed? (= has somebody washed it?) 

Compare the present perfect and past simple: 

O The room isn't dirty any more. It has been cleaned, (present perfect) 

The room was cleaned yesterday, (past simple) 

O I can't find my keys. I think they've been stolen, (present perfect) 

My keys were stolen last week, (past simple) 

For the present perfect and past simple, see Unit 20. 


( is done / was done Unit 21 active and passive Appendix 1 





































Exercises 



What's happening? 

oT 




1 The car. is.be|ng..repajred, . 3 The windows 

2 Abridge. 4 The grass. 



Look at the pictures. What is happening or what has happened? Use the present continuous 
(is/are being ...) or the present perfect (has/have been ...). 


1 (the office / clean) . The.pfflce.isMnacleaned..., 

2 (the shirts / iron) . The sh 

3 (the window / break) The window. 

4 (the roof / repair) The roof. 

5 (the car / damage) . 

6 (the houses / knock / down) . 

7 (the trees / cut / down) . 

8 (they / invite / to a party) . 


Complete the sentences. (Study Unit 21 before you do this exercise.) 

1 I can't use my office at the moment. It. !£ bejng.pai nted . (paint). 

2 We didn't go to the party. We. weren’t invited. (not/invite). 

3 ITie washing machine was broken, but it's OK now. It.(repair). 

4 The washing machine.(repair) yesterday afternoon. 

5 A factory is a place where things.(make). 

6 How old are these houses? When.(they/build)? 

7 a: ...(the photocopier / use) at the moment? 

b: No, you can go ahead and use it. 

8 I've never seen these flowers before. What.(they/call)? 

9 My sunglasses.(steal) at the beach yesterday. 

10 TTe bridge is closed at the moment. It.(damage) last week and 

it.(not/repair) yet. 


■4 Additional exercises 24-27 (pages 263-64) 


55 













































be/have/do in present and past tenses 


be (= am/is/are/was/were) + -ing (cleaning/working etc.) 

Please be quiet. I’m working 
Ic isn’t raining at the moment. 
What are you doing this evening? 


I was working when she arrived. 

It wasn't raining so we didn't need an umbrella. 
What were you doing at 3 o'clock? 


am/is/are + -ing 
(present continuous) 

—> Units 3-4 and 25 

was/were + -ing 
(past continuous) 

-> Unit 13 


be + past participle (deaned/made/eaten etc.) 

O I’m never invited to parties. 

O Butter is made from milk. 

O These offices aren't cleaned every day. 


O The office was cleaned yesterday. 

O These houses were built 100 years ago. 
O How was the window broken 7 
O Where were you born 7 


am/is/are + past participle 
(passive present simple) 

-> Unit 21 

was/were + past participle 
(passive past simple) 

Unit 21 


have/has + past participle (cleaned/lost/eaten/been etc.) 

O I've cleaned my room. 

O Tom has lost his passport. 

O Kate hasn't been to Canada. 

O Where have Paul and Emma gone 7 


have/has + past participle 
(present perfect) 

-> Units 15-18 


do/does/did + infinitive (clean/like/eat/go etc.) 

O I like coffee, but I don't like tea. 

O Chris doesn't go out very often. 

O What do you usually do at weekends? 
O Does Sam live alone? 


O I didn't watch TV yesterday. 

O It didn't rain last week. 

O What time did Paul and Emma go out? 


do/does + infinitive 
(present simple negative 
and questions) 

—> Units 6-7 


did + infinitive 

(past simple negative and 

questions) 

-> Unit 12 


f irregular verbs ^ Unit 24, Appendix 2-3 


















Exercises 


Write is/are or do/does. 


1 . Qo .you work in the evenings? 

2 Where are they going? 

3 Why.you looking at me? 

4 Ben live near you? 

5 .you like cooking? 


6 .the sun shining? 

7 What time . the shops close? 

8 .Maria working today? 

9 What.this word mean? 

10 .you feeling all right? 


Write am not/isn't/aren't or don't/doesn't. All these sentences are negative. 

1 Tom. doesn't .work at weekends. 


2 I'm very tired. I.want to go out this evening. 

3 I'm very tired. I.going out this evening. 

4 Gary.working this week. He's on holiday. 


5 My parents are usually at home. They.go out very often. 

6 Nicola has travelled a lot, but she.speak any foreign languages. 

7 You can turn off the television. I.watching it. 

8 Lisa has invited us to her party next week, but we.going. 


Write was/were/did/have/has. 

1 Where. were. your shoes made? 


2 .you go out last night? 

3 What.you doing at 10.30? 

4 Where.your mother born? 

5 .Laura gone home? 


6 What time.she go? 

7 When.these houses built? 

8 .Steve arrived yet? 

9 Why.you go home early? 

10 How long.they been married? 


Write is/are/was/were/have/has. 

1 Joe. has .lost his passport. 

2 This bridge built ten years ago. 

3 .you finished your work yet? 

4 This town is always clean. The streets.cleaned every day. 

5 Where.you born? 

6 I.just made some coffee. Would you like some? 

7 Glass.made from sand. 

8 This is a very old photograph. It.taken a long time ago. 

9 David bought a new car. 


Complete the sentences. Choose from the box and put the verb into the correct form. 

damage ra i n enjoy go pronounce eat 

listen use open go understand 


1 I'm going to take an umbrella with me. It's. raining. . 

2 Why are you so tired? Did you. < 3 Q .to bed late last night? 

3 Where are the chocolates? Have you.them all? 

4 How is your new job? Are you.it? 

5 My car was badly.in the accident, but I was OK. 

6 Kate has got a car, but she doesn't.it very often. 

7 Lisa isn't at home. She has.away for a few days. 

8 I don't the problem. Can you explain it again? 

9 Mark is in his room. He's. to music. 

10 I don't know how to say this word. How is it..? 

11 How do you.this window? Can you show me? 


57 



















































Unit 



Regular and irregular verbs 


Regular verbs 

The past simple and past participle of regular verbs is -ed: 

clean —► cleaned live —> lived paint —» painted study —> studied 

Past simple (—» Unit 11) 

I cleaned my room yesterday. 

Chris studied engineering at university. 

Past participle 

have/has + past participle (present perfect —» Units 15-18): 

O I have cleaned my room. 

O Tina has lived in London for ten years. 

be (is/are/were/has been etc.) + past participle (passive —> Units 21-22): 
O These rooms are cleaned every day. 

O My car has been repaired. 


B 


Irregular verbs 


The past simple and past participle of irregular verbs do not end in -ed: 



make 

break 

cut 

past simple 

made 

broke 

cut 

past participle 

made 

broken 

cut 


Sometimes the past simple and past participle are the same. For example: 


past simple 
past participle 


make 

find 

buy cut 

made 

found 

bought cut 


O I made a cake yesterday. (past simple) 

O I have made some coffee, (past participle - present perfect) 
□ Butter is made from milk, (past participle - passive present) 


Sometimes the past simple and past participle are different. For example: 



break 

know 

begin 

go 

past simple 

broke 

knew 

began 

went 

past participle 

broken 

known 

begun 

gone 


□ Somebody broke this window last night, (past simple) 

O Somebody has broken this window, (past participle - present perfect) 

□ This window was broken last night, (past participle - passive past) 


58 


f irregular verbs -> Appendix 2-3 spelling (regular verbs) -> Appendix 5 


) 

















Exercises 


Write the past simple / past participle of these verbs. (The past simple and past participle are the 
same for all the verbs in this exercise.) 


2 cut 

3 get 

4 bring 

5 pay 


cut 


enjoy . 

11 

hear 

buy . 

. 12 

put 

sit . 

. 13 

catch 

leave 

. 14 

watch 

happen . 

. 15 

understand 


Write the past simple and past participle of these verbs. 

1 break . broke . broken . 8 CO me 

2 begin . 

3 eat . 

4 drink 

5 drive . 

6 speak . 

7 write . 


8 

come 

9 

know 

10 

take 

11 

go 

12 

give 

13 

throw 

14 

forget 


Put the verb in the right form. 

1 I. washed . m y hands because they were dirty, (wash) 

2 Somebody has. broken .this window (break) 

3 I feel good. I very well last night, (sleep) 

4 We.a really good film yesterday, (see) 

5 It a lot while we were on holiday, (rain) 

6 I've.my bag. Have you.it? (lose / see) 

7 Rosa's bicycle was.last week, (steal) 

8 I to bed early because I was tired, (go) 

9 Have you your work yet? (finish) 

10 The shopping centre was about 20 years ago. (build) 

11 Anna.to drive when she was 18. (learn) 

12 I've never.a horse, (ride) 

13 Jessica is a good friend of mine. I've.her for a long time, (know) 

14 Yesterday I and my leg. (fall/hurt) 

15 My brother.in the London Marathon last year. Have you ever. 

in a marathon? (run / run) 

Complete these sentences. Choose from the box and put the verb into the correct form, 
cost drive fly mak e meet sell 


speak 


swim 


tell think wake up win 


1 I have..some coffee. Would you like some? 

2 Have you.John about your new job? 

3 We played basketball on Sunday. We didn't play very well but we.the game. 

4 I know Gary, but I've never..his wife. 

5 We were.by loud music in the middle of the night. 

6 Stephanie jumped into the river and.to the other side. 

7 'Did you like the film?' 'Yes, I.it was very good.' 

8 Many different languages are.in the Philippines. 

9 Our holiday.a lot of money because we stayed in an expensive hotel. 

10 Have you ever.a very fast car? 

11 All the tickets for the concert were.very quickly. 

12 A bird.in through the open window while we were having our dinner. 













































































Unit 

25 What are you doing tomorrow? 




They are playing tennis (now). 


today is Sunday 



He is playing cennis tomorrow. 


We use am/is/are + -ing (present continuous) for something happening now: 

O 'Where are Tina and Helen?' 'They’re playing tennis in the park.' 

□ Please be quiet. I'm working. 

We also use am/is/are + -ing for the future (tomorrow / next week etc.): 

O Andrew is playing tennis tomorrow. 

O I'm not working next week. 

I am doing something tomorrow = I have arranged to do it, I have a plan to do it: 


O Sophie is going to the dentist on Friday. 

(= she has an appointment with the dentist) 

O We're having a party next weekend. 

O Are you meeting your friends tonight? 

O What are you doing tomorrow evening? 

O I'm not going out tonight. I’m staying at home. 

You can also say 'I'm going to do something' (—» Unit 26). 



C 


We use the present continuous (I'm staying / are you coming etc) to say what somebody has arranged 
to do: 

O I'm staying at home this evening, (not I stay) 

O Are you going out tonight? (not Do you go) 

O Lisa isn't coming to the party next week, (not Lisa doesn't come) 

But we use the present simple (start arrives etc.) for timetables; programmes, trains, buses etc: 

O The train arrives at 730. 

O What time does the film finish? 


Compare: 


present continuous (usually for people) present simple (for timetables, programmes etc.) 

O I'm going to a concert tomorrow. O The concert starts at 7.30. 

O What time are you leaving? O What time does your train leave? 


60 


[ present continuous Units 3-4 present simple -» Units 5-7 I'm going to . -» Unit 26 






















Exercises 

Look at the pictures. What are these people doing next Friday? 



ANDREW RICHARD RACHEL KAREN SUE AND TOM 


1 . Andrew is playing tennis, on. Friday . 

2 Richard.to the cinema. 

3 Rachel. 

4 .lunch with Will. 

5 . 

Write questions. All the sentences are future. 

1 (you / go / out / tonight?) . Areypu.gpin 3 . 0 ut; tonight?. 

2 (you / work / next week?) . 

3 (what / you / do / tomorrow evening?) . 

4 (what time/your friends/come?) . 

5 (when / Lisa / go / on holiday?) . 

Write sentences about yourself. What are you doing in the next few days? 

1 I'm staying at home tonight. . 

2 . Im.gQingl^ . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 


Put the verb in the present continuous (he is leaving etc.) or present simple (the train leaves etc.). 

1 '. Ansyou going (you/go) out tonight?' 'No, I'm too tired.' 

2 WeVe.gp.ing .(we/go) to a concert tonight. It-starts .(ic/start) at 7.30. 

3 Do you know about Sarah? .(she/get) married next month! 

4 a: My parents.(go) on holiday next week. 

b: Oh, that's nice. Where.(they/go)? 

5 Silvia is doing an English course at the moment. The course. 

(finish) on Friday. 

6 There's a party tomorrow night, but.(I/not/go). 

7 .(I/go) out with some friends tonight. Why don't you come 

too? .(we/meet) at the Royal Hotel at 8 o’clock. 

8 a: How.(you/get) home after the party tomorrow? By taxi? 

b: No, I can go by bus. The last bus.(leave) at midnight. 

9 a: .(you/come) with us to the cinema tonight? 

b: Yes, what time.(the film / begin)? 

10 a: What.(you/do) tomorrow afternoon? 

b: .(I/work). 






















































I'm going to 


• • • 


I'm going to do something 



morning this evening 


She is going to watch TV this evening. 


We use am/is/are going to . for the future: 


1 

am 


do... 

he/she/it 

is 

(not) going to 

drink... 

we/you/they 

are 


watch ... 


am 

i 


buy... ? 

is 

he/she/it 

going to 

eat... ? 

are 

we/you/they 


wear... ? 


I am going to do something = I have decided to do it, my intention is to do it: 
I decided to do it-► t I'm going to do it 


past now future 

O I'm going to buy some books tomorrow. 

O Sarah is going to sell her car. 

O I'm not going to have breakfast this morning. I'm not hungry. 

O What are you going to wear to the wedding next week? 

'Your hands are dirty.' 'Yes, I know. I'm going to wash them.' 

O Are you going to invite Mark to your party? 

We also use the present continuous (I am doing) for the future, usually for arrangements (—> Unit 25): 

I am playing tennis with Julia tomorrow. 

Something is going to happen 

Something is going to happen = we can see now 
that it is sure to happen: 

O Look at the sky! It's going to rain. 

(black clouds now -> rain) 

O Oh dear! It's 9 o'clock and I'm not ready. 

I'm going to be late. 

(9 o'clock now and not ready —> late) 



( present for the future -» Unit 25 will -» Units 27-~28 























Exercises 




Complete the sentences. Use going to + these verbs: 

do eat give lie down stay walk wash watch wear 

1 My hands are dirty. . iM&oinQ'towaeh .them. 

2 What. areyou.going to wear . to the party tonight? 

3 Its a nice day. I don't want to take the bus. I 

4 Steve is going to London next week. He with some friends. 

5 I'm hungry. I.this sandwich. 

6 It's Sarah's birthday next week. We.her a present. 

7 Sue says she's feeling very tired. She.for an hour. 

8 Your favourite programme is on TV tonight.you it? 

9 What Rachel when she leaves school? 

Look at the pictures. What is going to happen? 



1 !t 5 going, to.rain, . 

2 The shelf. 

3 The car.. 

4 He. 

What are you going to do today or tomorrow? Write three sentences. 

1 I'm. 

2 . 

3 . 



63 





































































Unit 

27 will/shall 1 



SARAH 


Sarah goes to work every day. She is always 
there from 8.30 until 4.30. 

It is 11 o'clock now. Sarah is at work. 

At 11 o'clock yesterday, she was at work. 

At 11 o'clock tomorrow, she will be at work. 


will + infinitive (will be / will win / will come etc.): 




be 

l/we/you/they 

will (’ll) 

win 

he/she/it 

will not (won’t) 

eat 

come etc. 




be? 

will 

l/we/you/they 

win? 

he/she/it 

eat? 

come? etc. 



'll = will: I'll (I will) / you'll / she’ll etc. 

won’t = will not: I won’t (= I will not) / you won't / she won’t etc. 


1 

B 


We use will for the future (tomorrow / next week etc.): 

O Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Madrid. Tomorrow shell be in Rome. Next week shell be 
in Tokyo. 

O You can call me this evening. I'll be at home. 

O Leave the old bread in the garden. The birds will eat it. 

O We'll probably go out this evening. 

O Will you be at home this evening? 

O I won't be here tomorrow. (= I will not be here) 

O Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You won't sleep. 



We often say I think ... will... 

O I think Kelly will pass the exam. 

O I don't think it will rain this afternoon. 

O Do you think the exam will be difficult? 

We do not use will for things we have already arranged or decided to do (—> Units 25-26): 

O We're going to the cinema on Saturday. Do you want to come with us? (not We will go) 
O I'm not working tomorrow, (not I won't work) 

O Are you going to do the exam? (not Will you do) 

shall 

You can say I shall (= I will) and we shall (= we will): 

O I shall be late tomorrow, or I will (I'll) be late tomorrow. 

O I think we shall win. or I think we will (we'll) win. 

But do not use shall with you/they/he/she/it: 

O Tom will be late, (not Tom shall be) 


64 


( What are you doing tomorrow? ■» Unit 25 I'm going to ^ Unit 26 will/shall 2 ^ Unit 28 _) 














Exercises 



Helen is travelling in Europe. Complete the sentences with she was, she's or she’ll be. 


1 

Yesterday she was 

in Paris. 


2 

Tomorrow. 

.in Amsterdam. 


3 

Last week. 

in Barcelona. 

LONDON AMSTERDAM 

(next week^ .(tomorrow) 

4 

Next week. 

in London. 

• BRUSSELS (now) 

5 

At the moment. 

.in Brussels. 

PARIS (yesterday)* • 

MUNICH 

6 

Three days ago. 

.in Munich. 

(3 days ago) 

7 

At the end of her trip 

.very tired. 

BARCELONA* 




(last week) 




Where will you be? Write sentences about yourself. Use: 



I'll be ... or I'll probably be ... or I don't know where I'll be. 

1 (at 10 o'clock tomorrow) ^probably be .on. the... beach, . 

2 (one hour from now) . 

3 (at midnight tonight) . 

4 (at 3 o'clock tomorrow afternoon) . 

5 (two years from now) . 


Put in will ('ll) or won't. 

1 Don't drink coffee before you go to bed. You. won’t .sleep. 

2 'Are you ready yet?' 'Not yet. I.be ready in five minutes.' 

3 I'm going away for a few days. I'm leaving tonight, so I.be at home tomorrow. 

4 It.rain, so you don't need to take an umbrella. 

5 a: I don't feel very well this evening. 

b: Well, go to bed early and you.feel better in the morning. 

6 It's Ben's birthday next Monday. He.be 25. 

7 I'm sorry I was late this morning. It.happen again. 

Write sentences with I think ... or I don't think .... 

1 (Kelly will pass the exam) . !.think Kel.ly.ML pa.^.the exam, . 

2 (Kel I y wo n'tpassthe exa m) !. don’t thj n k Kelly will pass the exam.. 

3 (we'll win the game) I. 

4 (I won't be here tomorrow) . 

5 (Sue will like her present) . 

6 (they won't get married) . 

7 (you won't enjoy the film) . 

Which is right? (Study Unit 25 before you do this exercise.) 

1 - We'lbge- / We're going to the theatre tonight. We've got tickets. ( We're going is mint) 

2 'What will you do / are you doing tomorrow evening?' 'Nothing. I'm free.' 

3 They'll go / They're going away tomorrow morning. Their train is at 8.40. 

4 I'm sure your aunt will lend / is lending us some money. She's very rich. 

5 'Why are you putting on your coat?' ' I'll go / I'm going out.' 

6 Do you think Clare will phone / is phoning us tonight? 

7 Steve can't meet us on Saturday. He'll work / He's working . 

8 Will you / Shall you be at home tomorrow evening? 

9 a: What are your plans for the weekend? 

b: Some friends will come / are coming to stay with us. 













































will/shall 2 



You can use I'll... (I will) when you offer something or decide to do something: 
O 'My bag is very heavy.’ 'I'll carry it for you.' 

O 'I'll phone you tomorrow, OK?' 'OK, bye.' 

We often say I think I'll... /1 don't think I'll ... when we decide to do something: 
O I'm tired. I think I'll go to bed early tonight. 

O It’s a nice day. I think I’ll sit outside. 

O It’s raining. I don't think I'll go out. 

Do not use the present simple (I go /1 phone etc.) in sentences like these: 

O I'll phone you tomorrow, OK? (not I phone you) 

O I think I'll go to bed early. ( not I go to bed) 

Do not use I’ll ... for something you decided before (—> Units 25-26): 

O I'm working tomorrow. (not I'll work) 

O I don't want my car any more. I’m going to sell it. (not I’ll sell) 

O What are you doing at the weekend? (not What will you do) 

Shall I... ? Shall we ... ? 



Shall I / Shall we ... ? = Do you chink this is a good thing to do? Do you chink this is a good idea? 
O It's very warm in this room. Shall I open the window? 

O 'Shall I phone you this evening?' 'Yes, please.' 

O I'm going co a party tonight. What shall I wear? 

O It's a nice day. Shall we go for a walk? 

O Where shall we go for our holidays this year? 

O 'Let's go out this evening.' 'OK, what time shall we meet?' 

What are you doing tomorrow? Unit 25 I'm going to -► Unit 26 will/shall 1 ^ Unit 27 
Let s -» Units 35, 53 _ 





















Exercises 


Complete the sentences. Use I'll (I will) + these verbs: 
carry do eat show sit stay 

__Ss_ 


|Q 


/L 


My bag is very heavy. 
I don't want this banana. 

Do you want a chair? 
Did you phone Sophie? 
Are you coming with me? 
How do you use this camera? 


. IMarry .ic for you. 

Well, I’m hungry. ...it. 

No, it's OK.on the floor. 

Oh no, I forgot.it now. 

No, I don't think so.here. 

Give it to me and.you. 


Complete the sentences. Use I think I'll ... or I don’t think I’ll ... + these verbs: 
buy buy -ge- have play 


It's cold today. I .don’t think rij .go .out. 

I’m hungry. I.something to eat. 

I fee very tired.tennis. 

I like this hat. .it. 

This camera is too expensive.it. 


Which is right? 

1 Tohene / I'll phone you tomorrow, OK? (I'll phone is right ) 

I haven't done the shopping yet. I do / I'll do it later. 

I like sport. I watch / I'll watch a lot of sport on TV. 

I need some exercise. I think I go / I'll go for a walk. 

Carl is going to buy / will buy a new car. He told me last week. 

'This book belongs to Tina.' 'OK. I give / I'll give / I'm going to give it to her.' 
a: Are you doing / Will you do anything this evening? 
b: Yes, I'm going / I'll go out with some friends. 

I can't go out with you tomorrow night. I work / I'm working / I'll work . 


8 


Write sentences with Shall I ... ? Choose from the two boxes. 


make 

turn off 

some sandwiches 

the TV 

-open- 

turn on 

the light 



sL 


9 


It's very warm in this room. 
This programme isn't very good. 

I'm hungry. 
It's dark in this room. 


. ShajJJ. open the window?. 


Write sentences with Shall we... ? Choose from the two boxes. 


t 


Let's go out tonight. 
Let's have a holiday. 
Let's spend some money. 
Let's have a party. 



-♦ Additional exercises 28-31 (pages 264-67) 


67 
























































Ic might rain 

(= it is possible that it will rain) 


might + infinitive (might go / might be / might rain etc.): 



be 

might (not) 

go 

play 

come etc 



o 

o 

o 

o 




I might = it is possible that I will: 

I might go to the cinema this evening, but I’m not sure. (= it is possible that I will go) 
a: When is Rebecca going to phone you? 
b: I don't know. She might phone this afternoon. 

Take an umbrella with you. It might rain. 

Buy a lottery ticket. You might be lucky. (= perhaps you will be lucky) 
a: Are you going out tonight? 
b: I might (= I might go out) 

Study the difference: 

O I'm playing tennis tomorrow, (sure) 

I might play tennis tomorrow, (possible) 

O Rebecca is going to phone later, (sure) 

Rebecca might phone later, (possible) 

I might not = it is possible that I will not: 

O I might not go to work tomorrow. 

(= it is possible that I will not go) 

O Sue might not come to the party. 

(= it is possible that she will not come) 

may 

You can use may in the same way. I may = I might: 

O I may go to the cinema this evening. (= I might go) 

O Sue may not come to the party. (= Sue might not come) 

May I... ? = Is it OK to...?/ Can I... ?: 

O May I ask a question? (= is it OK to ask / can I ask?) 

O 'May I sit here?’ 'Yes, of course.' 


68 


f will -► Units 27-28 can -> Unit 30 


















Exercises 


Write sentences with might. 

1 (it's possible chat I'll go to the cinema) 

2 (it's possible that I'll see you tomorrow) 

3 (it's possible that Sarah will forget to phone) 

4 (it's possible that it will snow today) 

5 (it's possible that I'll be late tonight) 


. i might go to. the.cinema 

I. 


Write sentences with might not. 

6 (it's possible that Mark will not be here next week) . 

7 (it’s possible that I won't have time to go out) . 

Somebody is asking you about your plans. You have some ideas, but you are not sure. Choose 
from the list and write sentences with I might. 


fish go away I ta l y Monday a new car taxi 




You ask Ben questions about his plans for tomorrow. Sometimes he is sure, but usually he is not 
sure. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 




Ben 


Now write about Ben. Use might where necessary. 

1 . He’s playing tennis to.morrovv afternoon. . 

2 I ie might go out tomorrow evening. . 

3 He. 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 

Write three things that you might do tomorrow. 

1 . 

2 . 

3 . 
























































do 




do? 

l/we/you/they 

can 

play 


can 

l/we/you/they 

play? 

he/she/it 

can't (cannot) 

see 


he/she/it 

see? 



come etc 




come? etc 





I can do something = I know how co do it, or it is possible for me to do it: 

O I can play the piano. My brother can play the piano too. 

O Sarah can speak Italian, but she can't speak Spanish. 

O a: Can you swim? 

b: Yes, but I'm not a very good swimmer. 

O a: Can you change twenty pounds? 
b: I'm sorry, I can't. 

O I'm having a party next week, but Paul and Rachel can't come. 

For the past (yesterday / last week etc.), we use could/couldn't: 

O When I was young, I could run very fast. 

O Before Maria came to Britain, she couldn't understand much English. Now she can 
understand everything. 

O I was tired last night, but I couldn't sleep. 

O I had a party last week, but Paul and Rachel couldn't come. 

Can you ... ? Could you ... ? Can I... ? Could I... ? 

We use Can you ... ? or Could you ... ? when we ask people to do things: 

O Can you open the door, please? or Could you open the door, please? 

O Can you wait a moment, please? or Could you wait... ? 

We use Can I have ... ? or Can I get ... ? to ask for something: 

O Can I have a glass of water, please? or Can I get... ? 

Can I ? or Could I ... ? = is it OK co do something?: 

□ Can I sit here? 

O Tom, could I borrow your umbrella? 


70 


( May I... ? ■» Unit 29 






















Can you do these things? Write sentences about yourself. Use I can or I can't 

7 1. 10 . 

8 . 11 . 

9 . 12 .. 


Complete these sentences. Use can or can't + one of these verbs: 
eeme find hear see speak 


1 I’m sorry, but we cant come .to your party next Saturday. 

2 I like this hotel room. You.the mountains from the window. 

3 You are speaking very quietly. I you. 

4 Have you seen my bag? I.it. 

5 Catherine got the job because she.five languages. 

Complete these sentences. Use can't or couldn't + one of these verbs: 

decide eat find go go s leep 


1 I was tired, but I couldn't sleep . 

2 I wasn't hungry yesterday. I my dinner. 

3 Kate doesn't know what to do. She. 

4 I wanted to speak to Mark yesterday, but I.him. 

5 James.to the concert next Saturday. He has to work. 

6 Paula.to the meeting last week. She was ill. 



What do you say in these situations? Use can or could. 

. CD (open/door) GD (pass/salt)_ 



(2 (have/postcards) 





S) (turn off/radio) 


© (borrow/newspaper) 

T 


© (use/pen) 


71 






























































Unit 

31 must mustn't don't need to 


¥ \ 



B 


I must (do something) = I need to do it: 

O I'm very hungry. I must eat something. 

O It's a fantastic film. You must see it. 

□ The windows are very dirty. We must clean them. 


For the past (yesterday / last week etc.), we use had to ... (not must): 

O I was very hungry. I had to eat something. (not I must eat) 

O We had to walk home last night. There were no buses. (not We must walk) 


c 


mustn’t (= must not) 

I mustn't (do something) = it is necessary not to do it, 
it is the wrong thing to do: 

O I must go. I mustn't be late. 

O I mustn’t forget to phone Chris. 

(= I must remember to phone her) 

O Be happy! You mustn't be sad. (= don't be sad) 
O You mustn't touch the pictures. 

(= don't touch the pictures) 



D 


don't need to 


I don't need (to do something) = it is not necessary: 

O I don't need to go yet. I can stay a little longer. 

O You don't need to shout. I can hear you OK. 

You can also say don't have to ... 

O I don't have to go yet. I can stay a little longer. 

Compare don't need to and mustn't: 

O You don't need to go. You can stay here if you want. 
O You mustn't go. You must stay here. 


72 


( I have to Unit 33 


) 




























Exercises 



Complete the sentences. Use must + these verbs: 

be eat go learn meet wash win 

1 I'm very hungry. I. must eat .something. 

2 Marilyn is a very interesting person. You.her. 

3 My hands are dirty. I.them. 

4 You.to drive. It will be very useful. 

5 I.shopping. I need to buy some food. 

6 The game tomorrow is very important for us. We. 

7 You can't always have things immediately. You.patient. 

Write I must or I had to. 

1 . l.hM.tp .walk home last night. There were no buses. 

2 It's late.go now. 

3 I don't usually work on Saturdays, but last Saturday.work. 

4 .get up early tomorrow. I have a lot to do. 

5 I came here by train. The train was full and.stand all the way. 

6 I was nearly late for my appointment this morning.run to get there on time. 

7 I forgot to phone David yesterday.phone him later today. 

Complete the sentences. Use mustn't or don't need to + these verbs: 
forget ^o^ lose phone rush wait 

1 I. don’t needtogo, . home yet. I can stay a little longer. 

2 We have a lot of time. We. 

3 Keep these papers in a safe place. You.them. 

4 I'm not ready yet, but you.for me. You can go now and I'll 

come later. 

5 We.to turn off the lights before we leave. 

6 I must contact David, but I.him - I can send him an email. 


Find the sentences with the same meaning. 


1 We can leave the meeting early. 

2 We must leave the meeting early. 

3 We mustn't leave the meeting early. 

4 We had to leave the meeting early. 

5 We don't need to leave the meeting early. 


A We must stay until the end. 

B We couldn't stay until the end. 

C We can't stay until the end. 

D We can stay until the end. 

E We don't need to stay until the end. 


Write must / mustn't / had to / don't need to. 

1 You don’t need.to go. You can stay here if you want. 

2 It's a fantastic film. You. must .see it. 

3 The restaurant won't be busy tonight. We.reserve a table. 

4 I was very busy last week. I.work every evening. 

5 I want to know what happened. You.tell me. 

6 I don't want Sue to know what happened. You.tell her. 

7 I.go now or I'll be late for my appointment. 

8 'Why were you so late?' 'I.wait half an hour for a bus.' 

9 We.decide now. We can decide later. 

10 It's Lisa's birthday next week. I.forget to buy her a present. 


73 








































Unit 

32 should 



should + infinitive 

(should do / should watch etc.): 




do 

l/we/you/chey 

should 

stop 

he/she/ic 

shouldn’t 

go 

watch etc. 



You should do something = it is a good thing to do, it is the right thing to do: 
Tom doesn't study enough. He should study harder. 

It's a good film. You should go and see it. 

When you play tennis, you should always watch the ball. 

You shouldn't do something = it is not a good thing to do. 

Shouldn't = should not: 

Tom shouldn't go to bed so late. 

You watch TV all the time. You shouldn't watch TV so much. 



We often say I think should 
I think... should 

I think Lisa should buy some new clothes. 

(= I think it is a good idea.) 

It's late. I think I should go home now. 

O a: Shall I buy this coat? 

B. Yes, I think you should. 

I don't think ... should ... 

O I don't think you should work so hard. 

(= I don't think it is a good idea.) 

I don't think we should go yet. It’s too early. 

Do you think . .. should ... ?: 

O Do you think I should buy this hat? 

O What time do you think we should go home? 


(Doyou think I should buy this hat?) 

- ■— - 




Must is stronger than should: 

It's a good film. You should go and see it. 
O It's a fantastic film. You must go and see it. 



Another way to say should is ought to: 

It's a good film. You ought to go and see it. (= you should go) 
O I think Lisa ought to buy some new clothes. (= Lisa should buy) 


( shall ^ Units 27-28 must ^ Unit 31 


) 






















Exercises 



Complete the sentences. Use you should + these verbs: 

eat go take visit wat c h wear 


1 When you play tennis,. y.Qu shpuld watch .the ball. 

2 It's late and you're very tired.to bed. 

3 .plenty of fruit and vegetables. 

4 If you have time,.the Science Museum. It's very interesting. 

5 When you're driving,.a seat belt. 

6 Its too far to walk from here to the station.a taxi. 



Write about the people in the pictures. Use He/She shouldn't... so... . 


1 She .shouldn’t wal^h TV spmuch. . 3 .hard. 

2 He. 4 . 



Y° u are not sure what to do, so you ask a friend. Write questions with Do you think I should ... ? 

1 You are in a shop. You are trying on a jacket, (buy?) 

You ask your friend: . Do you ..think (should . 

2 You can't drive, (learn?) 

You ask your friend: Do you think. 

3 You don't like your job. (get another job?) 

You ask your friend: . 

4 You are going to have a party, (invite Gary?) 

You ask your friend: . 

^2^ Write sentences with I think... should ... and I don't think... should .... 

1 We have to get up early tomorrow, (go home now) 1. think we ^^ shpuld.^o.home now. . 

2 That coat is too big for you. (buy it) . {don't thinkyou^ . 

3 You don't need your car. (sell it). 

4 Karen needs a rest, (have a holiday). 

5 Sarah and Dan are too young, (get married). 

6 You're not well this morning, (go to work). 

7 James isn't well today, (go to the doctor). 

8 The hotel is too expensive for us. (stay there). 

What do you think? Write sentences with should 

1 | think. everybody should l.eann another . 

2 I think everybody. 

3 I think. 

4 I don't think. 

5 I think I should. 


75 

























































Unit 

33 


I have to 


This is my medicine. I have 
to take it three times a day. 



I have to do something = it is necessary 
for me to do it, I am obliged to do it 


l/we/you/they 

have 

to do 
to work 

he/she/it 

has 

to go 

to wear etc. 


O I'll be late for work tomorrow. I have to go to the dentist. 

O Jane starts work at 7 o'clock, so she has to get up at 6. 

O You have to pass a test before you can get a driving licence. 


The past (yesterday / last week etc) is had to ... 

O I was late for work yesterday. I had to go to the dentist. 
O We had to walk home last night. There were no buses. 


In questions and negatives we use do/does (present) and did (past): 
present 


do l/we/you/they 

have to ... ? 

does he/she/it 

past 

did 

l/we/you/they 

he/she/it 

have to ... ? 


l/we/you/they don't 


he/she/it doesn't 


have to 


l/we/you/they 

he/she/it 


didn't have to 


O What time do you have to go to the dentist tomorrow? 

O Does Jane have to work on Sundays? 

O Why did they have to leave the party early? 

I don't have to (do something) = it is not necessary to do it: 

O I'm not working tomorrow, so I don't have to get up early. 

O Ian doesn't have to work very hard. He's got an easy job. 

O We didn't have to wait very long for the bus - it came in a few minutes. 



must and have to 

You can use must or have to when you say what you think is necessary, when you give your opinion: 
O It's a fantastic film. You must see it. or You have to see it. 

When you are not giving your personal opinion, use have to (not must). Compare: 

□ Jane won't be at work this afternoon. She has to go to the doctor. 

(this is not my personal opinion - it is a fact) 

O Jane isn't well. She doesn't want to go to the doctor, but I told her she must go. 

(this is my personal opinion) 


( must / mustn't / don't need to -» Unit 31 





































Exercises 


Complete the sentences. Use have to or has to + these verbs: 

do hit read speak travel wear 

1 My eyes are not very good. I. have to wear. glasses. 

2 At the end of the course all the students.a test. 

3 Sarah is studying literature. She.a lot of books. 

4 Albert doesn’t understand much English. You.very slowly to him. 

5 Kate is often away from home. She.a lot in her job. 

6 In tennis you. the ball over the net. 

Complete the sentences. Use have to or had to + these verbs: 

answer buy change go walk 


1 We had to walk. home last night. There were no buses. 

2 It's late. I.now. I'll see you tomorrow. 

3 I went to the supermarket after work yesterday. I.some food. 

4 This train doesn't go all the way to London. You.at Bristol. 

5 We did an exam yesterday. We.six questions out of ten. 


Complete the questions. Some are present and some are past. 


/L 


1 

/ N 

1 have co gee up early tomorrow. 


^What time do you have to qet up ? N 

2 

George had co wait a long time. 


How long.? 

3 

Lisa has to go somewhere. 


Where.? 

4 

We had co pay a lot of money. 


How much.? 

5 

1 have to do some work. 

^ J 


What exactly.? 


Write sentences with don't/doesn't/didn’t have to .... 

1 Why are you going out? You. don’t have to QQ.out. 

2 Why is Sue waiting? She. 

3 Why did you get up early? You. 

4 Why is Paul working so hard? He 

5 Why do you want to leave now? We 


Which is correct? Sometimes must and have to are both correct. Sometimes only one is correct. 


1 It's a fantastic film. You must see / have to see it. (both are correct ) 

2 Jessica won't be at work this afternoon. She must go / has to go to the doctor. 

(has to go is correct) 

3 You can't park your car here for nothing. You must pay / have to pay . 

4 I didn't have any money with me last night, so I must borrow / had to borrow some. 

5 I eat too much chocolate. I really must stop / have to stop . 

6 Paul is in a hurry. He must meet / has to meet somebody in five minutes. 

7 What's wrong? You must tell / have to tell me. I want to help you. 


Write some things that you (or your friends or family) have to do or had to do. 

1 (every day) I have to travel ten miles every day. . 

2 (everyday) . 

3 (yesterday) . 

4 (tomorrow) . 













































Unit 

34 Would you like ... ? I'd like ... 



Would you like ... ? = Do you want... ? 

We use Would you like . .. ? to offer things: 

O a: Would you like some coffee? 
b: No, thank you. 

O a: Would you like a chocolate? 
b: Yes, please. 

O a: What would you like, tea or coffee? 
b: Tea, please. 



We use Would you like to ... ? to invite somebody: 

O Would you like to go for a walk? 

O a: Would you like to eat with us on Sunday? 

b: Yes, I'd love to. (= I would love to eat with you) 
O What would you like to do this evening? 


I'd like ... is a polite way to say 1 want'. I'd like = I would like: 

O I'm thirsty. I'd like a drink. 

O (in a tourist office) I'd like some information about hotels, please. 
O I'm feeling tired. I'd like to stay at home this evening. 


— i 

c 


Would you like . . . ? and Do you like . .. ? 


Would you like ... ?/ I'd like ... 



Would you like some tea? = Do you want 
some tea? 

O a: Would you like to go to the cinema 
tonight? 

(= do you want to go tonight ?) 
b: Yes, I'd love to. 

O I'd like an orange, please. 

(= can I have an orange?) 


Do you like ... ? /1 like ... 



Do you like tea? = Do you think tea is nice? 


O a: Do you like going to the cinema? 
(in general) 

b: Yes, I go to the cinema a lot. 

O I like oranges, (in general) 



O 


What would you like to do next O What do you like to do at weekends? 

weekend? 


( like to do and like -ing^ Unit 52 I would do something if. Unit 100 




























Exercises 

What are the people in the pictures saying? Use Would you like... ? 



What do you say to Sue in these situations? Use Would you like to ... ? 

1 You want to go to the cinema tonight. Perhaps Sue will go with you. (go) 

You say: . 

2 You want to play tennis tomorrow. Perhaps Sue will play too. (play) 

You say: . 

3 You have an extra ticket for a concert next week. Perhaps Sue will come, (come) 

You say: . 

4 It's raining and Sue is going out. She doesn't have an umbrella, but you have one. (borrow) 

You say: . 

Which is right? 

1 ' Do you l ik e- / Would you like a chocolate?' 'Yes, please.' ( Would you like is right ) 

2 ' Do you like / Would you like bananas?' 'Yes, I love them.' 

3 ' Do you like / Would you like an ice cream?' 'No, thank you.' 

4 'What do you like / would you like to drink?' 'A glass of water, please' 

5 ' Do you like / Would you like to go out for a walk?' 'Not now. Perhaps later.' 

6 I like / I'd like tomatoes, but I don't eat them very often. 

7 What time do you like / would you like to have dinner this evening? 

8 ' Do you like / Would you like something to eat?' 'No, thanks. I'm not hungry.' 

9 ' Do you like / Would you like your new job?' 'Yes, I'm enjoying it.' 

10 I'm tired. I like / I'd like to go to sleep now. 

11 ' I like / I'd like a sandwich, please.' 'Sure. What kind of sandwich?' 

12 'What kind of music do you like / would you like ?' 'All kinds.' 






































































Do this! Don't do that! Let's do this! 



We use come/look/go/wait/be etc. when we tell somebody to do something: 

O 'Come here and look at this!' 'What is it?' 

O I don't want to talk to you. Co away! 

O I'm not ready yet. Please wait for me. 

O Please be quiet. I'm working. 

also 

O Bye! Have a good holiday! / Have a nice time! / Have a good flight! / Have fun! 
(= I hope you have a good holiday etc.) 

’Have a chocolate.' 'Oh, thanks.' 

(= would you like a chocolate?) 

We use don’t ... when we tell somebody not to do something: 

O Be careful! Don’t fall. 

O Please don’t go. Stay here with me. 

Be here on time. Don’t be late. 

You can say Let’s ... when you want people to do things with you. 

O It's a nice day. Let's go out. 

(-you and I can go out) 

) Come on! Let's dance. 

(= you and I can dance) 

Are you ready? Let’s go. 

Let’s have fish for dinner tonight. 

O a: Shall we go out tonight? 

b: No, I'm tired. Let's stay at home. 

The negative is Let’s not... 

It's cold. Let’s not go out. Let's stay at home. 

O Let’s not have fish for dinner tonight. Let's have chicken. 


Let’s = Let us. 



















Exercises 


Look at the pictures. What are the people saying? Some sentences are positive (buy/come etc.) 
and some are negative (don't buy / don't come etc.). Use these verbs: 

be buy com e -drink drop forget have sit sleep smile 



Complete the sentences. Use let's with: 
g o - for - a - s wi m go to a restaurant 


take a taxi wait a little watch TV 


/L 


1 

( \ 
Would you like to play tennis? 


*No lets go for a swim 

2 

Do you want to walk home? 


No,. 

3 

Shall 1 put a CD on? 


No.. 

4 

Shall we eat at home? 


No,. 

5 

^ Would you like to go now? J 


P°' ..":!.v 


Answer with No, don't ... or No, let's not. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 














































































Unit 

36 | used to ... 



Dave used to work in a factory. Now he works in a supermarket. 


he used to work 

he works 




past now 

Dave used to work in a factory = he worked in a factory before, but he doesn't work there now. 


B 


You can say I used to work ... / she used to have ... / they used to be ... etc.: 




be 

l/you/we/they 

used to 

work 

he/she/it 

have 



play etc. 



When I was a child, I used to like chocolate. 

I used to read a lot of books, but I don’t read 
much these days. 

Lisa has got short hair now, but it used to be 
very long. 

They used to live in the same street as us, so 
we used to see them a lot. But we don't see 
them much these days. 

Helen used to have a piano, but she sold it a 
few years ago. 

The negative is I didn’t use to ... 

When I was a child, I didn’t use to like tomatoes. 

The question is did you use to ... ?: 

Where did you use to live before you came here? 

We use used to ... only for the past. You cannot say 'I use to ...’ for the present: 
I used to play tennis. These days I play golf, (not I use to play golf) 
We usually get up early. (not We use to get up early) 



























Exercises 


Unit 

36 


Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences with used to ... . 



5 he used.to have . 


longhair. 



He. 

football. 



tfu* iwlne 


We live in London now/) 



This is me 20 years ago. 

I never wear glasses now. 


in the country. 



Karen works very hard and has very little free time. A few years ago, things were different. 




Karen a few years ago 

_ /L 




Do you do any sport? 

Do you go out much?- 

Do you play a musical- 
instrument? 
Do you like reading?- 
Do you travel much?- 


♦-Yes, I swim every day and 
I play volleyball. 


♦-Yes, most evenings. 
♦-Yes, the guitar. 


*-Yes, I read a lot. 


♦-Yes, I go away two or three 
times a year. 



Karen now 


l work very hard in 
my job. I don't have 
any free time. 


Write sentences about Karen with used to ... . 

1 . She used to swim every da y . 4 

2 She. 5 

3 . 6 


Complete these sentences. Use used to or the present simple (I play / he lives etc.). 

1 I. M^ed tp.pl,ay tennis. I stopped playing a few years ago. 

'Do you do any sport?' 'Yes, I. play basketball.' 

'Do you have a car?' ’No, I.one, but I sold it.' 

George.a waiter. Now he’s the manager of a hotel. 

'Do you go to work by car?' ’Sometimes, but most days I.by train.' 

6 When I was a child, I never.meat, but I eat it now. 

7 Mary loves watching TV. She.TV every evening. 

8 We .near the airport, but we moved to the city centre a few years ago. 

Normally I start work at 7 o’clock, so I.up very early. 


10 What games.you. 


when you were a child? 


83 
































































































Unit 

37 


there is there are 


rrmri 


There’s a man on the roof. 



There's a train at 10.30. 


SUNDAY 
MONDAY 
TUESDAY 
WEDNESDAY 
THURSDAY 
FRIDAY 
SATURDAY 


There are seven days in a week. 


singular 


there is ... 

(there's) 

is there . ? 


there is not... 

(there isn't 


or there’s not) 


plural 


there are 


are there. . . ? 


there are not .. 

(there aren’t) 


there is and it is 


there is 


There’s a big tree in the garden. 

There's nothing on TV tonight. 
a: Do you have any money? 
b: Yes, there's some in my bag. 
a: Excuse me, is there a hotel near here? 
b: Yes, there is. / No, there isn’t. 

We can't go skiing. There isn’t any snow. 

There are some big trees in the garden. 

There are a lot of accidents on this road. 
a: Are there any restaurants near here? 
b: Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t. 

This restaurant is very quiet. There aren’t many 
people here. 

How many players are there in a football team? 
There are 11 players in a football team. 


it is 





There's a book on the table, 
(i not It's a book on the table.) 


I like this book . It’s interesting. 
(It = this book) 


Compare: 

'What's that noise?' 'It's a train.' (It = that noise) 

There’s a train at 10.30. It’s a fast train. (It = the 10.30 Crain) 

There's a lot of salt in this soup. 

is soup. Its too salty. (It = this soup) 


84 


( there was / were / has been etc. -» Unit 38 it and there -> Unit 39 some and any -» Unit 76 


) 



































Exercises 


Kentham is a small town. Look at the information in the box and write sentences about Kentham 
with There is/are or There isn't/aren't. 


1 

a castle? 

No 

1 

There isn't a castie. 

2 

any restaurants? 

Yes (a lot) 

2 

There are a lot of restaurants. 

3 

a hospital? 

Yes 

3 


4 

a swimming pool? 

No 

4 


5 

any cinemas? 

Yes (two) 

5 . 


6 

a university? 

No 

6 . 


7 

any big hotels? 

No 

7 



Write sentences about your town (or a town that you know). Use There is/are or There isn’t/ 
aren't. 

1 . There ane ajwry&tauifflt&i . 

2 . There s a big park. . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 


Write there is / there isn't / is there or there are / there aren’t / are there. 

1 Kentham isn’t an old town. There aren’t .any old buildings. 

2 Look! .a picture of your brother in the newspaper! 

3 'Excuse me, a bank near here?' 'Yes, at the end of the street.' 

4 five people in my family: my parents, my two sisters and me. 

5 'How many students.in the class?' 'Twenty.' 

6 The road is usually very quiet.much traffic. 

7 ' a bus from the city centre to the airport?' 'Yes, every 20 minutes.’ 

8 '.any problems?' 'No, everything is OK.' 

9 .nowhere to sit down.any chairs. 


Write sentences with There are... . Choose from the boxes. 


seven 

twenty-six 

letters 

ir 

uuyj 

September 

the solar system 

eight 

thirty 

players 

days 

the USA 

a week 

fifteen 

fifty 

planets 

states 

a rugby team 

the English alphabet 


1 There are seven days in a week. 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 


Write there's / is there or it's / is it. 

1 '. There’s. a train at 10.30.' '. (s it .a fast train?' 

2 I'm not going to buy this shirt.too expensive. 

3 'What's wrong?' '.something in my eye.' 

4 .a red car outside your house.yours? 

5 '.anything good on TV tonight?' 'Yes,.a programme I 

want to see at 8.15.' 

6 'What's that building?' '.a school.' 

7 '. a restaurant in this hotel?' 'No, I'm afraid not.' 




















































there was/were there has/have been 
38 there will be 


there was / there were (past) 


TICKET OFFICE 

TRAINS 

l 

WM 

0 00 12 
10.00 

111.0 

i2.no 

There is a train every hour. 

r ifsn 

n oo 

14 00 

15 00 

The time now is 11.15. 

There was a train at 11 o’clock. 


Compare: 

there is/are (present) 

O There is nothing on TV tonight. 

□ We are staying at a very big hotel. 

There are 550 rooms. 

O Is everything OK? Are there any 
problems? 

O I’m hungry, but there isn't anything 
to eat. 


there was/were (past) 

O There was nothing on TV last night. 
O We stayed at a very big hotel. 

There were 550 rooms. 

O Was everything OK yesterday? Were 
there any problems? 

O I was hungry when I got home, but 
there wasn't anything to eat. 


B 


there has been / there have been (present perfect) 




There's been 
an accident. 


O Look! There's been an accident. 

(there's been = there has been) 

O This road is very dangerous. There have 
been many accidents. 

Compare there was (past): 

O There was an accident last night 

(not There has been an accident last night.) 

For past simple and present perfect, see Unit 20. 


c 


there will be 



86 



There will be rain 
tomorrow afternoon 


O Do you think there will be a lot of people at 
the party on Saturday? 

O The manager of the company is leaving, so 
there will be a new manager soon. 

O I'm going away tomorrow. I'll do my 

packing today because there won't be time 
tomorrow. 

(there won't be = there will not be) 


was/were -4 Unit 10 has/have been -4 Units 15-18 will -4 Unit 27 there is/are 4 1 Unit 37 
there and it -4 Units 37, 39 some and any -4 Unit 76 


















Exercises 


Look at the two pictures. Now the room is empty, but what was in the room last week? Choose 
from the box and write sentences with There was ... or There were ... . 

an armchair a carpet some flowers a sofa 

some books -a-doek- three pictures a small table 



1 There was a clock, 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 


on the wall near the window, 
on the floor. 

on the wall near the door, 
in the middle of the room, 
on the table, 
on the shelves, 
in the corner near the door, 
opposite the armchair. 


Write there was / there wasn't / was there or there were / there weren’t / were there. 

1 I was hungry, but There wasn’t anything to eat. 

2 Was everything OK yesterday? . Were.there .any problems? 

3 I opened the envelope, but it was empty. .nothing in it. 

4 'We stayed at a very nice hotel.' 'Really?.a swimming pool?' 

5 'Did you buy any bananas?' 'No,.any in the shop.' 

6 The wallet was empty. .any money in it. 

7 '. many people at the meeting?’ 'No, very few.’ 

8 We didn't visit the museum.enough time. 

9 I'm sorry I'm late.a lot of traffic. 

10 Twenty years ago many tourists here. Now there are a lot. 

Write there + is / are / was / were / has been / have been / will be. 

1 There was a good film on TV last night. 

2 24 hours in a day. 

3 a party at the club last Friday, but I didn't go. 

4 'Where can I get something to eat?’ ' a cafe at the end of the street.' 

5 'Why are the police outside the bank?' '.a robbery.' 

6 When we arrived at the theatre,.a long queue outside. 

7 When you arrive tomorrow,.*.somebody at the station to meet you. 

8 Ten years ago 500 children at the school. Now 

more than a thousand. 

9 Last week I went back to the town where I was born. It's very different now. 

a lot of changes. 

10 I think everything will be OK. I don't think any problems. 






































Unit 

39 


We use it for time/day/distance/weather: 


time 



day 


distance 
00 ur house 

• i 

• 

% \ 

*, \ 3 Kilometres 

% X. 

% X. 

% X 

city centre 


o 


What time is it? 

It’s half past ten. 

It’s late. 

It’s time to go home. 


What day is it? 

It's Thursday. 

It's 16 March. 

It was my birthday yesterday. 


It's three kilometres from our house to the city centre. 

3 How far is it from New York to Los Angeles? 

It’s a long way from here to the station. 

_ We can walk home. It isn't far. 

We use far in questions (is it far?) and negatives (it isn't far). 
In positive sentences, we use a long way (it's a long way). 


weather 


/ / / / / / / t / / / /1 / / / / /1 / 
//////////////////// 
//////////////////✓/ 

/ t / / 11 / 111 /11 / / t /1 / / 

/1 / f / 111 / / / f / / / / / / / / 

/ / 1 //////////// 1itft 
tttuttttttttuttut 


It's raining. It isn't raining. Is it snowing? 

It rains a lot here. It didn't rain yesterday. Does it snow very often? 
It's warm/hot/cold/fine/cloudy/windy/sunny/foggy/dark etc. 

It's a nice day today. 


Compare it and there: 

It rains a lot in winter. 

There is a lot of rain in winter. 

O it was very windy. 

There was a strong wind yesterday. 

It’s nice to ... etc. 

easy / difficult / impossible / dangerous / safe / 
expensive / interesting / nice / wonderful / terrible etc. 

O It’s nice to see you again. 

O It's impossible to understand her. 

O It wasn't easy to find your house. 

Don’t forget it: 

O It's raining again, (not Is raining again) 

O Is it true that you’re going away? (not Is true that...) 


to 


88 


( there is ■ 


Unit 37 

















Exercises 



1 It e raining. 

2 . 

3 . 


4 

5 

6 


Write it is (it's) or is it. 

1 What time. js.it .? 

2 We have to go now.very late. 

3 .true that Ben can fly a helicopter? 

4 'What day.today? Tuesday?' 'No,.Wednesday.' 

5 .ten kilometres from the airport to the city centre. 

6 .OK to call you at your office? 

7 'Do you want to walk to the hotel?' 'I don't know. How far.?' 

8 .Lisa's birthday today. She's 27. 

9 I don't believe it! .impossible. 


| Write questions with How far... ? 

1 (here / the station) How far is.it fromhere 

2 (the hotel / the beach) How. 

3 (New York / Washington) 

4 (your house / the airport) . 

Write it or there. 

1 The weather isn't so nice today. IT .'s cloudy. 

2 . There. was a strong wind yesterday. 

3 .'s hot in this room. Open a window. 

4 .was a nice day yesterday.was warm and sunny. 

5 .was a storm last night. Did you hear it? 

6 I was afraid because.was very dark. 

7 .'$ often cold here, but.isn't much rain. 

8 .'s a long way from here to the nearest shop. 


Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes. 

easy dangerous work here 

it's difficult nice to visit different places 

impossible interesting see you again 


go out alone 
make friends 


1 If you go to bed late, iT’s.difficujt .to.get up early in the morning. 


2 Hello, Jane. How are you? 

3 . There is too much noise. 


4 Everybody is very nice at work. 

5 I like travelling. 

6 Some cities are not safe. 


at night. 

























































Unit 

40 I am, I don't etc. 




She isn't tired, but he is. 
(he is = he is tired) 


He likes tea, but she doesn't 
(she doesn't = she doesn't like tea) 


In these examples, it is not necessary to repeat some words ('he is tired, 'she doesn't like ted). 


You can use these verbs in the same way: 

O 
O 


am/is/are 

was/were 

have/has 

do/does/did 

can 

will 

might 

must 


l haven't got a car, but my sister has. (= my sister has got a car) 
a: Please help me. 
b: I'm sorry. I can't (= I can't help you) 

O a: Are you tired? 

b: I was, but I'm not now. (= I was tired, but I'm not tired now) 
O a: Do you think Laura will come and see us? 

b: She might. (= she might come) 

□ a: Are you going now? 

b: Yes, I'm afraid I must. (= I must go) 



We don't use 'm/'s/'ve etc (shortforms) in this way. You must use am/is/have etc: 
O She isn't tired, but he is. (not but he's) 

But you can use isn't / haven't / won't etc. (negative short forms): 

O My sister has got a car, but I haven't. 

O 'Are you and Jane working tomorrow?' 'I am, but Jane isn't.' 

You can use I am / I'm not etc. after Yes and No: 

O Are you tired?' 'Yes, I am. / No, I'm not.' 

O 'Will Alan be here tomorrow?' 'Yes, he will. / No, he won't.' 

O 'Is there a bus to the airport?' 'Yes, there is. / No, there isn't.' 

We use do/does for the present simple (—> Units 6-7): 

O I don't like hot weather, but Sue does. (= Sue likes hot weather) 

O Sue works hard, but I don't. (= I don't work hard) 

'Do you enjoy your work?' 'Yes, I do.' 

We use did for the past simple (—» Unit 12): 

O a: Did you and Chris enjoy the film? 

b: I did, but Chris didn't. (= I enjoyed it, but Chris didn't enjoy it) 

O 'I had a good time.' 'I did too.' (= I enjoyed it too) 

'Did it rain yesterday?' 'No, it didn't.' 


f have you? / don't you? etc Unit 41 so am I / neither am I etc Unit 42 











Unit 

40 


Exercises 

^2^ Complete these sentences. Use only one verb (is/have/can etc.) each time. 

1 Kate wasn't hungry, but we. were . 4 I haven't seen the film, but Tom 

2 I’m not married, but my brother. 5 Karen won't be here, but Chris... 

3 Ben can’t help you, but 1. 6 You weren't late, but I. 

Complete these sentences with a negative verb (isn’t/haven’t/can't etc.). 

1 My sister can play the piano, but I can’t . 4 Mark has been to China, but I 

2 Sam is working today, but 1. 5 I'm ready to go, but Tom. 

3 I was working, but my friends.. 6 I've got a key, but Sarah. 

Complete these sentences with do/does/did or don’t/doesn’t/didn’t. 

1 I don’t like hot weather, but Sue. does . 

2 Sue likes hot weather, but I. don't . 

3 My mother wears glasses, but my father. 

4 You don't know Paul very well, but I. 

5 I didn't enjoy the party, but my friends. 

6 I don't watch TV much, but Peter. 

7 Kate lives in London, but her parents. 

8 You had breakfast this morning, but I. 

^231 Complete the sentences. Write about yourself and other people. 

1 | didn't. go out last night, but my friends did, . 


2 I like., but 

3 I don’t., but 

4 I'm. 


5 I haven’t. 

^^J| Put in a verb, positive or negative. 

1 'Are you tired?' 'I. was .earlier, but I'm not now.' 

2 Steve is happy today, but he.yesterday. 

3 The bank isn't open yet, but the shops. 

4 I haven't got a telescope, but I know somebody who. 

5 I would like to help you, but I'm afraid I. 

6 I don't usually go to work by car, but I.yesterday. 

7 a: Have you ever been to the United States? 

B: No, but Sandra. She went there on holiday last year. 

8 'Do you and Chris watch TV a lot?’ ‘I., but Chris doesn’t.' 

9 I've been invited to Sam’s wedding, but Kate. 

10 'Do you think Sarah will pass her driving test?' 'Yes, I’m sure she. 

11 'Are you going out tonight?' ‘I. I don't know for sure.' 

Answer these questions about yourself. Use Yes, I have. / No, I'm not. etc. 

1 Are you American? . No, I’m not. . 

2 Have you got a car? . 

3 Do you feel OK? 

4 Is it snowing? 

5 Are you hungry? . 

6 Do you like classical music? . 

7 Will you be in Paris tomorrow? . 

8 Have you ever broken your arm? 

9 Did you buy anything yesterday? . 

10 Were you asleep at 3 a.m.? 


91 





























































Unit 

41 


Have you? Are you? Don’t you? etc. 


; bought a new car/) 


i writing a 


book/) 







(Are you really? What about? 


( Don't you? Why not? 


You can say have you? / is it? / can't he? etc. to show that you are interested or surprised: 
O 'You’re late.' 'Oh, am I? I'm sorry.' 

'I was ill last week.’ 'Were you? I didn’t know that.' 

'It’s raining again.’ 'Is it? It was sunny ten minutes ago.' 

'There's a problem with the car.' 'Is there? What’s wrong with it?' 

O 

□ 

O 


'Bill can't drive.' 'Can't he? I didn't know that.’ 
'I'm not hungry.' 'Aren't you? I am.' 

'Sue isn't at work today.’ 'Isn't she? Is she ill?' 


Use do/does for the present simple, and did for the past simple: 

'I speak four languages.' 'Do you? Which ones?' 

O 'Ben doesn't eat meat.' 'Doesn't he? Does he eat fish?' 
O 'Nicola got married last week.' 'Did she? Really?' 


Question tags 

You can use have you? / is it? / can't she? etc. 
at the end of a sentence. 

These 'mini-questions' are question tags. 


Jt's a beautiful day, isn t it?^ 





positive sentence —> negative question tag 


/L 


f 

It's a beautiful day, 

- N 

isn't it? 


Yes, it's perfect. 

> 

Kate lives in London, 

doesn't she? 


Yes, that's right. 


You closed the window, 

didn't you? 


Yes, 1 think so. 


Those shoes are nice, 

aren't they? 


Yes, very nice 


Tom will be here soon, 

v .. . ... .... 

won’t he? ^ 


Yes, probably. 



negative sentence —> positive question tag 

_S\_. / I 


That isn’t your car, is it? 

You haven't met my mother, have you? 
Helen doesn't go out much, does she? 
You won't be late, will you? 


No, it's my mother’s. 
No, I haven't. 

No, she doesn't. 

No, I'm never late. 


( I am / I don’t etc. ^ Unit 40 


92 








































Exercises 


Answer with Do you? / Doesn't she? / Did they? etc. 



Answer with Have you? / Haven’t you? / Did she? / Didn’t she? etc. 


/L 


1 

f \ 

I've bought a new car. 
Tim doesn't eat meat. 


Have you 

? What make is it? 

\ 

2 


. Qoeenthe .? Does he eat fish? 


3 

I've lost my key. 



.? When did you last have it? 

4 

Sue can't drive. 



.? She should learn. 


5 

1 was born in Italy. 



.? 1 didn't know that. 


6 

1 didn't sleep well last night. 



.? Was the bed uncomfortable? 

7 

There's a film on TV tonight. 



.? Are you going to watch it? 

8 

I'm not happy. 



.? Why not? 


9 

1 saw Paula last week. 



.? How is she? 


10 

Maria works in a factory. 



.? What kind of factory? 


11 

1 won't be here next week. 



.? Where will you be? 


12 

^ The clock isn’t working, A 


k. 

.? It was working yesterday. 

1 Complete these sentences with a question tag (isn't it? / haven't you? etc.). 



\\ 


/L 


1 

It's a beautiful day,. !.snt it 

? 


Yes, its perfect. 


2 

These flowers are nice,. 

? 


Yes, what are they? 


3 

jane was at the party,. 

? 


Yes, but 1 didn't speak to her. 


4 

You've been to Paris,. 

? 


Yes, many times. 


5 

You speak German,. 

? 


Yes, but not very well. 


6 

Martin looks tired,. 

? 


Yes, he works very hard. 


7 

You'll help me,. 

? 

_ J 


Yes, of course 1 will, 
v. J 



Complete these sentences with a question tag, positive (is it? / do you? etc.) or negative (isn't it? / 
don't you? etc.). 

















































too/either so am I / neither do I etc. 


too and either 



We use too and either at the end of a sentence. 


We use too after a positive verb: 

j We use either after a negative verb: 

O a: I'm happy. 

O a: I'm not happy. 

b: I'm happy too. 

b: I'm not happy either 

O a: 1 enjoyed the film. 

O a: 1 can't cook. 

b: 1 enjoyed it too 

b: 1 can't either 

O Jane is a doctor. Her husband is a 

O Ben doesn’t watch TV. He doesn’t 


doctor too. read newspapers either 


so am I / neither do I etc 




am/is/are... 
was/were... 

so 

do/does 

did 

have/has... 

neither 

can... 

will 

would... 



so am I = I am too 
so have I = I have too (etc): 

O a: I'm working. 

b: So am I. (= I'm working too) 

O a: I was late for work today. 

b: So was Sam. 

O a: I work in a bank. 
b: So do I. 

O a: We went to the cinema last night. 

b: Did you? So did we. 

O a: I'd like to go to Australia. 

b: So would I. 


neither am I = I'm not either 
neither can I = I can't either (etc.): 

O a: I haven't got a key. 

b: Neither have I. (= I haven't either) 

O a: Kate can't cook. 

b: Neither can Tom. 

O a: I won't (= will not) be here 
tomorrow. 
b: Neither will I. 

O a: I never go to the cinema. 
b: Neither do I. 

You can also use Nor (= Neither): 

O a: I'm not married 

b: Noram I. or Neither ami. 


Remember: So am I (not So I am). Neither have I (not Neither I have). 

[ I am /1 don't etc. -4 Unit 40 
























Exercises 


Write too or either. 



Answer with So... I (So am I / So do I / So can I etc.). 



Answer with Neither... I. 

V\ 


7 

8 
9 

10 

11 


I can't go to the party. 
I didn't phone Alex last night. 

I haven't got any money 
I'm not going out tomorrow. 
I don’t know what to do. 



You are talking to Maria. Write sentences about yourself. Where possible, use So ... I or 
Neither... I. Look at these examples carefully: 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 


1 cired today.) 

don’t work hard) 


Maria 


I'm learning English. 
I can ride a bike. 
I'm not American. 
I like cooking. 
I don't like cold weather. 
I slept well last night. 
I've never run a marathon. 
I don't use my phone much. 
I'm going out tomorrow evening. 
I haven't been to Scotland. 
I didn't watch TV last night. 
I go to the cinema a lot. 


You can answer: 

So am 1. 

or 1 m not. 

You can answer: 

Neither do 1. 

or 1 do. 




























































isn't, haven't, don't etc (negatives) 


We use not (n't) in negative sentences: 
positive —> negative 


am 

am not ('m not) 

is 

is not (isn’t or 's not) 

are 

are not (aren’t or 're not) 

was 

was not (wasn’t) 

were 

were not (weren't) 

have 

have not (haven't) 

has 

has not (hasn't) 

will 

will not (won't) 

can 

cannot (can't) 

could 

could not (couldn't) 

must 

must not (mustn't) 

should 

should not (shouldn't) 

would 

would not (wouldn't) 


O I'm not tired. 

O It isn't (or It's not) raining. 

O They aren’t (or They're not) here. 
O Julian wasn't hungry. 

O The shops weren’t open. 

O I haven't finished my work. 

O Sue hasn't got a car. 

O We won't be here tomorrow. 

O George can't drive. 

O I couldn't sleep last night. 

O I mustn’t forget to phone Jane. 

O You shouldn't work so hard. 

O I wouldn’t like to be an actor. 


don't/doesn't/didn't 

present simple negative 


l/we/you/they 

he/she/it 


do not (don't) 
does not (doesn't) 


past simple negative l/they/he/she etc. did not (didn’t) 


positii/e 


negative 

1 want to go out. 


1 don't want to go out. 

They work hard. 


They don't work hard. 

Lisa plays the guitar. 

-> 

Lisa doesn't play the guitar. 

My father likes his job. 

-> 

My father doesn't like his job. 

1 got up early this morning. 

—^ 

1 didn't get up early this morning. 

They worked hard yesterday. 


They didn't work hard yesterday. 

We played tennis. 


We didn't play tennis. 

Emily had dinner with us. 

—^ 

Emily didn't have dinner with us. 

Don't 

Look! 

—> 

Don’t look! 

Wait for me. 


Don’t wait for me. 

Sometimes do is the main verb (don't do / doesn't do / didn't do): 

Do something! 


Don't do anything! 

Sue does a lot at weekends. 


Sue doesn't do much at weekends. 

1 did what you said. 


1 didn't do what you said. 



"" present simple (negative) -* Unit 6 past simple (negative) •+ Unit 12 
don't look / don't wait etc. Unit 35 Why isn't/don’t 7 Unit 44 


















Exercises 


Make these sentences negative. 

1 He's gone away. . He hasn’t gone away. 

2 They're married. 

3 I've had dinner. . 


4 It’s cold today. 

5 We’ll be late. 

6 You should go. 


Make these sentences negative. Use don't/doesn't/didn't. 


1 She saw me. She didn’t see me. . 4 He lives here. 

2 I like cheese. 5 Go away! . 

3 They understood. 6 I did the shopping. 



Make these sentences negative. 

1 She can swim. . She.can’t swim. . 6 He’ll be pleased. 

2 They've arrived. . 7 Call me tonight. ... 

3 I went to the bank. . 8 It rained yesterday. 

4 He speaks German. 9 I could hear them. 

5 We were angry. . 10 I believe you. . 


Complete these sentences with a negative verb (isn't/haven't/don’t etc.). 

1 They aren't rich. They. haven't .got much money. 

2 'Would you like something to eat?’ ‘No, thank you. I.hungry.’ 

3 I.find my glasses. Have you seen them? 

4 Steve.go to the cinema much. He prefers to watch DVDs at home. 

5 We can walk to the station from here. It.very far. 

6 'Where's Jane?' 'I.know. I.seen her today.’ 

7 Be careful! .fall! 

8 We went to a restaurant last night. I.like the food very much. 

9 I’ve been to Japan many times, but I.been to Korea. 

10 Julia.be here tomorrow. She’s going away. 

11 ‘Who broke that window?’ 'Not me. I.do it.’ 

12 We didn’t see what happened. We.looking at the time. 

13 Lisa bought a new coat a few days ago, but she.worn it yet. 

14 You.drive so fast. It's dangerous. 


You ask Gary some questions. He answers 'Yes’ or ‘No’. Write sentences about Gary, positive 
or negative. 

• • 

Gary 


You 

Yv 

A 

JM 

s 

Are you married? 


No 

i 

Do you live in London? 


Yes. 

2 

Were you born in London? 


No. 

3 

Do you like London? 


No. 

4 

Would you like to live in the country? 


Yes. 

5 

Can you drive? 


Yes. 

6 

Have you got a car? 


No. 

7 

Do you read newspapers? 


No. 

8 

Are you interested in politics? 


No. 

9 

Do you watch TV most evenings? 


Yes. 

10 

Did you watch TV last night? 


No. 

11 

Did you go out last night? j 


[YesJ 

12 


He.isn't.married, 
He lives In London. 
























































do they... ? etc. 


is it... ? have you ... ? 

(questions 1) 


positive you are You are eating. 

X 

question are you Are you eating? What are you eating? 

In questions, the first verb (is/are/have etc.) is before the subject: 


positive question 

subject + verb verb + subject 


1 

am late. 


Am 

1 late? 

That seat 

is free. 

—» 

Is 

that seat free? 

She 

was angry. 


Why was 

she angry? 

David 

has gone. 

— » 

Where has 

David gone? 

You 

have got a car. 

— » 

Have 

you got a car? 

They 

will be here soon. 


When will 

they be here? 

Paula 

can swim. 

-» 

Can 

Paula swim? 


Remember: the subject is after the first verb. 

O Where has David gone? (not Where has gone David?) 

O Are those people waiting for something? (not Are waiting... ?) 

O When was the telephone invented? (not When was invented ... ?) 


do ... ? / does ... ? / did ... ? 


present simple questions 

do 

does 

l/we/you/they 

he/she/it 

work/live/go etc.. .. ? 

past simple questions 

did 

l/they/he/she etc. 



positive question 


They work hard. 


Do they work hard? 

You watch television. 


How often do you watch television? 

Chris works hard. 

—> 

Does Chris work hard? 

She gets up early. 


What time does she get up? 

They worked hard. 

—> 

Did they work hard? 

You had dinner. 


What did you have for dinner? 

She got up early. 

—> 

What time did she get up? 


Sometimes do is the main verb (do you do / did he do etc.): 

O What do you usually do at weekends? 

O a: What does your brother do? 

b: He works in a bank. 

O a: I broke my finger last week. 

b: How did you do that? (not How did you that?) 

Why isn't... ? / Why don't ... ? etc. (Why + negative): 

O Where's John? Why isn't he here? (not Why he isn't here?) 

O Why can't Paula come to the meeting tomorrow? (not Why Paula can't... ?) 
O Why didn’t you phone me last night? 


"" present simple questions Unit 7 past simple questions Unit 12 questions 2-3 ^ Units 45-46 
what/which/how ^ Units 47-48 _ 












Exercises 



Write questions. 


1 1 can swim. 

(and you?) 

2 1 work hard. 

(and Jack?) 

3 1 was late this morning. 

(and you?) 

4 I've got a key. 

(and Kate?) 

5 I'll be here tomorrow. 

(and you?) 

6 I'm going out this evening. 

(and Paul?) 

7 Hike my job. 

(and you?) 

8 1 live near here. 

(and Nicola?) 

9 1 enjoyed the film. 

(and you?) 

10 1 had a good holiday. 

(and you?) 


Can you swim?. . 

Does Jack work hard? 



Make questions with these words. Put the words in the right order. 

1 (has / gone / where / David?) . Where has David gone?. . 

2 (working / Rachel / is / today?) !.§.Rachel vyorking today? . 

3 (thechildren/what / are / doing?) What. 

4 (made / is / how / cheese?) . 

5 (to the party / coming / is / your sister?) . 

6 (you / the truth / tell / don't / why?) . 

7 (your guests / have / yet / arrived?) . 

8 (leave / what time / your train / does?) . 

9 (to work / Emily / why / go / didn't?) . 

10 (your car / in the accident / was / damaged?) . 


Complete the questions. 


/L 


1 

' 1 want to go out > 


f Where do you want to go? "'j 

2 

Kate and Paul aren't going to the party. 


Why. aren't.they..g.ojng? . 

3 

I'm reading. 


What. 

4 

Sue went to bed early. 


What time. 

5 

My parents are going on holiday. 


When. 

6 

1 saw Tom a few days ago. 


Where. 

7 

1 can't come to the party. 


Why. 

8 

Tina has gone away. 


Where... 

9 

1 need some money. 


How much. 

10 

Angela doesn't like me. 


Why. 

11 

It rains sometimes. 


How often. 

12 

1 did the shopping.^ 


When. 

k___ / 





































































































Who saw you? Who did you see? 

(questions 2) 


subject 


Somebody saw Paul. 
Who saw Paul? 


SILVIA 



Silvia saw Paul. 

Who saw Paul? 

Silvia. (Silvia saw him.) 

Who did Silvia see? 

Paul. (She saw Paul.) 


Silvia saw Paul 


object 

I 

Silvia saw somebody . 

Who did Silvia see? 


Silvia. (Silvia saw him.) 

who is che subject 
Paul is che object 


Paul. (She saw Paul.) 

who is the object 
Silvia is che subject 


In these questions, who/what is the subject: 

O Who lives in this house? (= somebody lives in it - who?) 

(not Who does live?) 

O What happened? (= something happened - what?) 

(not What did happen?) 

O What’s happening? (What’s = What is) 

O Who’s got my key? (Who's = Who has) 

In these questions, who/what is the object: 

O Who did you meet yesterday? (= you met somebody - who?) 

O What did Paul say? (- Paul said something - what?) 

O Who are you phoning? 

O What was Silvia wearing? 

Compare: 

□ George likes oranges. —» Who likes oranges? - George. 

What does George like? - Oranges. 

O Jane won a new car. —» Who won a new car? - Jane. 

What did Jane win? - A new car. 

Use who for people (somebody). Use what for things, ideas etc. (something): 
O Who is your favourite singer? 

What is your favourite song? 


( questions -» Units 44, 46 what/which/how -> Unit 47 












Exercises 


Make questions with who or what. In these questions, who/what is the subject. 

--Ss_/I 


Somebody broke the window. 
Something fell off the shelf. 
Somebody wants to see you. 
Somebody took my umbrella. 
Something made me ill. 
Somebody is coming. 


. Who breto the window? 

What. 


. me? 


Make questions with who or what (subject or object). 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 



You want the missing information (XXXXX). Write questions with who or what. 

Y s_ _ /L 


I lost XXXXX yesterday, but fortunately 
XXXXX found it and gave it back to me. 


...What did you .lose?. 
Who found it? 


J 


XXXXX phoned me last night. She wanted 

XXXXX 


Who 
What. 


I needed some advice, so I asked XXXXX. 
He said XXXXX. 


I hear that XXXXX got married last week. 
XXXXX told me. 


I met XXXXX on my way home this 
evening. She told me XXXXX. 


Steve and I played tennis yesterday. 
XXXXX won. After the game we XXXXX. 


It was my birthday last week and I had 
some presents. XXXXX gave me a book 
and Catherine gave me XXXXX. 





















































































Who is she talking to? What is it like? 

46 (questions 3) 


Jessica is talking to somebody. 
Who is she talking to? 


In questions beginning Who ...II What... ? / Where ... ? / Which ... ?, prepositions (to/from/with 
etc) usually go at the end: 

O 'Where are you from?' 'I'm from Thailand.' 

O 'Jack was afraid.' 'What was he afraid of?' 

O 'Who do these books belong to?' 'They're mine.' 

O Tom's father is in hospital.' 'Which hospital is he in?' 

O 'Kate is going on holiday.' 'Who with?' / 'Who is she going with?' 

O 'Can we talk?' 'Sure. What do you want to talk about?' 



B 


What's it like? / What are they like? etc. 



What's it like? = What is it like? 

What's it like? = tell me something 
about it - is it good or bad, big or 
small, old or new (etc.)? 


When we say 'What is it like?' like is a preposition. It is not the verb like ('Do you like your new 
house?' etc.). 

O a: There's a new restaurant in our street. 
b: What's it like? Is it good? 
a: I don't know. I haven't eaten there yet. 

O a: What's your new teacher like? 

B: She's very good. We learn a lot. 

O a: I met Nicola's parents yesterday. 

B: Did you? What are they like? 
a: They're very nice. 

O a: Did you have a good holiday? What was the weather like? 
b: It was lovely. It was sunny every day. 




102 


( questions 1 -2 Units 44-45 what/which/how -» Unit 47 prepositions Units 103-113 











Exercises 

You want the missing information (XXXXX). Write questions with who or what. 




c 


The film was about XXXXX. 


j c 




5 ( I gave the money to XXXXX.) (.I) 

6 ( The book was written by XXXXX. 


DC 


j 


Write questions about the people in the pictures. Use these verbs + a preposition: 

go listen look ^alk talk wait 

!® 

i 



1 . Who js ©he talking.to? . 4 what. 

2 What.they. 5 What. 

3 Which restaurant. 6 Which bus. 

Write questions beginning Which ... ? 



You want some information about another country. You ask somebody who has been there. Ask 
questions with What is/are ... like? 

1 (the roads) . What are the roads like? . 

2 (the food) 

3 (the people) 

4 (the weather) . 


Ask questions with What was/were ... like? 

1 Your friend has just come back from holiday. Ask about the weather. 

. What was the weather like? . 

2 Your friend has just come back from the cinema. Ask about the film. 

3 Your friend has just finished an English course. Ask about the lessons. 

4 Your friend has just come back from holiday. Ask about the hotel. 


103 
















































































What...? Which...? How...? 

(questions 4) 


What + noun (What colour ... ? / What kind ? etc) 

What colour is your car? What colour are your eyes? 

What size is this shirt? O What make is your TV? 

What time is it? O What day is it today? 

What kind of job do you want? 

(or What type of job ... ? / What sort of job ... ?) 

What without a noun: 

What's your favourite colour? 

What do you want to do tonight? 

Which + noun (things or people): 

Which train did you catch - the 9.50 or the 10.30? 

Which doctor did you see - Doctor Ellis, Doctor Gray or Doctor Hill? 

We use which without a noun for things, not people: 

Which is bigger - Canada or Australia? 

We use who for people (without a noun): 

Who is taller - Joe or Gary? ( not Which is taller?) 

What or which? 

We use which when we are thinking about a small number of possibilities (perhaps 2, 3 or 4): 
O We can go this way or that way. 

Which way shall we go? 

There are four umbrellas here. 

Which is yours? WHICH? 

What is more general: 

What's the capital of Argentina? (of all the cities in Argentina) 

What sort of music do you like? (of all kinds of music) 

Compare: 

What colour are his eyes? ( not Which colour?) 

Which colour do you prefer, pink or yellow? 

O What is the longest river in the world? 

Which is the longest river - the Mississippi, the Amazon or the Nile? 

How... ? 

O 'How was the party last night?' 'It was great.' 

O 'How do you usually go to work?' ‘By bus.' 

You can use how + adjective/adverb (how tall / how old / how often etc.): 



tall are you?' 'I'm 1 metre 70.' 


big is the house?' 'Not very big.' 


old is your mother?' 'She's 45.' 

'How 

far is it from here to the airport?' 'Five kilometres.' 


often do you use your car?' 'Every day.' 


long have they been married?' 'Ten years.' 


much was the meal?' 'Thirty pounds.' 


( questions -4 Units 44-46 How long does it take? ^ Unit 48 which one(s) "4 Unit 75 


7 

or 

7 

or 

7 

or 

7 

• 


• 


• 


• 



















Exercises 


Write questions with what. 



1 

I’ve got a new TV. 


(make?) 

2 

1 want a job. 


(kind?) 

3 

1 bought a new sweater. 


(colour?) 

4 

1 got up early this morning. 


(time?) 

5 

1 like music. 


(type?) 

6 

1 want to buy a car. 

c /_ J 


^(kind?) 



Write what/which/who. 

1 . What .is that man's name? 

2 . Which . W ay shall we go? Left or right? 

3 You can have tea or coffee. 

do you prefer? 

4 '.day is it today?' 'Friday.' 

5 This is a nice office.desk is yours? 

6 .is your favourite sport? 


7 .is more expensive, meat or fish? 

8 .is older, Liz or Steve? 

9 .kind of camera have you got? 

10 a: I have three cameras. 

B: .camera do you use most? 

11 .nationality are you? 


Complete the questions with How + adjective or adverb (high/long etc.). 



^£9 Write questions with How... ? 

1 Are you 1 metre 70? 1.75? 1.80? . How.taJlare.ypu? 

2 Is this box one kilogram? Two? Three? . 

3 Are you 20 years old? 22? 25? . 

4 Did you spend £20? £30? £50? . 

5 Do you watch TV every day? Once a week? Never? 


6 Is it 1000 miles from Paris to Moscow? 1500? 2000? 


105 








































































How long does it take 

? 

• • • • 

How long does it take from ... to ... ? 

How long does it take by plane from New York to 

New 

Washington? 

] hour J 

/X 

It takes an hour. 



O How long does it take by train from London to Manchester? 

It takes two hours by train from London to Manchester. 

O How long does it take by car from your house to the station? 

O It takes ten minutes by car from my house to the station. 


How long does it take to do something? 


How long does it take to cross the Atlantic by ship? 

1 came by train/ 'Did you? How long did it take (to get here)?' 
How long will it take to get from here to the hotel? 

It takes a long time to learn a language. 

It doesn't take long to cook an omelette. 

It won't take long to fix the computer. 



does 


How long 

did 

will 

it take to ... ? 


takes 
took 
will take 

a week 
a long time 
three hours 

doesn’t 

didn't 

won’t 

take 

long 


to 


How long does it take you to do something? 



I started reading the book on Monday. 
I finished it on Wednesday evening. 

It took me three days to read it. 


How long 

does 

did 

it take 

you 

Tom 

to ... ? 


will 


them 




takes 

me 

a week 


it 

took 

Tom 

a long time 

to 


will take 

them 

three hours 



How long will it take me to learn to drive? 

It takes Tom 20 minutes to get to work in the morning. 
It took us an hour to do the shopping. 

Did it take you a long time to find a job? 

It will take me an hour to cook dinner. 































? 


Exercises 

Look at the pictures and write questions with How long. 



Geneva 



CITY 

CENTRE 


AIRPORT 


V 




I 


How.Jong.d<^sittake. .^..planefe 


2 

3 

4 



How long does it take to do these things? Write full sentences. 


1 fly from your city/country to London 
. It takes two hours to ..flyfroniM 

2 fly from your city/country to New York 

3 study to be a doctor in your country 

4 walk from your home to the nearest shop 

5 get from your home to the nearest airport 


Write questions with How long did it take ... ? 

1 (Jane found a job.) . How^ . 

2 (I walked to the station.) .you. 

3 (Tom painted the bathroom.) 

4 (I learnt to ski.) 

5 (They repaired the car.) 

Read the situations and write sentences with It took .... 

1 I read a book last week. I started reading it on Monday. I finished it three days later. 

It took me three days . 

2 We walked home last night. We left at 10 o'clock and we arrived home at 10.20. 

3 I learnt to drive last year. I had my first driving lesson in January. I passed my driving test six 
months later. 


4 Mark drove to London yesterday. He left home at 7 o'clock and got to London at 10. 

5 Lisa began looking for a job a long time ago. She got a job last week. 

6 Write o sentence about yourself 











































Do you know where... ? 
49 I don't know what... etc 




We say: Where is Paula? 


but Do you know where Paula is ? 

(not Do you know where is Paula?) 


In the same way we say: 
I know 
I don't know 
Can you tell me 


where Paula is. 


Compare: 


Who are those people? but 

How old is Nicola? 

Do you know 

who those people are 
how old Nicola is 

y 

What time is it? 

Can you tell me 

what time it is 


Where can 1 go? 


where 1 can go 


How much is this camera? 

1 know 

1 don’t know 

1 don't remember 

how much this camera is 


When are you going away? 

Where have they gone? 

What was Kate wearing? 

when you’re going away 
where they have gone 
what Kate was wearing 



B 


Questions with do/does/did (present simple and past simple) 


Where does he live ? 


but Do you know where he lives ? ( not Do you know where does he live?) 


Compare: 


How do airplanes fly? 

but 

Do you know 

how airplanes fly 

7 

What does Jane wane? 

Why did she go home? 
Where did 1 put che key? 


1 don't know 

1 don't remember 

1 know 

what Jane wants 
why she went home 
where 1 put che key 




Questions beginning Is ... ? / Do ... ? / Can ... ? etc. (yes/no questions) 
Compare: 

Is Jack at home? but 

Have they got a car? 

Can Ben swim? 

Do they live near here? 

Did anybody see you? 


You can use if or whether in these sentences: 

O Do you know if they've got a car? or 
Do you know whether they've got a car? 
O I don't know if anybody saw me. or 
I don’t know whether anybody saw me. 


Do you know 


I don't know 


if 

or 

whether 


Jack is at home 
they've got a car 
Ben can swim 
they live near here 
anybody saw you 


























Exercises 


Answer these questions with I don't know where/when/why ... etc. 


SL 


1 

Have your friends gone home 7 | 


r { where) 1 don't know where they've rjone ^ 

2 

Is Kate in her office? 


(where) 1 don't know. 

3 

Is the castle very old? 


(how old) . 

4 

Will Paul be here soon? 


(when) . 

5 

Was he angry because 1 was late? 


(why) . 

6 

^Has Emily lived here a long time 7 ^ 


Jhow long) J 


Complete the sentences. 

1 (How do airplanes fly?) 

2 (Where does Susan work?) 

3 (What did Peter say?) 

4 (Why did he go home early?) 

5 (What time does the meeting begin?) 

6 (How did the accident happen?) 


Do you know. hoyy airplanes fly 

I don’t know. 

Do you remember. 

I don't know. 

Do you know. 

I don’t remember.. 


Which is right? 

1 Do vou know what time -is-it- / it is ? (Do vou know what time it is? is right) 

2 Why are vou / vou are going away? 

3 I don't know where are they / they are going. 

4 Can you tell me where is the museum / the museum is ? 

5 Where do vou want / vou want to go for your holidays? 

6 Do you know what do elephants eat / elephants eat ? 

7 I don't know how far is it / it is from the hotel to the station. 


Write questions with Do you know if... ? 

1 (Have they got a car?) . Doyou knowjf theyye 3 .pt a car? 

2 (Are they married?) Do you know. 

3 (Does Sue know Bill?) . 

4 (Will Gary be here tomorrow?) . 

5 (Did he pass his exam?) . 

Write questions beginning Do you know... ? 

1 (What does Laura want?) . Do you. know .vhat l^u^ .yyantr-! 

2 (Where is Paula?) Do. 

3 (Is she working today?) . 

4 (What time does she start work?) . 

5 (Are the shops open tomorrow?) . 

6 (Where do Sarah and Jack live?) . 

7 (Did they go to Jane’s party?) . 


Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 

1 Do you know why. the bus was late . 

2 Do you know what time. 

3 Excuse me, can you tell me where.-... 

4 I don’t know what. 

5 Do you know if. 

6 Do you know how much. 


i 

7 

7 

7 

7 






























































• • • 


He told me that... 


Unit 

50 She said that 


Last week you went to a party. A lot of your friends 
were there. Here are some things they said to you: 


CLARE 


I m enjoying my new 


jobj 


^C^My father isn't well.) 


am | 
isi 


—> was 


Today you meet Paul. You tell him about the 
party. You tell Paul what your friends said: 

O Clare said that she was enjoying 
her new job. 

O She said that her father wasn't 

well. 


SARAH 


I We're going to 
buy a house. 

' 

BEN 


' I have to leave early.^ 


My sister has 

gone to Australia. 


KATE 


I can't find a job") 


STEVE 


RACHEL 


111 phone you. J 

I _ 

/ I don't like my job. } 


My son doesn't 

like school. 


m/KE (^YbiTiooirtired^) 

—■ ■■ i 


are —» were 


have | 
has I 


had 


can —>could 


will — > would 


did 


look —» looked 
I feel fine. ) feel —> felt 

^ etc. etc. 

you (present) (past) 


O Sarah and Ben said that they 
were going to buy a house. 


O Peter said that he had to leave 
early. 

O He said that his sister had gone 
to Australia. 


O Kate said that she couldn’t find 
a job. 

O Steve said that he would phone 
me. 

O Rachel said that she didn't like 
her job. 

O She said that her son didn't like 
school. 

O Mike said that I looked tired. 

O I said that I felt fine. 


say and tell 


say (—> said) 

tell (—¥ told) 

O He said chat he was tired 

O He told me that he was tired. 

(not He said me) 

(i not He told that) 

O What did she say to you? 

O What did she tell you? 

(not say you) 

(not tell to you) 

We say he said to me, 1 said to Ann etc. 

We say he told me, 1 told Ann etc. 

(not 'he said me', '1 said Ann'). 

(not 'he told to me’, '1 told to Ann'). 


You can say: 

O He said that he was tired, or He said he was tired, (without that) 

O Kate told me that she couldn't find a job. or Kate told me she couldn't find a job. 


■ ( I told you to ... ^ Unit 53 














































Exercises 




Read what these people say and write sentences with He/She/They said (that)... 

6 


i J"l've lost my watch.) 

. He. aa.i d. fl<9 

^/Ym very busy.) 


^ J" 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ^ on>c ^ ee * ver ^ w ^) 

^/we'll be home late!^ 


W. ^f\ can't go to the party) 



% £ have to go oul) 

^ JVm learning Russian^ 


10 


I've jusc come back from holiday.^ 
f ^ I’m going to buy a guitar,^ 

^ Qi ^/\A/e haven't got a key.) 


Use the pictures to complete the sentences. 

I'm 



^here's Robert?^ 
Qries gone home 


NICOLA 


1 I met Clare last week. She said. ehemeenjo^mheLnmjob 

2 Emma didn't want anything to eat. She said. 

3 I wanted to borrow Mike's ladder, but he said. 

4 Hannah was invited to the party but she said. 

5 Susan told me she didn't want the picture. She said 

6 Martin has just gone away on holiday. He said. 

7 I was looking for Robert. Nicola said. 

8 'Why did David stay at home?' 'He said. 

9 'Has Mary gone out?' 'I think so. She said. 


Write say/said or tell/told. 

1 He. said .he was tired. 

2 What did she. $$.!! .you? 

3 Anna.she didn't like Peter. 

4 Jack.me that you were ill. 

5 Please don't.Dan what happened. 

6 Did Lucy.she would be late? 


7 The woman.she was a reporter. 

8 The woman.us she was a reporter. 

9 They asked me a lot of questions, but I 

didn’t.them anything. 

10 They asked me a lot of questions, but I 
didn't.anything. 




















































































work/working go/going do/doing 


work/go/be etc. (infinitive) 


will/can/must etc + infinitive: 

O Anna will be here soon. 

O Shall I open the window? 

O I might phone you later. 

O May I sit here? 

O I can't meet you tomorrow 
O Could you pass the salt, please? 
O It's late. I must go now. 

O You shouldn't work so hard. 

O Would you like some coffee? 


will 

shall 

might 

may 

can 

could 

must 

should 

would 


-> Units 27-28 


-4 Unit 29 

-4 Unit 30 

—> Unit 31 
-4 Unit 32 
-4 Unit 34 


do/does/did + infinitive: 

□ Do you work? -4 Units 6-7 

O They don't work very hard. 

O Helen doesn't know many people. 

□ How much does it cost? 

O What time did the train leave? -4 Unit 12 

0 We didn't sleep well. 


to work / to go / to be etc (to + infinitive) 

O I'm going to play tennis tomorrow. -4 Unit 26 

O What are you going to do? 

O I have to go now —> Unit 33 

O Everybody has to eat. 

O Do you want to go out? — » Unit 52 

O They don't want to come with us. 

O I'd like to talk to you. -4 Unit 34 

O Would you like to go out? 

O Dave used to work in a factory. -4 Unit 36 


(I'm) going to 
(I) have to 
(I) want to... 

(I) would like to ... 
(I) used to... 


do/does 

(present simple) 


did 

(past simple) 


working/going/playing etc. 

O Please be quiet. I'm working. -4 Units 3-4, 8, 25 

O Tom isn't working today. 

O What time are you going out? 

O It was raining, so we didn't go out. -4 Units 13-14 

O What were you doing at 11.30 yesterday? 


am/is/are + -ing 

(present continuous) 

was/were + -ing 

(past continuous) 


f verbs + to and -ing (I want to do/I enjoy doing) 4 Unit 52 go and -ing -4 Unit 55 


7 






















Exercises 


Complete the sentences. Write: 

1 |’||. phone. Paul . 

2 I’m going. to phone Paul . 

3 Can you. 

4 Shall I. 

5 I'd like. 


phone Paul or ... to phone Paul. 

. 6 Do you have. 

. 7 You should. 

.Paul? 8 I want. 

.? 9 I might. 

. 10 You must. 


^Q| Complete the sentences with a verb from the box. Sometimes you need the infinitive (work/go 
etc.) and sometimes you need -ing (working/going etc.). 

do/doing get/getting s lee p/sl ee p i ng watch/watching 

eat/eating go/going stay/staying wear/wearing 

fly/flying listen/listening wait/waiting work/werking 


1 Please be quiet. I’m working . 

2 I feel tired today. I didn’t. sleep .very well last night. 

3 What time do you usually.up in the morning? 

4 ’Where are you.?' 'To the office.' 

5 Did you.TV last night? 

6 Look at that plane! It's.very low. 

7 You can turn off the radio. I’m not to it. 

8 They didn't.anything because they weren't hungry. 

9 My friends were.for me when I arrived. 

10 'Does Susan always.glasses?’ 'No, only for reading.’ 

11 ‘What are you.tonight?' 'I'm.at home.' 

Put the verb in the correct form. Choose from: 

the infinitive (work/go etc.) or 
to... (to work / to go etc.) or 
-ing (working/going etc.) 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 


Shall I. open .the window? (open) 

It's late. I have Togo .now. (go) 

Amanda isn't. working .this week. She's on holiday, (work) 

I'm tired. I don't want.out. (go) 

It might., so take an umbrella with you. (rain) 

What time do you have.tomorrow morning? (leave) 

I'm sorry I can’t you. (help) 

My brother is a student. He's.physics, (study) 

Would you like.on a trip round the world? (go) 

When you saw Maria, what was she.? (wear) 

When you go to London, where are you going.? (stay) 

I'm hungry. I must.something to eat. (have) 

'Where's Gary?' 'He's.a bath.' (have) 

I used.a car, but I sold it last year, (have) 

He spoke very quietly. I couldn't.him. (hear) 

You don’t look well. I don't think you should.to work today, (go) 

I don't know what he said. I wasn't.to him. (listen) 

I missed the bus and had.home, (walk) 

I want.what happened, (know) You must.me. (tell) 

May I.this book? (borrow) 





















































Unit 


52 to... (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing) 


^ verbs + to ... (I want to do) 

want plan decide try 
hope expect offer forget 
need promise refuse learn 


+ to ... (to do / to work / to be etc.) 


O What do you want to do this evening? 

O It's not very late. We don't need to go home yet. 

O Tina has decided to sell her car. 

O You forgot to switch off the light when you went out. 
O My brother is learning to drive. 

O I tried to read my book, but I was too tired. 

verbs + -ing (I enjoy doing) 


enjoy stop 
mind finish 


suggest + -ing (doing / working / being etc) 


I enjoy dancing {not enjoy to dance) 
I don't mind getting up early. 

Has it stopped raining? 

Sonia suggested going to the cinema. 


Qenpy dancing. 


ft verbs + -ing or to . 


like 


love start 


prefer hate begin 


continue + -ing (doing etc.) or to... (to do etc.) 


Do you like getting up early? or Do you like to get up early? 

I prefer travelling by car. or I prefer to travel by car. 

Anna loves dancing, or Anna loves to dance. 

I hate being late, or I hate to be late. 

It started raining or It started to rain. 


would like to ... etc. 


would like would love 
would prefer would hate 


+ to ... (to do / to work / to be etc.) 


Amy would like to meet you. 

I'd love to go to Australia. (I'd = I would) 

'Would you like to sit down?' 'No, I'd prefer to stand, thank you.' 
I like this apartment. I wouldn't like to move. 

I live in a small village. I'd hate to live in a big city. 


I ( would like ■» Unit 34 I want you to ... -» Unit 53 go + -ing ^ Unit 55 preposition + -ing-» Unit 11 2~^ 






Exercises 



Put the verb in the right form, to ... or -ing. 

1 I enjoy. dancing . (dance) 

2 What do you want. to. do . 

tonight? (do) 

3 Bye! I hope.you again 

soon, (see) 

4 I learnt.when I was 

five years old. (swim) 

5 Have you finished the 

kitchen? (clean) 

6 Where's Anna? I need. 

her something, (ask) 

7 Do you enjoy.other 

countries? (visit) 


8 The weather was nice, so I suggested 
.for a walk by the river, (go) 

9 Where's Ben? He promised. 

here on time, (be) 

10 I'm not in a hurry. I don't mind 


. (wait) 

11 What have you decided.? (do) 

12 Dan was angry and refused. 

to me. (speak) 

13 I'm tired. I want.to bed. (go) 

14 I was very upset and started. (cry) 


15 I'm trying. (work) Please 

stop. (talk) 


^20) Complete the sentences using to ... or -ing. Use these verbs: 

^ go help lose rain read see send wait watch 


1 'Have you ever been to Australia?' 'No, but I'd love. to.&o .’ 

2 Amy had a lot to do, so I offered.her. 

3 I'm surprised that you're here. I didn't expect.you. 

4 Kate has a lot of books. She enjoys. 

5 This ring was my grandmother's. I'd hate.it. 

6 Don't forget.us a postcard when you're on holiday. 

7 I'm not going out until it stops. 

8 What shall we do this afternoon? Would you like to the beach? 

9 When I'm tired in the evenings, I like TV. 

10 'Shall we go now?' 'No, Id prefer.a few minutes.' 


Complete the answers to the questions. 



Do you usually get up early? 
Do you ever go to museums? 
Would you like to go to a 
museum now? 
Do you drive a lot? 
Have you ever been to New York? 

Do you often travel by train? 
Shall we walk home or take a taxi? 


* 

/ 7 A 


Yes, I like. tg..get up.early . 

Yes, I enjoy. 

No, I'm hungry. I'd prefer. 

to a restaurant. 

No, I don't like. 

No, but I'd love.one day. 

Yes, I enjoy. 

I don't mind., but a taxi 

would be quicker. 


Complete these sentences. Write about yourself. Use to ... or -ing. 

1 I enjoy. 

2 I don't like. 

3 If it's a nice day tomorrow, I'd like. 

4 When I'm on holiday, I like. 

5 I don't mind., but. 

6 I wouldn't like. . 


-► Additional exercise 32 (page 268) 


115 




















































I told you to ... 


Unit 

53 I want you to 





I want you to 


I! 



The woman wants to go. 

The man doesn't want the woman to go. 
He wants her to stay. 

We say: 


1 want 

you 

somebody 

to do something 


Sarah 



I want you to be happy. (not I want that you are happy) 
They didn't want anybody to know their secret. 

Do you want me to lend you some money? 

We use would like in the same way: 

Would you like me to lend you some money? 


We also use this structure with: 

verb + 

somebody + 

to 


ask 

Sue 

asked 

a friend 

to lend 

her some money. 

tell 

1 

told 

you 

to be 

careful. 

advise 

What do you 

advise 

me 

to do? 


expect 

1 didn't 

expect 

them 

to be 

here. 

persuade 

We 

persuaded 

Gary 

to come 

with us. 

teach 

1 

am teaching 

my brother 

to swim. 



I told you to ... /1 told you not to 




Don’t wait for me.^ 



JANE ME 

> Jane told me to wait for her. 


PAUL SUE 

—» Paul told Sue not to wait for him. 



make and let 

After make and let, we do not use to: 

He's very funny. He makes me laugh. (not makes me to laugh) 

At school our teacher made us work very hard. 

I didn't have my phone with me, so Sue let me use hers. (not let me to use) 

You can say Let's ... (= Let us) when you want people to do things with you: 

Come on! Let's dance. 

'Do you want to go out tonight?' 'No, I'm tired. Let's stay at home.' 


116 


( Let<s 


Unit 35 He told me that 


Unit 50 






















Exercises 


Write sentences beginning I 


1 (you must come with me) 

2 (listen carefully) 

3 (please don't be angry) 

4 (shall I wait for you?) 

5 (don't call me tonight) 

6 (you must meet Sarah) 


want you ... / 1 don't want you ... / Do you want me 

. (ITMl . 

I want. 

I don't. 

Do you. 


? 




^23 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. 




YOU AMY 


1 Dan persuaded. met o.g.p.tp. the cinema, . 

2 I wanted to get to the station. A woman told. 

3 Ben wasn't well. I advised. 

4 Laura had a lot of luggage. She asked. 

5 I was too busy to talk to Tom. I told. 

6 I wanted to make a phone call. Paul let. 

7 Sue is going to call me later. I told. 

8 Amy's mother taught. 

Complete these sentences with the verbs in the list. Sometimes to is necessary (to go / to wait 
etc.); sometimes to is not necessary (go/wait etc.). 

arrive borrow get go go make repeat tell think wait 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 


Please stay here. I don't want you. Togo .yet. 

I didn't hear what she said, so I asked her. 

'Shall we begin?' 'No, let's. 

Are they already here? I expected them. 

Kevin's parents didn't want him. 

I want to stay here. You can't make me. 

'Is that your bike?' 'No, it's John's. He let me. 

Rachel can't come to the party. She told me. 

Would you like a drink? Would you like me. 

'Kate doesn't like me.' 'What makes you. 


.it. 

a few minutes' 

.much later. 

.married. 

.with you. 

.it.' 


.you. 

.some coffee? 

that?' 


117 













































































• • • 


Unit 

54 I went to the shop to 


Paula wanted a newspaper, so she 
went to the shop. 

Why did she go to the shop? 

To get a newspaper. 

She went to the shop to get a 
newspaper. 


to ... (to get / to see etc.) tells us why a person does something: 
O 'Why are you going out?’ To buy some food.’ 

O Catherine went to the station to meet her friend. 

O Sue turned on the television to watch the news. 

O I’d like to go to Spain to learn Spanish. 

money/time to (do something): 

O We need some money to buy food. 

O I haven't got time to watch television. 



B 


to + verb 

for + noun 

(to get / to see etc.) 

(for a newspaper / for food etc.) 

O 1 went to the shop to get a newspaper. 

O 1 went to the shop for a newspaper. 

(not for get) 


O They're going to Brazil to see their 

O They're going to Brazil for a holiday. 

friends. 


O We need some money to buy food. 

O We need some money for food. 


C 



wait for... 

O Please wait for me. 

O Are you waiting for the bus? 

wait to (do something): 

O Hurry up! I'm waiting to go. 

O Are you waiting to see the doctor? 

wait for (somebody/something) to ... 

O The lights are red. You have to wait for them 
to change. 

O Are you waiting for the doctor to come? 



They're waiting for the lights to 
change. 


go to ... and go for 4 Unit 55 something to eat / nothing to do etc. *4 Unit 79 
enough + to/for ... ^ Unit 91 too + to/for ^ Unit 92 



















Exercises 


Write sentences beginning I went to ... . Choose from the boxes . 

a coffee shop the-statien- buy some vegetables get some medicine 

the chemist the market meet a friend get a tra i n t i ck e t 

1 I. went get a. tra in ticket, . 

2 I went. 

3 . 

4 . 


^ Complete the sentences. Choose from the box. 

to get some fresh air to read the newspaper to wake him up 

to open this door to see who it was to watch th e n e ws 

1 I turned on the TV. t owatchthem^ . 

2 Alice sat down in an armchair. 

3 Do I need a key. 

4 I went for a walk by the river. 

5 l knocked on the door of David's room. 

6 The doorbell rang, so I looked out of the window. 


Use your own ideas to finish these sentences. Use to... , 


1 I went to the shop . to get a newspaper 

2 I'm very busy. I don't have time. 

3 I called Amy. 

4 I'm going out. 

5 I borrowed some money. 


Write to or for. 

1 I went out. %o . get some bread. 

2 We went to a restaurant.have dinner. 

3 Robert wants to go to university.study economics. 

4 I'm going to London.an interview next week. 

5 I'm going to London visit some friends of mine. 

6 Do you have time.a cup of coffee? 

7 I got up late this morning. I didn't have time.wash. 

8 Everybody needs money.live. 

9 We didn't have any money.a taxi, so we walked home. 

10 The office is very small. TTiere's space only.a desk and chair. 

11 a: Excuse me, are you waiting.be served? 

b: No, I'm already being served, thanks. 


Complete these sentences. Choose from: 


it / to arrive you / tell me -t h e m / change 


the film / begin 


1 We stopped at the lights and waited. fort hm.to change 

2 I sat down in the cinema and waited. 

3 We called an ambulance and waited. 

4 'Do you know what to do?' 'No, I'm waiting. 


119 














































































55 go to ... go on ... go for... go -ing 


go to . (go to work / go to London / go to a concert etc) 

What time do you usually go to work? 

I'm going to China next week. 

Sophie didn't want to go to the concert 
'Where's Tom?' 'He's gone to bed.' 

I went to the dentist yesterday. 

go to sleep = start to sleep: 

I was very tired and went to sleep quickly. 

go home (without to) 

I'm going home now. (not going to home) 


go to 


go on 



holiday 


a trip 

go on 

a tour 


a cruise 


strike 


We re going on holiday next week. 
Children often go on school trips. 

Workers at the airport have gone on strike. 
(= they are refusing to work) 


go for 



a walk 


a run 

go (somewhere) for 

a swim 


a drink 


a meal 


'Where's Emma?' 'She's gone for a walk.' 

Do you go for a run every morning? 

The water looks nice. I'm going for a swim. 

I met Chris in town, so we went for coffee. 

Shall we go out for a meal? I know a good restaurant. 


go + -ing 

We use go + -ing for many sports (swimming / skiing etc.) and also shopping. 


I go 

he is going 
we went 
they have gone 
she wants to go 


shopping 

swimming 

fishing 

sailing 

skiing 

jogging etc. 


Are you going shopping this afternoon? 

It's a nice day. Let's go swimming. 

(or Let's go for a swim.) 

Richard has a small boat and he often goes sailing. 
I went jogging before breakfast this morning. 



120 
















Exercises 


Write to/on/for where necessary. 

1 I'm going. to .China next week. 

2 Richard often goes. z .sailing, (no preposition) 

3 Sue went.Mexico last year. 

4 Jack goes.jogging every morning. 

5 I'm going out.a walk. Do you want to come? 

6 I'm tired because I went.bed very late last night. 

7 Mark is going.holiday.Italy next week. 

8 The weather was warm and the river was clean, so we went.a swim. 

9 The taxi drivers went.strike when I was in New York. 

10 Let's go.the cinema this evening. 

11 It's late. I have to go.home now. 

12 Would you like to go.a tour of the city? 

13 Shall we go out.dinner this evening? 

14 My parents are going.a cruise this summer. 



1 Richard has a boat. He often. QQe .s sailing. 


2 Last Saturday Emily went.. 

3 Dan.every day. 

4 Jessica is going on holiday next month. She is. 

5 Peter is going out later. He has to. 

6 Sarah.after work yesterday. 


Complete the sentences. Use the words in the box. Use to/on/for if necessary. 

a s wim holiday Portugal shopping sleep 
a walk home riding skiing university 

1 The water looks nice. Let's go. for a swim . 

2 After leaving school, Tina went.where she studied psychology. 

3 I'm going.now. I have to buy a few things. 

4 I was very tired last night. I sat down in an armchair and went. 

5 I wasn't enjoying the party, so I went.early. 

6 We live near the mountains. In winter we go.most weekends. 

7 Robert has got a horse. He goes.a lot. 

8 The weather is nice. Shall we go.along the river? 

9 a: Are you going.soon? 

b: Yes, next month. We're going 


. We've never been there before. 
























































Unit 

56 


get 


A get + noun - receive, buy, find etc. 


you don’t have something 



you get it 


you have it 


O I got an email from Sam this morning. (= receive) 

O I like your sweater. Where did you get it? (= buy) 

O It's hard to get a job at the moment? (= find) 

O 'Is Lisa here?’ 'Yes, I'll get her for you.' 

also get a bus / a train / a taxi (= take a bus/train etc.): 

O 'Did you walk here?' 'No, I got the bus.’ 

get hungry / get cold / get tired etc. (get + adjective) = become: 

you get hungry 

you're not hungry ^ you are hungry 

O If you don’t eat, you get hungry. 

O Drink your coffee. It’s getting cold. 

I'm sorry your mother is ill. I hope she gets better soon. 

O It was raining very hard. We didn't have an umbrella, so we got very wet. 

also get married O Nicola and Frank are getting married soon, 

get dressed (= put your clothes on) O I got up and got dressed quickly, 

get lost (= lose your way) O We didn't have a map, so we got lost. 


get to a place = arrive: 

O I usually get to work before 8.30. (= arrive at work) 
O We left London at 10 o'clock and got to Manchester 
at 12.45. 

get here/there (without to): 

O How did you get here? By bus? 

get home (without to): 

O What time did you get home last night? 

get in/out/on/oflf 




get to 






om 








get on 


get off 


get in (a car) get out (of a car) 

(a bus / a train / a plane) 

O Kate got in the car and drove away. (You can also say: Kate got into the car and ...) 

O A car stopped and a man got out. (but A man got out of the car.) 

□ We got on the bus outside the hotel and got off in Church Street. 

( get to-» Unit 108 in/out/on/off-» Units 110,114 get up -» Unit 114 get on -» Appendix^ ) 












Exercises 

Complete these sentences. Use get/gets and choose from the box. 

a doctor a lot of rain a taxi my e ma il the job 

a good salary a new laptop a ticket some milk your boots 

1 Did you. get my email .? I sent it a week ago. 

2 Where did you.? They're very nice. 

3 Quick! This man is ill. We need to. 

4 I don't want to walk home. Let's.. 

5 Tom has an interview tomorrow. I hope he. 

6 When you go to the shop, can you.? 

7 ‘Are you going to the concert?' ‘Yes, if I can. 

8 Helen has got a well-paid job. She. 

9 The weather is horrible here in winter. We. 

10 I'm going to.The one I have is too slow. 

Complete these sentences. Use getting + these words: 

eeld dark late married ready 

1 Drink your coffee. It's getting cold . 

2 Turn on the light. It's. 

3 'I'm next week.’ 'Really? Congratulations!' 

4 'Where's Karen?' 'She's.to go out.’ 

5 It's. It’s time to go home. 

Complete the sentences. Use get/gets/got + these words: 

angry better hungry lost married old wet 

1 If you don’t eat, you get hungry . 

2 Don’t go out in the rain. You'll. 

3 My brother.last year. His wife's name is Sarah. 

4 Mark is always very calm. He never. 

5 We tried to find the hotel, but we. 

6 Everybody wants to stay young, but we all. 

7 Yesterday the weather wasn’t so good at first, but it. 

during the day. 

Write sentences with I left... and got to.... 

1 home / 7.30 — > work / 8.15 

I left home at 7,30 and got to yyork at d.15. . 

2 London /10.15 —> Bristol /11.45 

I left London at 10.15 and. 

3 the party /11.15 —> home / midnight 


4 Write a sentence about yourself. 

I left. 

Write got in / got out of / got on / got off. 

1 Kate. got in .the car and drove away. 


2 I.the bus and walked to my house from the bus stop. 

3 Isabel.the car, shut the door and went into a shop. 

4 I made a stupid mistake. I.the wrong train. 








































Unit 

57 



B 


do and make 


Do is a general word for actions: 

O What are you doing this evening? (not What are you making?) 
O 'Shall I open the window?' 'No, it's OK. I'll do it.' 

O Rachel's job is very boring. She does the same thing every day. 

I did a lot of things yesterday. 

What do you do? = What's your job?: 

O 'What do you do?' 'I work in a bank.' 

Make = produce/create. For example: 



She's making coffee. He has made a cake. They make umbrellas. 



It was made in China. 



Compare do and make: 

I did a lot yesterday. I cleaned my room, I wrote some letters and I made a cake. 

a: What do you do in your free time? Sport? Reading? Hobbies? 

b: I make clothes. I make dresses and jackets. I also make toys for my children. 


O I'm doing my driving test next week. 

O John has just done a training course. 

O Our children have to do a lot of homework. 
O I hate doing housework especially cleaning. 
O Sue, could you do me a favour? 

O I go for a run and do exercises every morning. 


Expressions with do 

an exam / a test 
a course 

^ homework 
housework 
somebody a favour 
an exercise 



also do the shopping / do the washing / do the washing-up / do the ironing / do the cooking etc 
O I did the washing, but I didn't do the shopping 


O I'm sorry, I made a mistake. 

O I need to make an appointment to see the doctor. 
O Excuse me, I have to make a phone call. 

O Have you made a shopping list? 

O It's late. Don't make a noise. 

O Sometimes I forget to make my bed in the morning. 

We say make a film but take a photo / take a picture: 

When was this film made? 
but O When was this photo taken? 


Expressions with make 



a mistake 
an appointment 

make 

a phone call 
a list 


a noise 


a bed 


( do/does/did (negatives and questions) Units 43-44 make somebody do something «♦ Unit 53 


















Exercises 


Write make/making/made or do/doing/did/done. 

1 'Shall I open the window?' 'No, its OK. I'll. do .it.' 

2 What did you.at the weekend? Did you go away? 

3 Do you know how to.bread? 

4 Paper is.from wood. 

5 Richard didn't he/p me. He sal in an armchair and .. noching. 

6 'What do you.?' Tm a doctor.' 

7 I asked you to clean the bathroom. Have you.it? 

8 ’What do they.in that factory?' 'Shoes.' 

9 I'm.some coffee. Would you like some? 

10 Why are you angry with me 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 I didn't.anything wrong. 

11 'What are you.tomorrow afternoon?' Tm working.' 


m What are these people doing? 







© 

ft 



r i ■ 



1 He's making, a cake. . 6 

2 They. 7 

3 He. 8 

4 . 9 

5 . 10 


Write make or do in the correct form. 

1 I hate. doing .housework, especially cleaning. 

2 Why do you always.the same mistake? 

3 'Can you.me a favour?' ‘It depends what it is.' 

4 'Have you.your homework?' 'Not yet.' 

5 I need to see the dentist, but I haven't.an appointment. 

6 I'm.a course in photography at the moment. It's very good. 

7 The last time I.an exam was ten years ago. 

8 How many phone calls did you.yesterday? 

9 When you've finished Exercise 1, you can.Exercise 2. 

10 There's something wrong with the car. The engine is a strange noise. 

11 It was a bad mistake. It was the worst mistake I've ever. 

12 Let's.a list of all the things we have to today. 




























































Unit 

58 have 



have and have got 

I have (something) or I've got (something) = it is mine: 

O I have a new car. or I've got a new car. 

O Sue has long hair, or Sue has got long hair. 

O Do they have any children? or Have they got any children? 

O Tom doesn't have a job. or Tom hasn't got a job. 

□ How much time do you have? or How much time have you got? 

also 


I have 
I've got 


a headache / (a) toothache / a pain (in my leg etc) 
a cold / a cough / a sore throat / a temperature / flu etc. 


O I have a headache, or I've got a headache. 

O Do you have a cold? or Have you got a cold? 

The past is I had (without got) /1 didn't have / Did you have? etc.: 

O When I first met Sue, she had short hair. 

O He didn't have any money because he didn't have a job. 

O Did you have enough time to do everything you wanted? 

have breakfast / have a shower etc. 

In these expressions have = eat/drink/take etc. You can't use 'have got' 


have 

breakfast / lunch / dinner 
a meal / a sandwich / a pizza etc. 
a cup of coffee / a glass of milk etc. 
something to eat/drink 

O 'Where's Lisa?' 'She’s having lunch.’ 

O 1 don't usually have breakfast. 

O 1 had three cups of coffee this morning. 
O 'Have a biscuit!' 'Oh, thank you.' 

We also use have (not have got) in these expressions: 



a bath / a shower 


a rest/a holiday/a party 


a nice time / a good trip / fun etc. 

have 

a walk / a swim / a game (of tennis etc.) 


a dream / an accident 


a baby 


a look (at something) 


O 

O 

O 

o 

o 

o 


I had a shower this morning. 

We're having a party next week. You must come 
Enjoy your holiday. Have a nice time! 

Did you have a good time in Tokyo? 

Sandra has just had a baby. 

Can I have a look at your magazine? 


Compare: 

Have or have got 

O I have / I've got a new shower. It's very good. 

Have (not have got) 

O I have a shower every morning. 

(j not I've got a shower every morning) 

O a: Where's Paul? 

b: He's having a shower. 

(= he's washing now) 


t \ 

\ ve got a i 

f I’m having ] 

new shower J 

^ — 

1 a shower. J 


126 



( I have / I've got -4 Unit 9 I've (done) (present perfect) -4 Units 15-18 I have to -► Unit 33 

































Exercises 


Write the correct form of have or have got. 

1 . 1.didn’t have .time to do the shopping yesterday. 

2 '. Ha e U5a got (OR Doee Lisa have) a car?' 'No, she can't drive.' 

3 He can't open the door. .a key. 

4 .a cold last week. He's better now. 

5 What's wrong? .a headache? 

6 We wanted to go by taxi, but.enough money. 

7 Laura is very busy. .much free time. 

8 .any problems when you were on holiday? 

What are these people doing? Choose from the list: 

a bath breakfast a cup of tea dinner a good time a rest 


(I / not / have) 
(Lisa / have?) 

(he / not / have) 
(Gary / have) 
(you / have?) 

(we / not / have) 
(she / not / have) 
(you / have?) 



1 . TTieyfe 

2 She. 

3 He. 


4 They 

5 . 

6 . 


What do you say in these situations? Use have. 

1 Emily is going on holiday. What do you say to her before she goes? 

. HaYea.nice.hoMay! . 

2 You meet Clare at the airport. She has just got off her plane. Ask her about the flight. 

. Did.ypu.haye.a.^ppdflight? . 

3 Tom is going on a long trip. What do you say to him before he leaves? 


4 Its Monday morning. You are at work. Ask Paula about her weekend. 


5 Paul has just come home after playing tennis with a friend. Ask him about the game. 


6 Rachel is going out this evening. What do you say to her before she goes? 


7 Mark has just returned from holiday. Ask him about his holiday. 


JQJP Complete the sentences. Use have/had and choose from the list. 

an accident a glass of water a look a walk a party something to eat 

1 We bM a party .a few weeks ago. We invited 50 people. 

2 'Shall we.?' 'No, I'm not hungry.' 

3 I was thirsty, so I. 

4 I like to get up early and.before breakfast. 

5 Tina is a very good driver. She has never. 

6 There's something wrong with the engine of my car. Can you 


at it? 









































I/me he/him they/them etc. 


People 



subject I we you he she they 

object me us you him her them 


subject 


object 

1 1 know Tom. 


Tom knows me. me 

we We know Tom. 


Tom knows us. us 

you You know Tom. 


Tom knows you. you 

he He knows Tom. 


Tom knows him. him 

she She knows Tom. 


Tom knows her. her 

they They know Tom. 


Tom knows them, them 


Things 




subject it they 

object it them 


O I don’t want this book. You can have it. 

O I don't want these books. You can have them. 

O Kate never drinks milk. She doesn’t like it. 

O I never go to parties. I don't like them. 

We use me/her/them etc. (object) after a preposition (for/to/with etc.): 

O This letter isn't for me. It's for you. 

O Who is that woman? Why are you looking at her? 

O We're going to the cinema. Do you want to come with us? 

O Sue and Kevin are going to the cinema. Do you want to go with them? 
O 'Where's the newspaper?' 'You're sitting on it.’ 

give it/them to ... 

O I want that book. Please give it to me. 

O Robert needs these books. Can you give them to him, please? 


( my/his/their etc. *♦ Unit 60 Give me that book / Give it to me ^ Unit 96 


) 



















Exercises 


^09 Complete the sentences with him/her/them. 

1 I don't know those girls. Do you know them .? 

2 I don't know that man. Do you know ? 

3 I don't know those people. Do you know 

4 I don't know David's wife. Do you know 

5 I don't know Mr Stevens. Do you know 

6 I don't know Sarah's parents. Do you know 

7 I don't know the woman in the black coat. Do you know 

Complete the sentences. Use l/me/you/she/her etc. 

1 I want to see her, but she doesn't want to see. m<5 


2 They want to see me, but.don't want to see 

3 She wants to see him, but.doesn't want to see 

4 We want to see them, but don't want to see 

5 He wants to see us, but don't want to see 

6 They want to see her, but doesn't want to see 

7 I want to see them, but don't want to see 

8 You want to see her, but doesn’t want to see 


Write sentences beginning I like ..., I don’t like ... or Do you like... ? 

1 I don’t eat tomatoes. ( don t like them 

2 George is a very nice man. I like. 

3 This jacket isn’t very nice. I don't. 

4 This is my new car. Do . ? 

5 Mrs Clark is not very friendly. I. 

6 These are my new shoes. .? 

Complete the sentences. Use l/me/he/him etc. 

1 Who is that woman? Why are you looking at her .? 

2 'Do you know that man?' 'Yes, I work with.’ 

3 Where are the tickets? I can't find. 

4 I can't find my keys. Where are ? 

5 We're going out. You can come with. 

6 I've got a new motorbike. Do you want to see.? 

7 Maria likes music.plays the piano. 

8 I don’t like dogs. I’m afraid of. 

9 I'm talking to you. Please listen to 

10 Where is Anna? I want to talk to. 

11 You can have these CDs. I don't want. 

12 My brother has a new job, but.doesn't like 

£09 Complete the sentences. 

1 I need chat book. Can you. give it to me ? 


2 He wants the key. Can you give.? 

3 She wants the keys. Can you.? 

4 I need my bag. Can you.? 

5 I hey want the money. Can you.? 

6 We want the pictures. Can you.? 


? 


very much. 
























































my/his/their etc 



1 

like 

my 

house. 

We 

like 

our 

house. 

You 

like 

your 

house. 

He 

likes 

his 

house. 

She 

likes 

her 

house. 

They 

like 

their 

house. 


1 

—> 

my 

we 

-> 

our 

you 

—> 

your 

he 


his 

she 

—> 

her 

they 


their 




it — > its 


Oxford (= it) is famous for its university. 


We use my/your/his etc. + noun: 

my hands his new car her parents 
our clothes your best friend their room 


his/her/their 

AMY 


her car 

(= Amy’s car) 

her husband 
(= Amy's 
husband) 

her children 
(= Amy's 
children) 


r- r- 

w 



ANDY 


his bike 


his sister 


his parents 



their son 



its and it's 


its Oxford is famous for its university. 

it's (= it is) I like Oxford. It's a nice place. (= It is a nice place.) 


( mine/yours etc. -> Unit 61 l/me/my/mine -» Unit 62 


D 































Exercises 


Complete the sentences in the same way. 

1 I'm going to wash. my hands . 

2 She’s going to wash.hands. 

3 We're going to wash. 



Complete the sentences in the same way. 

1 He lives with his parents 


2 They live with...parents. 

3 We.parents. 

4 Martina lives. 


4 He's going to wash. 

5 They're going to wash. 

6 Are you going to wash. 

5 I.parents. 

6 John. 

7 Do you live. 

8 Most children. 



Look at the family tree, and complete the sentences with his/her/their. 


Sk 


SARAH = PHILIP 



BEN WILL LAURA = STEVE 


t * 

iiwn 

ROBERT BETH 


1 I saw Sarah with. her .husband, Philip. 

2 I saw Laura and Steve with children. 

3 I saw Steve with.wife, Laura. 

4 I saw Ben with.brother. Will. 

5 I saw Laura with.brother, Will. 

6 I saw Sarah and Philip with.son, Will. 

7 I saw Laura with.parents. 

8 I saw Beth and Robert with.parents. 


Write my/our/your/his/her/their/its. 

1 Do you like. your .job? 

2 I know Mr Watson, but I don't know.wife. 

3 Alice and Tom live in London.son lives in Australia. 

4 We're going to have a party. We're going to invite all.friends. 

5 Anna is going out with.friends this evening. 

6 I like tennis. It's.favourite sport. 

7 'Is that car?' 'No, I don't have a car.’ 

8 I want to contact Maria. Do you know.number? 

9 Do you think most people are happy in.jobs? 

10 I'm going to wash.hair before I go out. 

11 This is a beautiful tree.leaves are a beautiful colour. 

12 John has a brother and a sister. .brother is 25, and sister is 21. 

Complete the sentences. Use my/his/their etc. with these words: 
coat homework house husband jek key name 

1 James doesn't enjoy his job It's not very interesting. 

2 I can’t get in. I don't have. 

3 Sally is married.works in a bank. 

4 Please take off.and sit down. 

5 'What are the children doing?' 'They’re doing. 

6 'Do you know that man?' 'Yes, but I don't know 

7 We live in Barton Street. 


is at the end on the left. 
















































Unit 

61 Whose is this? It's mine/yours/hers etc. 



1 


my 


mine 


It's my money. 

It’s mine. 

we 

—> 

our 


ours 


It's our money. 

It’s ours. 

you 

—> 

your 


yours 


It's your money. 

It’s yours 

he 


his 

—> 

his 


It's his money. 

It’s his. 

she 

— > 

her 

—» 

hers 


It's her money. 

It’s hers. 

they 


their 


theirs 


It's their money. 

It's theirs 



We use my/your etc. + noun (my hands / your book etc): 
My hands are cold 
O Is this your book? 

O Helen gave me her umbrella. 

O Its their problem, not our problem 


We use mine/yours etc. without a noun: 

O Is this book mine or yours? (= my book or your book) 

I didn't have an umbrella, so Sarah gave me hers. (= her umbrella) 
O It's their problem, not ours. (= not our problem) 

O We went in our car, and they went in theirs. (= their car) 


You can use his with or without a noun: 

Is this his camera or hers?' It's his.' 


c 


a friend of mine / a friend of his / some friends of yours etc. 

O I went out to meet a friend of mine. (not a friend of me) 

O Tom was in the restaurant with a friend of his. (not a friend of him) 
O Are those people friends of yours? (not friends of you) 



Whose .? 

Whose phone is this? (= Is it your phone? his phone? my phone? etc) 


You can use whose with or without a 

Whose money is this? 
Whose is this? J 


noun: 

Its mine. 


Whose shoes are these? 
Whose are these? 


They're John's. 





| ( my/his/their etc. ■» Unit 60 l/me/my/mine ■» Unit 62 Kate's camera / my brothers car Unit 64 ) 
















Exercises 


Complete the sentences with mine/yours etc. 

1 It's your money. It's. yours . 

2 It's my bag. It’s. 

3 It's our car. It’s. 

4 They're her shoes. They're. 


5 It's their house. It’s. 

6 They’re your books. They're 

7 They’re my glasses. They’re 

8 It’s his coat. It’s. 


Choose the right word. 

1 It’s their/ the i rs problem, not -ew^ours. ( their and ours are right) 

2 This is a nice camera. Is it vour/vours ? 

3 That's not mv/mine umbrella. My/Mine is black. 

4 Whose books are these? Your/Yours or mv/mine ? 

5 Catherine is going out with her/hers friends this evening. 

6 Mv/Mine room is bigger than her/hers . 

7 They have two children, but I don't know their/theirs names. 

8 Can we use your washing machine? Our/Ours isn’t working. 


Complete these sentences. Use friend(s) of mine/yours etc. 

1 I went to the cinema with a. friend of mine . 

2 They went on holiday with some. friends of theirs . 

3 She’s going out with a friend. 

4 We had dinner with some. 

5 I played tennis with a. 

6 Tom is going to meet a. 

7 Do you know those people? Are they. 

Look at the pictures. What are the people saying? 





























































































Unit 



I etc. me etc. 

(-> Unit 59) (-> Unit 59) 



my etc. mine etc. 

(—> Unit 60) (—Unit 61) 




1 know Tom. 

Tom knows me. 

Its my car. 

It's mine. 

n ( 

A 

We know Tom. 

Tom knows us. 

Its our car. 

It's ours. 

J 

P 

You know Tom. 

Tom knows you. 

It's your car. 

It's yours. 

w 


He knows Tom. 

Tom knows him. 

It's his car. 

It's his. 

cr 

# 

She knows Tom. 

Tom knows her. 

Ic's her car. 

It's hers. 

i 

© 

k 

They know Tom. 

Tom knows them. 

It’s their car. 

It's theirs. 


B 


Study these examples: 

O 'Do you know that man?' 'Yes, I know him, but I can't remember his name.' 

O She was very pleased because we invited her to stay with us at our house. 

O a: Where are the children? Have you seen them? 
b: Yes, they are playing with their friends in the park. 

That's my pen. Can you give it to me, please? 

O Is this your umbrella?' No, it's yours.' 

He didn't have an umbrella, so she gave him hers. (= she gave her umbrella to him) 
O I'm going out with a friend of mine this evening. (not a friend of me) 


134 


f myself/yourself etc Unit 63 Give me that book / Give it to me -4 Unit 96 


























Exercises 


Answer the questions in the same way. 




Yes, I know hirn, but I.can’t . 
. remember his . 


Yes, I know. but I cant 

remember. 



Do you know 
those people? 





Yes, I., buc 


Yes, I 


, buc 


names. 


Complete the sentences in the same way. 

1 We invited her to stay with us at our house . 

2 He invited us to stay with.at his house. 

3 They invited me to stay with. 

4 I invited them to stay.house. 

5 She invited us to stay.house. 

6 Did you invite him.house? 


house. 


Complete the sentences in the same way. 

1 I gave him. thy .phone number, and. he gave.me his. 

2 I gave her. thy. phone number, and she gave me. 

3 He gave me. his .phone number, and I gave. 


4 We gave them.phone number, and they gave 

5 She gave him.phone number, and he gave. 

6 You gave us.phone number, and we gave. 

7 They gave you.phone number, and you gave. 


Write him/her/yours etc. 

1 Where's Amanda? Have you seen. her .? 

2 Where are my keys? Where did I put.? 

3 This book belongs co Ben. Can you give it to.? 

4 We don't see.neighbours much. They're not at home very often. 

5 'I can't find my phone. Can I use ?' 'Yes, of course.' 

6 We're going to the cinema. Why don’t you come with.? 

7 Did your sister pass.exams? 

8 Some people talk about work all the time. 

9 Last night I went out for a meal with a friend of. 































































Unit 


63 myself/yourself/themselves etc. 


it 

I 


He's looking at himself 



MHelp yourself\ 



They're enjoying themselves. 


1 

-> 

me 

-> 

myself 

o 

he 

—> 

him 

—> 

himself 

o 

she 

—> 

her 

—> 

herself 

o 





f yourself 

o 

you 

—> 

you 


1 yourselves 

o 

we 

— > 

us 

—» 

ourselves 

o 

they 

—> 

them 

-> 

themselves 

o 


Compare: 

me/him/them etc 



She is looking at him 
i_i 

different people 


ji 


myself/himself/themselves etc 

m 


He is looking at himself 
l_l 


the same person 


m 




O You never talk to me. 

I didn't pay for them. 

I'm sorry. Did I hurt you? 

by myself / by yourself etc = alone: 

I went on holiday by myself (= I went alone) 

) 'Was she with friends?' 'No, she was by herself.' 


) Sometimes I talk to myself 
J They paid for themselves. 

Be careful. Don't hurt yourself 


each other 

Kate and Helen are good friends. They know each other well. (= Kate knows Helen / Helen 
knows Kate) 

Paul and I live near each other. (= he lives near me /1 live near him) 


Compare each other and -selves: 


JAMES 



SUE 







SUE 


136 


O James and Sue looked at each other. 
(- he looked at her, she looked at him) 


James and Sue looked at themselves. 
(= he looked at himself, she looked at 
herself) 


f me/him/them etc. Unit 59 




















Exercises 


Unit 

63 


_ \ 

Complete the sentences with myself/yourself etc. 

1 He looked at himself. .j n the mirror. 

2 I'm not angry with you. I'm angry with.. 

3 Karen had a good time in Australia. She enjoyed. 

4 My friends had a good time in Australia. They enjoyed. 

5 I picked up a very hot plate and burnt. 

6 He never thinks about other people. He only thinks about.. 


7 I want to know more about you. Tell me about. (one person) 

8 Goodbye! Have a good trip and take care of.! (two people) 


Write sentences with by myself / by yourself etc. 


1 I went on holiday alone. 

2 When I saw him, he was alone. 

3 Don't go out alone. 

4 I went to the cinema alone. 

5 My sister lives alone. 

6 Many people live alone. 


I went on holiday..by.niy5£;!,f. 
When I saw him, he 

Don't. 

I. 


My sister. 

Many people 



Write sentences with each other. 




^ Complete the sentences. Use: 

each other or ourselves/yourselves/themselves or us/you/them 

1 Paul and I live near. each other . 

2 Who are those people? Do you know. Them. ? 

3 You can help Tom, and Tom can help you. So you and Tom can help 

4 There's food in the kitchen. If you and Chris are hungry, you can help 


5 We didn't go to Emily's party. She didn't invite . 

6 When we go on holiday, we always enjoy. 

7 Helen and Jane were at school together, but they never see.now. 

8 Karen and I are very good friends. We've known.for a long time. 


9 'Did you see Sam and Laura at the party?' 'Yes, but I didn't speak to 
10 Many people talk to.when they're alone. 


137 








































































Unit 

64 -'s (Kate's camera / my brother's car etc.) 



MY BROTHER 


Kate’s camera my brother’s car the manager's office 

(her camera) (his car) (his or her office) 

We normally use -’s for people: 

O I stayed at my sister's house, (not the house of my sister) 

O Have you met Mr Black's wife? (not the wife of Mr Black) 

O Are you going to James's party? 

O Paul is a man’s name. Paula is a woman’s name. 

You can use -'s without a noun after it: 

O Sophie’s hair is longer than Kate's. (= Kate's hair) 

O 'Whose umbrella is this?' ‘It’s my mother's.’ (= my mother’s umbrella) 

O 'Where were you last night?’ 'I was at Paul's.’ (= Paul’s house) 


B 


friend's and friends' 



my friend’s house = one friend 
(- his house or her house) 

We write's after 

friend/student/mother etc. (singular): 
my mother’s car (one mother) 
my father's car (one father) 



my friends’ house = two or more friends 
(= their house) 

We write' after 

friends/students/parents etc. (plural): 
my parents’ car (two parents) 




138 


We use of ... for things, places etc.: 

O Look at the roof of that building, (not that building's roof) 

O We didn't see the beginning of the film, (not the film's beginning) 
O What's the name of this village? 

O Do you know the cause of the problem? 

O You can sit in the back of the car. 

□ Madrid is the capital of Spain. 


( mine/yours etc.*+ Unit61 whose 7 -* Unit 61 


-’s (he's / Kate’s etc.) *4 Appendix 4.5 











Exercises 


Look at the family tree. Complete the sentences about the people in the family. 

1 Brian is. Helens .husband. 

2 Sarah is Daniel's. mother . 

3 Helen is.wife. 

4 James is Sarah's 

5 James is uncle. 

6 Sarah is wife. 

7 Helen is Daniel's. 

8 Sarah is James's. 

9 Paulis.husband. 

10 Paul is Daniel's. 

11 Daniel is.nephew. 


HELEN 


T t 


BRIAN 


f 0 


JAMES 


SARAH 


t 


Kjf 


PAUL 


DANIEL 

Helen and Brian are married. 

They have a son, James, and a daughter, Sarah. 
Sarah is married to Paul. 

Sarah and Paul have a son, Daniel. 




JANE ANDY 


ALICE 

RACHEL 

DAVE 

1 

Whose is this? 3 

Alice's 

Jft 

And this? 

s + 

And this? 

2 N 

Whose is this? 4 

JU 

And these? 

6 

And these? 


Are these sentences OK? Change them where necessary. 


1 I stayed at the house of my sister . . my sisters .house 

2 What is the name of this village ? . OK . 


3 Do you like the colour of this coat ? 

4 Do you have the phone number of Simon ? 

5 The job of my brother is very interesting. 

6 Write your name at the top of the page . 

7 For me, the morning is the best part of the day . 

8 The favourite colour of Paula is blue. 

9 When is the birthday of your mother ? 

10 The house of my parents isn't very big. 

11 The walls of this house are very thin. 

12 The car stopped at the end of the street . 

13 Are you going to the party of Silvia next week? 

14 The manager of the hotel is not here at the moment 




















































Unit 

65 a/an... 




He's got a camera. She's waiting for a taxi. 


a ... = one thing or person: 

Rachel works in a bank. (not in bank) 
Can I ask a question? (not ask question) 
I don't have a job at the moment. 

) There's a woman at the bus stop. 



an (not a) before a/e/i/o/u: 

Do you want an apple or a banana? 

I'm going to buy a hat and an umbrella. 

There was an interesting programme on TV last night. 


also an hour (h is not pronounced: an Xour) 
but a university (pronounced yunii/ersity ) 

a European country (pronounced yuropean) 


I another (= an + other) is one word: 

Can I have another cup of coffee? 



It's a beautiful day. 


c 


We use a/an ... when we say what a thing or a person is. For example: 
The sun is a star. 

O Football is a game. 

C Dallas is a city in Texas 

A mouse is an animal It's a small animal 
O Joe is a very nice person 

We use a/an ... for jobs etc.: 

( J a: What's your job? 

b: I'm a dentist. (not I'm dentist) 

'What does Mark do?' 'He's an engineer.' 

Would you like to be a teacher? 

Beethoven was a composer. 

Picasso was a famous painter 
Are you a student? 



140 


D 


f a car / some money (countable/uncountable) -4 Units 67-68 a and the *4 Unit 69 










Exercises 



Write a or an. 


1.. an .old book 


2 .window 

3 .horse 


4 .airport 

5 .new airport 

6 .organisation 


7 .university 

8 .hour 

9 economic problem 


What are these things? Choose from the box. 


bird fruit mountain river musical instrument 

flower game planet tool vegetable 

1 A duck is. a bird . 6 Saturn is. 

2 A carrot is. 7 A banana is. 

3 Tennis is. 8 The Amazon is 

4 A hammer is. 9 A rose is. 

5 Everest is. 10 A trumpet is. 


What are their jobs? Choose from the list and complete the sentences. 

architect dentist- shop assistant photographer 

electrician nurse taxi driver 



1 . She's a dentist, 

2 He's. 

3 She. 

4 . 


5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 And you? I'm 


Write sentences. Choose from the two boxes. Use a/an where necessary. 

I want to ask you Rebecca works in old house 

Tom never wears Jane wants to learn party 

I can't ride Mike lives in bookshop 

My brother is This evening I'm going to hat 


artist 

/II iorf i /\n 

v| UCjlIUrl 

foreign language 
bike 


1 I want to ask you a question. 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 


141 





































































































train(s) bus(es) (singular and plural) 


The plural of a noun is usually -s: 


singular (= one) —> 
a flower —> 
a train —> 
one week —> 
a nice place —> 
this student —> 


plural (= two or more) 
some flowers 
two trains 
a few weeks 
some nice places 
these students 


% 

Jr 

a flower some flowers 



Spelling (—> Appendix 5): 


-s / -sh / -ch / -x 

-> 

-es 

also 

bus —> buses dish —» dishes 

church —> churches box —> boxes 

potato —> potatoes tomato —» tomatoes 

-y 

but -ay / -ey / -oy 

-> 

-ies 

-ys 

baby -» babies dictionary —»dictionaries party —> parties 

day —> days monkey —» monkeys boy —» boys 

-f / -fe 

—> 

-ves 

shelf —> shelves knife —> knives wife —> wives 







scissors glasses trousers jeans shorts tights pyjamas 


O Do you wear glasses? 

□ Where are the scissors? I need them. 

You can also say a pair of scissors / a pair of trousers / a pair of pyjamas etc: 

O I need a new pair of jeans, or I need some new jeans. ( not a new jeans) 

Some plurals do not end in -s: 

this man —» these men one foot —» two feet that sheep — > those sheep 

a woman —» some women a tooth all my teeth a fish —> a lot offish 

a child —> many children a mouse —»• some mice 

also a person —» two people / some people / a lot of people etc: 

O She's a nice person. 

but O They are nice people, (not nice persons) 

People is plural (= they), so we say people are / people have etc : 

O A lot of people speak English. ( not speaks) 

O I like the people here. They are very friendly. 

Police is plural: 

O The police want to talk to anybody who saw the accident, (not The police wants) 


















Exercises 

. {f Write the plural. 


flower 

flowers 

5 umbrella 

9 

family 

foot 

boat 


6 address 

10 

woman 


7 knife . 

. 11 

holiday 

potato 

city 


. 8 sandwich . 

12 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. 



1 There are a lot of. sheep. .in the field. 4 Lucy has two. 

2 Gary is cleaning his. 5 There are a lot of in the river. 

3 There are three at the bus stop. 6 The are falling from the tree. 

. Are these sentences OK? Change the sentences where necessary. 

1 I'm going to buy some flowers. . QIS. . 

2 I need a new jeans. . I need a new pair of jeans. OR . 

. [need.eome.hewjeans, . 

3 It's a lovely park with a lot of beautiful tree. . 

4 There was a woman in the car with two mens. 

5 Sheep eat grass. 

6 David is married and has three childs. . 

7 Most of my friend are student. . 

8 He put on his pyjama and went to bed. . 

9 We went fishing, but we didn't catch many fish. 

10 Do you know many persons in this town? 

11 I like your trouser. Where did you get it? 

12 The town centre is usually full of tourist. 

13 I don’t like mice. I'm afraid of them. . 

14 This scissor isn't very sharp. 

Which is right? Complete the sentences. 

1 It's a nice place. Many people. QQ there on holiday. 

2 Some people.always late. 

3 The new city hall is not a beautiful building. Most 

people.like it. 

4 A lot of people.TV every day. 

5 Three people.injured in the accident. 

6 How many people.in that house? 

7 .the police know the cause of the explosion? 

8 The police.looking for the stolen car. 

9 I need my glasses, but I can't find. 

10 I'm going to buy.new jeans today. 


go or goes? 
is or are? 

don't or doesn't? 
watch or watches? 
was or were? 
live or lives? 

Do or Does? 
is or are? 
it or them? 
a or some? 


143 




























































Unit a bottle / some water 

67 \ (countable/uncountable 1) 

A 


^ A noun can be countable or uncountable. 

Countable nouns 

For example: (a) car (a) man (a) bottle (a) house (a) key (an) idea (an) accident 
You can use one/two/three (etc.) + countable nouns (you can count them): 


144 


C 


<5 






** ■ # 
A * 


one bottle two bottles three men 

Countable nouns can be singular (= one) or plural (= two or more): 

singular 
plural 


lx: 

f / 

four houses 


a car the car my car etc. 

cars two cars the cars some cars 


many cars etc. 


O I've got a car. 

O New cars are very expensive. 

O There aren't many cars in the car park. 

You can't use the singular (car/bottle/key etc.) alone. You need a/an: 
O We can't get into the house without a key. (not without key) 

Uncountable nouns 


rice salt 

plastic money 

music tennis 

sal t 


Vf'jg'fc* 

F\ 

* 

1_ mJ 

V- a . 


salt 

money 

music 


You can't say one/two/three (etc.) + these things: on e wat e r two musics 
Uncountable nouns have only one form: 

money the money my money some money much money etc. 

O I've got some money 

O There isn't much money in the box. 

O 'Money isn't everything. 

You can't use a/an + uncountable nouns: X money X music x water 

But you can say a piece of... / a bottle of ... etc. + uncountable noun: 

a bottle of water a carton of milk a bar of chocolate 

a piece of cheese a bottle of perfume a piece of music 

a bowl of rice a cup of coffee a game of tennis 


( a/an -» Unit 65 countable/uncountable 2 ■» Unit 68 













Exercises 


What are these things? Some are countable and some are uncountable. Write a/an if necessary. 
The names of these things are: 

bucket envelope money sand toothbrush wallet 


egg jug s poon toothpaste water 



Some of these sentences are OK, but some need a/an. Write a/an where necessary. 


1 I don't have watch. a watch 

2 Do you like cheese? . OK . 

3 I never wear hat. 

4 Are you looking for job? 

5 Kate doesn't eat meat. 

6 Kate eats apple every day. 

7 I'm going to party tonight. 

8 Music is wonderful thing. 


9 Jamaica is island. 

10 I don't need key. 

11 Everybody needs food. 

12 I've got good idea. 

13 Can you drive car? . 

14 Do you want cup of coffee? 

15 I don't like coffee without milk. 

16 Don't go out without umbrella. 



What are these things? Write a ... of... for each picture. Use the words in the boxes. 



bar 

cup 

loaf 


bread 

milk 

tea 

bowl 

glass 

piece 


chocolate 

paper 

water 

carton 

jar 

piece 


honey 

soup 

wood 

l a carton of milk 


. 4 .. 



. 7 

2 . 



5 .. 



. 8 


145 






































































a cake / some cake / some cakes 

(countable/uncountable 2) 


a/an and some 


a/an + singular countable nouns (car/apple/shoe etc.): 
O I need a new car. 

O Would you like an apple? 

some + plural countable nouns (cars/apples/shoes etc.): 
O I need some new shoes. 

O Would you like some apples? 

some + uncountable nouns (water/money/music etc.): 
O I need some water. 

O Would you like some cheese? 

(or Would you like a piece of cheese?) 




some cheese or 
a piece of cheese 


Compare a and some: 

O Nicola bought a hat, some shoes and some perfume. 

O I read a newspaper, made some phone calls, and listened to some music. 

Many nouns are sometimes countable and sometimes uncountable. For example: 



a cake some cakes some cake or a piece of cake 

a chicken some chickens some chicken or a piece of chicken 


Compare a paper (= a newspaper) and some paper: 

I want something to read. I'm going to buy a paper 
but I want to make a shopping list. I need some paper / a piece of paper, (not a paper) 

Be careful with: 

advice bread furniture hair information news weather work 

These nouns are usually uncountable. So you can't say a/an ... (-a- br ea d, -a n adv i ce ), and they can't be 
plural ( adv i c e s, furn i tur e s etc.). 

O Can I talk to you? I need some advice, (not an advice) 

I'm going to buy some bread, (not a bread) 

O They've got some nice furniture in their house, (not furnitures) 

O Silvia has very long hair, (not hairs) 

Where can I get some information about hotels here? (not informations) 

Listen! I've just had some good news, (not a good news) 

It's nice weather today, (not a nice weather) 

'Do you like your job?' 'Yes, but it's hard work.' (not a hard work) 

We say a job (but not a work): 

) I've got a new job. (not a new work) 


( countable/uncountable 1 Unit 67 some and any Unit 76 


D 










Exercises 


What can you see in these pictures? Use a or some. 


0 



IV 


m 






* 



1 some jwrfl urr\e x a 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 



1 Would .you.like.some.che^:;^ 

2 Would you like. 

3 Would. 


4 

5 

6 


? 

? 

? 


Write a/an or some. 

1 I read £ book and listened to somo music. 

2 l need money. I want to buy.food. 

3 We met.interesting people at the party. 

4 I'm going to open.window to get.fresh air. 

5 Rachel didn't eat much for lunch - only apple and.bread. 

6 We live in.big house. There's.nice garden with.beautiful trees. 

7 I'm going to make a table. First I need.wood. 

8 Listen to me carefully. I'm going to give you.advice. 

9 I want to make a list of things to do. I need paper and.pen. 


Which is right? 


1 I'm going to buy some new shoe/shoes , ( shoes is right ) 

2 Mark has brown eve/eves . 

3 Paula has short black hair/hairs . 

4 The tour guide gave us some information/informations about the city. 

5 We're going to buy some new chair/chairs . 

6 We're going to buy some new furniture/furnitures . 

7 It's hard to find a work/iob at the moment. 

8 We had wonderful weather / a wonderful weather when we were on holiday. 



















































Unit 

69 


a/an and the 


i 


a/an 


the 




There are three windows here, 
a window = window 1 or 2 or 3 





Can you open 
the window? 



O I've got a car. 

(there are many cars and I've got one) 
O Can I ask a question? (there are many 
questions - can I ask one?) 

O Is there a hotel near here? (there are 
many hotels - is there one near here?) 
O Paris is an interesting city, (there are 
many interesting cities and Paris is one) 
O Lisa is a student. 

(there are many students and Lisa 
is one) 

Compare a and the: 


There is only one window here - 
the window. 

□ I'm going to clean the car tomorrow. 
(= my car) 

Can you repeat the question, please? 
(= the question that you asked) 
j We enjoyed our holiday. The hotel 
was very nice. (= our hotel) 

Paris is the capital of France 
(there is only one capital of France) 
Lisa is the youngest student in her 
class, (there is only one youngest 
student in her class) 


O I bought a jacket and a shirt . The jacket was cheap, but the shirt was expensive. 

(= the jacket and the shirt that I bought) 

We say the ... when it is clear which thing or person we mean. For example: 

the door / the ceiling / the floor / the carpet / the light etc (of a room) 
the roof / the garden / the kitchen / the bathroom etc. (of a house) 
the centre / the station / the airport / the town hall etc. (of a town) 


'Where's Tom? 'in the kitchen.' 

(= the kitchen of this house or flat) 

Turn off the light and close the door. 
(- the light and the door of the room) 
Do you live far from the centre? 

(= the centre of your town) 

I'd like to speak to the manager, please. 
(= the manager of this shop etc.) 


the ceiling 

he door 



the light 


ifcltfliill __ 

i»llallktt\ft*ir 

.iitiffei din 



148 ( a/an ■» Unit 65 the Units 70-73 


















Exercises 

Write a/an or the. 

1 We enjoyed our trip.Die..hotel was very nice. 

2 'Can I ask. a .question?’ 'Sure. What do you want to know?' 

3 You look very tired. You need holiday. 

4 'Where's Tom?’ 'He's in garden.' 

5 Eve is.interesting person. You should meet her. 

6 a: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to.city centre? 

b: Yes, go straight on and then take.next turning left. 

7 a: Shall we go out for.meal this evening? 

B: Yes, that's.good idea. 

8 It’s.nice morning. Let’s go for.walk. 

9 Amanda is.student. When she finishes her studies, she wants to be.journalist. She 

lives with two friends in.apartment near.college where she is studying. 

apartment is small, but she likes it. 

10 Peter and Mary have two children,.boy and.girl.boy is seven years old, and 

.girl is three. Peter works in.factory. Mary doesn't have.job at the moment. 

Complete the sentences. Use a or the + these words: 

airport cup dictionary door floor picture 



These sentences are not correct. Put in a/an or the where necessary. 

1 Don't forget to tum_offHght when you go out. . Turn off the light 

2 Enjoy your trip, and don't forget to send me postcard. 

3 What is name of this village? 

4 Canada is very big country. . 

5 What is largest city in Canada? 

6 I like chis room, but I don't like colour of carpet. 

7 'Are you OK?’ 'No, I've got headache.’ . 

8 We live in old house near station. . 

9 What is name of director of film we saw last night? . 









































































the 


• » • 


We use the when it is clear which thing or person we mean: 

O What is the name of this street? (there is only one name) 

O Who is the best player in your team? (there is only one best player) 

O Can you tell me the time, please? (= the time now) 

O My office is on the first floor. (= the first floor of the building) 

Don't forget the: 

O Do you live near the city centre? (not near city centre) 

O Excuse me, where is the nearest bank? (not where is nearest...) 

the same... 

O We live in the same street, (not in same street) 

O 'Are these two books different?’ 'No, they’re the same.' (not they're same) 


We say: 

the sun / the moon / the world / the sky / the sea / the country 

O The sky is blue and the sun is shining. 

O Do you live in a town or in the country? 

the police / the fire brigade / the army (of a city, country etc.) 

O My brother is a soldier. He's in the army. 

O What do you think of the police? Do they do a good job? 

the top / the end / the middle / the left etc. 

O Write your name at the top of the page. 

O My house is at the end of the street. 

O The table is in the middle of the room. 

O Do you drive on the right or on the left in your country? 



the left 


the top 


the 

middle 


the right 


the bottom 


(play) the piano / the guitar / the trumpet etc. (musical instruments) 
O Paula is learning to play the piano. 


the radio 

O I listen to the radio a lot. ,. 

4 

the internet 

O What do you use the internet for? 








We do not use the with: 

television / TV 

O I watch TV a lot. 

O What's on television tonight? 
but Can you turn off the TV? (= the TV set) 

breakfast / lunch / dinner 

O What did you have for breakfast? (not the breakfast) 
O Dinner is ready! 


next / last + week/month/year/summer/Monday etc. 

O I'm not working next week, (not the next week) 

O Did you have a holiday last summer? (not the last summer) 




(" a/an and the 4 Unit 69 the 4 Units 71-73 the oldest / the most expensive etc. *4 Unit 90 

D 




















I 


Exercises 



^ Put in the where necessary. Write 'OK' if the sentence is already correct. 

1 What is name of this street? . the name 

2 What’s on TV tonight? . OK . 

3 Our apartment is on second floor. . 

4 Would you like to go to moon? . 

5 Which is best hotel in this town? . 

6 What time is lunch? . 

7 How far is it to city centre? . 

8 We're going away at end of May. . 

9 What are you doing next weekend? . 

10 I didn’t like her first time I met her. . 

11 I’m going out after dinner. 

12 It’s easy to get information from internet. . 

13 My sister got married last month. . 

14 My dictionary is on top shelf on right. . 

15 We live in country about ten miles from nearest town. 


Complete the sentences. Use the same + these words: 

age colour problem street time 


1 I live in North Street and you live in North Street. We live in. the same etreet 

2 I arrived at 8.30 and you arrived at 8.30. We arrived at. 

3 James is 25 and Sue is 25. James and Sue are. 

4 My shirt is dark blue and so is my jacket. My shirt and jacket are. 

5 I have no money and you have no money. We have. 





v- 

moming 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. 

□r 


Use the if necessary. 

© 

mmgrnmm 


1 . The sun .is shining. 4 He's watching. 

2 She's playing. 5 They're swimming in. 

3 They're having. 6 Tom's name is at.of the list. 

Complete these sentences. Choose from the list. Use the if necessary. 

capital d i nn e r police lunch middle name sky TV 

1 We had. dinner .at a restaurant last night. 

2 We stayed at a very nice hotel, but I don't remember. 

3 .is very clear tonight. You can see all the stars. 

4 Sometimes there are some good films on.late at night. 

5 Somebody was trying to break into the shop, so I called. 

6 Tokyo is.of Japan. 

7 'What did you have for.?' 'A salad.' 

8 I woke up in.of the night. 


151 

























































Unit 

71 



152 


go to work go home go to the cinema 




She's at work. They're going to school. 


We say: 

(go) to work, (be) at work, start work, finish work 

O Bye! I'm going to work now. (not to the work) 

O I finish work at 5 o'clock every day. 

(go) to school, (be) at school, start school, leave school etc. 

O What did you learn at school today? (not at the school) 
O Some children don't like school. 

(go) to university/college, (be) at university/college 

Helen wants to go to university when she leaves school. 

O What did you study at college? 

(go) to hospital, (be) in hospital 

O Jack had an accident. He had to go to hospital. 

(go) to prison, (be) in prison 

O Why is he in prison? What did he do? 

(go) to church, (be) in/at church 

O David usually goes to church on Sundays. 

(go) to bed, (be) in bed 

O I'm tired. I'm going to bed. (not to the bed) 

O 'Where's Alice?' 'She's in bed.’ 

(go) home, (be) at home etc. 

I'm tired. I'm going home, (not to home) 

O Are you going out tonight, or are you staying at home? 



He's in bed. 



B 


(go to) the cinema / the theatre / the bank / the post office / the station / 
the airport / the city centre 

O I never go to the theatre, but I go to the cinema a lot. 

O 'Are you going to the bank?' 'No, to the post office.' 

O The number 5 bus goes to the airport; the number 8 goes to 

the city centre. 

(go to) the doctor the dentist 

O You're not well. Why don't you go to the doctor? 

O I have to go to the dentist tomorrow. 

( the Units 69-70, 72-73 in/at -► Units 106-107 to/in/at Unit 108 (at) home Unit 108 ) 










Exercises 




Where are these people? Complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the. 

® . 


— I i 
c»- 


1 He's in bed . 3 She's in. 5 They're at 

2 They're at. 4 She's at. 6 He's in. 


Complete the sentences. Choose from the list. Use the if necessary. 

bank bed church home post office school station 


1 I need to change some money. I have to go to. The bank . 

2 David usually goes to. church .on Sundays. 

3 In Britain, children go to.from the age of five. 

4 There were a lot of people at.waiting for the train. 

5 We went to their house, but they weren't at. 

6 I'm going to.now. Goodnight! 

7 I'm going to.to get some stamps. 


Complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the. 

1 If you want to catch a plane, you. QQtot he airport 

2 If you want to see a film, you go to. 

3 If you are tired and you want to sleep, you. 

4 If you rob a bank and the police catch you, you. 

5 If you have a problem with your teeth, you. 

6 If you want to study after you leave school, you. 

7 If you are badly injured in an accident, you. 


Are these sentences OK? Correct the sentences where necessary. 

1 We went to,cinema last night. . to the cinema 

2 I finish work at 5 o'clock every day. . OK . 

3 Lisa wasn't feeling well yesterday, so she went to doctor. . 

4 I wasn't feeling well this morning, so I stayed in bed. . 

5 Why is Angela always late for work? . 

6 'Where are your children?' 'They're at school.' . 

7 We have no money in bank. . 

8 When I was younger, I went to church every Sunday. . 

9 What time do you usually get home from work? . 

10 Do you live far from city centre? . 

11 'Where shall we meet?' 'At station.' . 

12 James is ill. He's in hospital. 

13 Kate takes her children to school every day. . 

14 Would you like to go to university? . 

15 Would you like to go to theatre this evening? 





















































Unit 


I like music I hate exams 




We do not use the for general ideas, 

I like music especially classical music 

(not the music ... the classical music) 

We don't eat meat very often, (not the meat) 

Life is not possible without water 
(not The life ... the water) 
l J I hate exams (not the exams) 

Is there a shop near here that sells newspapers 7 

We do not use the for games and sports: 

O My favourite sports are football and skiing, (not the football... the skiing) 

We do not use the for languages or school subjects (history/geography/physics/biology etc): 
O Do you think English is difficult? (not the English) 

O Tom's brother is studying physics and chemistry. 

flowers or the flowers? 

Compare: 


O Flowers are beautiful. 
(= flowers in general) 


O I don't like cold weather. 

(= cold weather in general) 

O We don't eat fish very often. 
(= fish in general) 


O Are you interested in 

history? 

(= history in general) 


I love this garden. 

The flowers are beautiful. 
(= the flowers in this 
garden) 

The weather isn't very 
good today. 

(= the weather today) 

We had a great meal last 
night. The fish was 
excellent. 

(= the fish we ate last 
night) 

Do you know much 
about the history of 

your country? 



( the -> Units 69-71, 73 


154 






















Exercises 


What do you think about these things? 

big cities computer games exams jazz parties 

chocolate dogs housework museums tennis 

Choose seven of these things and write sentences with: 

I like ... I don’t like ... I love ... I hate ... or ... is/are all right 

1 . 1 bate exams. .or. I like exams.. or. Ex a ms are all ri ght , (etc.). 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 

Are you interested in these things? Write sentences with: 

I'm (very) interested in ... I know a lot about... I don’t know much about... 

I’m not interested in ... I know a little about... I don't know anything about... 

1 (history) . I’m very interested in hi s tory. . 

2 (politics) I. 

3 (sport) . 

4 (art) . 

5 (astronomy) . 

6 (economics) . 

Which is right? 

1 My favourite sport is football / th e footba ll . (football is right) 

2 I like this hotel. -Reems- / The rooms are very nice. (The rooms is right) 

3 Everybody needs friends / the friends . 

4 Jane doesn't go to parties / the parties very often. 

5 I went shopping this morning. Shoos / The shops were very busy. 

6 'Where's milk / the milk ?' 'It's in the fridge.' 

7 I don't like milk / the milk . I never drink it. 

8 'Do you do any sports?' 'Yes, I play basketball / the basketball . 1 

9 An architect is a person who designs buildings / the buildings . 

10 We went for a swim in the river. Water / The water was very cold. 

11 I don't like swimming in cold water / the cold water . 

12 Excuse me, can you pass salt / the salt, please? 

13 I like this town. I like people / the people here. 

14 Vegetables / The vegetables are good for you. 

15 Houses / The houses in this street are all the same. 

16 I can't sing this song. I don't know words / the words . 

17 I enjoy taking pictures / the pictures . It's my hobby. 

18 Do you want to see pictures / the pictures that I took when I was on holiday? 

19 English / The English is used a lot in international business / the international business . 

20 Money / The money doesn’t always bring happiness / the happiness . 














































Unit 

73 the ... (names of places) 


In general we do not use the with names of places: 

O France is a very large country. (not the France) 
O Cairo is the capital of Egypt. 

O Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean. 

O Peru is in South America. 


But we use the in names with 'republic'/'statesV'kingdom': 
the Czech Republic 

the United States of America (the USA) 
the United Kingdom (the UK) 



the -s (plural names) 

We use the with plural names of countries/islands/mountains: 
the Netherlands the Canary Islands 

the Philippines the Alps 



Seas, rivers etc. 


We use the with names of oceans/seas/rivers/canals: 

the Atlantic (Ocean) the Mediterranean (Sea) the Amazon 
the (River) Nile the Suez Canal the Black Sea 






the 


D 


Places in towns (streets, buildings etc) 

In general we do not use the with names of streets, squares etc: 
O Kevin lives in Newton Street 
O Where is Highfield Road, please? 

□ Times Square is in New York. 


We do not use the with names of airports, stations and many other important buildings: 

Kennedy Airport Westminster Abbey London Zoo 

Victoria Station Edinburgh Castle 

also 

Cambridge University, Harvard University etc 



But we use the with names of most hotels, museums, theatres and cinemas: 
the Regent Hotel the National Theatre 
the Science Museum the Odeon (cinema) 



the... of... 

We use the + names with ... of...: 

the Museum of Modern Art the University of California 
the Great Wall of China the Tower of London 

We say the north / the south / the east / the west (of...): 

O I've been to the north of Italy, but not to the south. 




156 


( the Units 69-72 


D 





Exercises 

Answer these geography questions. Choose from the box. Use The if necessary. 



1 Cairo 

.is the capital of Egypt. 

Alps 

2 The Atlantic 

.is between Africa and America. 

Amazon 

3 . 

.is a country in norchern Europe. 

Andes 

4 . 

.is a river in South America. 

Asia 

5 . 

.is the largest continent in the world. 

Atlantic 

6 . 

.is the largest ocean. 

Bahamas 

7 . 

.is a river in Europe. 

Bangkok 

8 . 

.is a country in East Africa. 

Cairo 

9 . 

.is between Canada and Mexico. 

Jamaica 

10 . 

.are mountains in South America. 

Kenya 

11 . 

.is the capital of Thailand. 

Pacific 

12 . 

.are mountains in central Europe. 

Red Sea 

13 . 

.is between Saudi Arabia and Africa. 

Rhine 

14 . 

.is an island in the Caribbean. 

Sweden 

15 . 

are a group of islands near Florida. 

United States 


Write the where necessary. If the sentence is already correct, write OK. 

1 Kevin lives in Newton Street. . OK . 

2 We went to see a play at National Theatre . 

3 Have you ever been to China? 

4 Have you ever been to Philippines? . 

5 Have you ever been to south of France? . 

6 Can you tell me where Regal Cinema is? . 

7 Can you tell me where Merrion Street is? . 

8 Can you tell me where Museum of Art is? . 

9 Europe is bigger than Australia. . 

10 Belgium is smaller than Netherlands. . 

11 Which river is longer - Mississippi or Nile? . 

12 Did you go to National Gallery when you 
were in London? 

13 We stayed at Park Hotel in Hudson Road. . 

14 How far is it from Trafalgar Square to Victoria 
Station (in London)? 

15 Rocky Mountains are in North America. 

16 Texas is famous for oil and cowboys. . 

17 I hope to go to United States next year. . 

18 Mary comes from west of Ireland. . 

19 Alan is a student at Manchester University. . 

20 Panama Canal joins Atlantic Ocean and 
Pacific Ocean. 


*4 Additional exercises 33-34 (pages 269-70) 









































this/that/these/those 


this (singular) 



these (plural) 


that (singular) 



this piccure 
(= this picture here) 
these flowers 
(= these flowers here ) 



that 

those 


O 


A 


those (plural) 



that picture 
(= that picture there ) 
those people 
(= those people there ) 


We use this/that/these/those with a noun (this picture / those girls etc.) or without a noun: 
O This hotel is expensive, but it's very nice. 

O 'Who's that girl?’ ‘I don't know with a noun 

O Do you like these shoes? I bought them last week. 

O Those apples look nice. Can I have one? 


O This is a nice hotel, but it's very expensive. 

O 'Excuse me, is this your bag?' 'Oh yes, thank you.' 
O Who's that? (= Who is that person?) 

O Which shoes do you prefer - these or those? 


without a noun 


that = something that has happened: 

O ‘I’m sorry I forgot to phone you.' 'That's all right.' 
O That was a really nice meal. Thank you very much. 

that = what somebody has just said: 

O 'You're a teacher, aren't you?' 'Yes, that's right.' 

O 'Martin has a new job.' 'Really? I didn't know that.' 
O 'I’m going on holiday next week.' 'Oh, that's nice.’ 


We use this is ... and is that ... ? on the phone: 
O Hi Sarah, this is David. 

(this = che speaker) 

O Is that Sarah? 

(that = the other person) 



We use this is ... to introduce people: 

O a: Ben, this is Chris. 

b: Hello, Chris - nice to meet you. 
c: Hi. 





AMANDA BEN CHRIS 




f this one / that one -fr Unit 75 























Exercises 


Complete the sentences. Use this/that/these/those + these words: 

birds house plates postcards seat s hoe s 




Write questions: Is this/that your ... ? or Are these/those your... ? 


Is this 


your bag? 


V 


Complete the sentences with this is or that's or that. 


1 a: I'm sorry I'm late. 

b: . Ib.at’s .all right. 

2 a: I can't come to the party tomorrow. 

b: Oh,.a pity. Why not? 

3 on the phone 

sue: Hello, Jane.Sue. 

jane: Oh, hi Sue. How are you? 

4 a: You're lazy. 

b: . 


5 a: Beth plays the piano very well. 

b: Does she? I didn't know. 

6 Mark meets Paul's sister, Helen. 


Paul: Mark,.my sister, Helen, 

mark: Hi, Helen. 

7 a: I'm sorry I was angry yesterday. 

b: .OK. Forget it! 

8 a: You're a friend of Tom's, aren't you? 

b: Yes,.right. 


not true! 































































































Unit 

75 one/ones 



one (= a...) 



Would you like one ? 

I 

= Would you like a chocolate 
one = a/an ... (a chocolate / 


O I need a pen. Do you have one? (one = a pen) 

O a: Is there a bank near here? 

B: Yes, there's one at the end of this street, (one = a bank) 


? 

an apple etc.) 


B 


one and ones 


one (singular) 



Which one? = Which hat? 
one = hat/car/girl etc 


this one / that one 

O Which car is yours? This one or that 
one? (= this car or that car) 

the one 

O a: Which hotel did you stay at? 
b: The one opposite the station. 

I found this key. Is it the one you lost? 

the... one 

O I don't like the black coat, but I like the 

brown one. 

Don't buy that camera. Buy the other 
one. 

a/an ... one 

This cup is dirty. Can I have a clean 
one? 

That biscuit was nice. I'm going to 
have another one. 


ones (plural) 



Which ones? = Which flowers? 
ones = flowers/cars/girls etc. 


these/those or these ones / those ones 

O Which flowers do you want? These 
or those? or 

These ones or those ones? 
the ones... 

a: Which books are yours? 
b: The ones on the table. 

) I found these keys. Are they the ones 
you lost? 

the ... ones 

I don't like the red shoes, but I like the 

green ones. 

Don't buy those apples. Buy the 
other ones. 

some ... ones 

These cups are dirty. Can we have 

some clean ones? 

My shoes are very old. I'm going to 

buy some new ones. 


3 


160 


( which .. ? -► Unit 47 another •+ Unit 65 this/that ^ Unit 74 


















Exercises 


A asks B some questions. Use the information in the box to write B's answers. Use one 
(not a/an ...) in the answers. 

B doesn't need a car B has just had a cup of coffee 

there’s a chemist in Mill Road B is going to get a bike 

B doesn't have a pen B doesn’t have an umbrella 


1 a: Can you lend me a pen? 

2 a: Would you like to have a car? 

3 a: Do you have a bike? 

4 a: Can you lend me an umbrella? 

5 a: Would you like a cup of coffee? 

6 a: Is there a chemist near here? 


b: I'm sorry,. I don’t have one 

B: No, I don't. 

b: No, but. 

b: I'm sorry, but. 

b: No, thank you. 

b: Yes,. 


Complete the sentences. Use a/an ... one. Use the words in the list. 

better big cle a n different new old 

1 This cup is dirty. Can I have. a.clean one . 

2 I’m going to sell my car and buy. 

3 That's not a very good photo, but this is. 

4 I want today's newspaper. This is. 

5 This box is too small. I need. 

6 Why do we always go to the same restaurant? Let’s go to. 

A is talking to B. Use the information to complete the conversations. Use one/ones. 


1 A stayed at a hotel. It was opposite the 
station. 

a: We stayed at a hotel. 

b- Which one ? 

6 A is looking at a picture. It's on the wall. 
a: That's an interesting picture. 

B: .? 

A: . 

a- The one opposite the station. 


2 A sees some shoes in a shop window. They're 
green. 

a: 1 like those shoes. 

B: Which. ? 

7 A sees a girl in a group of people. She's tall 
with long hair. 
a: Do you know that girl? 
b: .? 

a: The. 

a:. 



3 A is looking at a house. It has a red door. 
a: That's a nice house. 

b: .? 

A: with.... 

8 A is looking at some flowers in the garden. 
They're yellow. 

a: Those flowers are beautiful. 

B: .? 


a:. 

4 A is looking at some CDs. They're on the top 
shelf. 

a: Are those your CDs? 

B: .. ? 

9 A is looking at a man in a restaurant. He 
has a moustache and glasses. 
a: Who's that man? 

B: .? 

A: 

a: . 



5 A is looking at a jacket in a shop. It's black. 
a: Do you like that jacket? 

B' ? 

10 A took some photos at the party last week. 
a: Did 1 show you my photos? 

B: . ? 

A' 

A: . 
















































Unit 


76 some and any 


some 


\ 


Use some in positive sentences: 

O I'm going to buy some clothes. 
O There's some milk in the fridge. 
O We made some mistakes. 


any 




NV-i 


I don't have 
any money 


Use any in negative sentences: 

O I'm not going to buy any clothes. 
O There isn't any milk in the fridge. 
We didn't make any mistakes. 



any and some in questions 

In most questions (but not all) we use any (not some): 
O Is there any milk in the fridge? 

Does he have any friends? 

Do you need any help? 

We normally use some (not any) when we offer things 

(Would you like...?): 

a: Would you like some coffee? 
b: Yes, please. 

or when we ask for things (Can I have ... ? etc.): 
a: Can I have some soup, please? 
b: Yes. Help yourself. 

O a: Can you lend me some money? 
b: Sure. How much do you need? 



some and any without a noun 


I didn't take any pictures, but Jessica took some. (= some pictures) 

O You can have some coffee, but I don't want any. (= any coffee) 

O I've just made some coffee. Would you like some? some coffee) 

O 'Where's your luggage?' 'I don't have any.' (= any luggage) 

□ 'Are there any biscuits?' 'Yes, there are some in the kitchen.' (= some biscuits) 


something / somebody (or someone) 

She said something 
I saw somebody (or someone). 

Would you like something to eat? 
Somebody's at the door. 


anything / anybody (or anyone) 

She didn't say anything 
O I didn't see anybody (or anyone). 

Are you doing anything tonight? 
Where's Sue? Has anybody seen her? 


( a and some -» Unit 68 somebody/anything etc. Unit 79 

















Exercises 

Write some or any. 

1 I bought. some .cheese, but I didn't buy. any .bread. 

2 In the middle of the room there was a table and.chairs. 

3 There aren't.shops in this part of town. 

4 Gary and Alice don't have.children. 

5 Do you have.brothers or sisters? 

6 There are.beautiful flowers in the garden. 

7 Do you know.good hotels in London? 

8 ’Would you like.tea?' 'Yes, please.' 

9 When we were on holiday, we visited.interesting places. 

10 Don't buy.rice. We don't need. 

11 I went out to buy.bananas, but they didn’t have.in the shop. 

12 I'm thirsty. Can I have.water, please? 


Complete the sentences. Use some or any + the words in the box. 

air cheese help milk questions 

batteries friends languages pictures shampo o 

1 I want to wash my hair. Is there any.shampoo ? 

2 The police want to talk to you. They want to ask you. 

3 I had my camera, but I didn't take. 

4 Do you speak.foreign.? 

5 Yesterday evening I went to a restaurant with.of mine. 

6 Can I have.in my coffee, please? 

7 The radio isn't working. There aren’t.in it. 

8 It's hot in this office. I'm going out for.fresh. 

9 a: Would you like.? 

b: No, thank you. I've had enough to eat. 

10 I can do this job alone. I don't need. 


Complete the sentences. Use some or any. 

1 Kate didn't take any pictures, but. some . (I/take) 

2 'Where's your luggage?' ‘ ! ..don’t have .SDY ' (l/not/have) 

3 'Do you need any money?' 'No, thank you. 

4 'Can you lend me some money?' 'I'm sorry, but. 

5 The tomatoes in the shop didn't look very good, so. 

6 There were some nice oranges in the shop, so. 

7 ‘Mow much coffee did you drink yesterday?’ '.. 


(I/have) 

(l/not/have) 

(l/not/buy) 

(I/buy) 

(l/not/drink) 


Write something/somebody or anything/anybody. 

1 A woman stopped me and said. .sornet.hj.ng. ., but I didn’t understand. 

2 'What's wrong?' 'There's.in my eye.' 

3 Do you know.about politics? 

4 I went to the shop, but I didn’t buy. 

5 .has broken the window. I don't know who. 

6 I here isn’t.in the bag. It's empty. 

7 I'm looking for my keys. Has.seen them? 

8 Would you like.to drink? 

9 I didn't eat.because I wasn't hungry. 

10 This is a secret. Please don’t tell.. 





















































Unit 

77 



not + any no none 



The car park is empty. 


There aren't any cars 
There are no cars 


in the car park. 


How many cars are there in the car park? 

None. 


not (-n't) + any 

O There aren't any cars in the car park. 

O Tracey and Jack don't have any children. 

J You can have some coffee, but I don't want any. 

no + noun (no cars / no garden etc.) 

no ... = not any or not a 

O There are no cars in the car park. (= there aren't any cars) 

O We have no coffee. (- we don't have any coffee) 

C) It's a nice house, but there's no garden. (= there isn't a garden) 

We use no ... especially after have and there is/are. 

negative verb + any = positive verb + no 

They don't have any children, or They have no children. 

(not They don't have no children) 

There isn't any sugar in your coffee, or There's no sugar in your coffee. 


J 



no and none 

Use no + noun (no money / no children etc.). 

We have no money. 

) Everything was OK. There were no problems. 

Use none alone (without a noun): 

'How much money do you have?' 'None.' (= no money) 
'Were there any problems?' 'No, none.' (= no problems) 



none and no-one 

none = 0 (zero) 
no-one = nobody 

None is an answer for How much? / How many? (things or people): 
a: How much money do you have? 
b: None. (= no money) 

O a: How many people did you meet? 
b: None. (= no people) 

No-one is an answer for Who?: 
a: Who did you meet? 

b: No-one (or Nobody.) 


164 


( negatives 4 Unit 43 some and any Unit 76 anybody/nobody/nothing etc. Units 78-79 

















Exercises 

Write these sentences again with no. 

1 We don't have any money. . VVe have no money . 

2 There aren't any shops near here. There are. 

3 Carla doesn't have any free time. 

4 There isn't a light in this room. 

Write these sentences again with any. 

5 We have no money. . We donT haye any money, . 

6 There's no milk in the fridge. . 

7 There are no buses today. . 

8 Tom has no brothers or sisters. 

Write no or any. 

1 There's. no .sugar in your coffee. 

2 My brother is married, but he doesn't have children. 

3 Sue doesn't speak.foreign languages. 

4 I'm afraid there's.coffee. Would you like some tea? 

5 'Look at those birds!' 'Birds? Where? I can't see birds.' 

6 'Do you know where Jessica is?' 'No, I have idea.' 

Write no, any or none. 

7 There aren't.pictures on the wall. 

8 The weather was cold, but there was.wind. 

9 I wanted to buy some oranges, but they didn't have in the shop. 

10 Everything was correct. There were mistakes. 

11 'How much luggage do you have?' '..' 

12 'How much luggage do you have?' 1 don't have..' 

Complete the sentences. Use any or no + the words in the box. 

difference friends furniture heating idea 

money problems questions queue 

1 Everything was OK. There were. no problems . 

2 Jack and Emily would like to go on holiday, but they have 

3 I'm not going to answer. 

4 He's always alone. He has. 

5 There is.between these two machines. They're exactly the same. 

6 There wasn't.in the room. It was completely empty. 

7 'Do you know how the accident happened?' 'No, I have..' 

8 The house is cold because there isn't. 

9 We didn't have to wait to get our train tickets. There was. 

Write short answers (one or two words) to these questions. Use none where necessary. 

1 How many letters did you write yesterday? . Two.. or . A jot.. or . None, . 

2 How many sisters do you have? 

3 How much coffee did you drink yesterday? . 

4 How many photos have you taken today? . 

5 How many legs does a snake have? . 









































not + anybody/anyone/anything 
nobody/no-one/nothing 


not + anybody/anyone 
nobody/no-one 

(for people) 


O There isn’t ( anybody } in the room. 

I anyone l 

O There is I nobody 1 in the room. 

I no-one J 

O a: Who is in the room? 

b: Nobody / No-one. 

-body and -one are the same: 

anybody = anyone nobody = no-one 


not + anybody/anyone 

not + anything 

O 1 don't know anybody (or anyone) 

O 1 can't remember anything. 

here. 


nobody = not + anybody 

nothing = not + anything 

no-one = not + anyone 

0 I'm lonely. 1 have nobody to talk to. 

O She said nothing 

(= 1 don't have anybody) 

(= She didn't say anything.) 

O The house is empty. There is no-one in 

O There's nothing to eat. 

it. (= There isn't anyone in it.) 

(= There isn't anything to eat. 


You can use nobody/no-one/nothing at the beginning of a sentence or alone (to answer a question): 


O The house is empty. Nobody lives 

O Nothing happened. 

there. 


0 'Who did you speak to?’ 'No-one' 

□ 'What did you say?' 'Nothing' 



not + anything 
nothing 



O There is nothing in the bag. 

O a: What's in the bag? 

b: Nothing 


Remember: negative verb + anybody/anyone/anything 
positive verb + nobody/no-one/nothing 

O He doesn't know anything. (not He doesn't know nothing) 

Don't tell anybody. (not Don't tell nobody) 

There is nothing to do in this town. (not There isn't nothing) 

) 


( some and any 4 Unit 76 any and no Unit 77 somebody/anything/nowhere etc Unit 79 
















Exercises 


Write these sentences again with nobody/no-one or nothing. 

1 There isn't anything in the bag. 

2 There isn't anybody in the office. There’s. 

3 I don't have anything to do. I. 

4 There isn't anything on TV. . 

5 There wasn't anyone at home. 

6 We didn't find anything. . 


Write these sentences again with anybody/anyone or anything. 

1 There’s nothing in the bag. . 

2 There was nobody on the bus. There wasn’t. 

3 I have nothing to read. . 

4 I have no-one to help me. . 

5 She heard nothing. . 

6 We have nothing for dinner. . 


Answer these questions with nobody/no-one or nothing. 

la What did you say? Nothing. . 5a Who knows the answer? 

2a Who saw you? Nobody, . 6a What did you buy? . 

3a What do you want? . 7a What happened? . 

4a Who did you meet? . 8a Who was late? . 


Now answer the same questions with full sentences. 

Use nobody/no-one/nothing or anybody/anyone/anything: 

1 b . I didn’t say anything. . 

2b . Nobody saw me, ... 

3b I don't. 


4b 

5b 

6b 

7b 

8b 


the answer. 


Complete the sentences. Use: 

nobody / no-one / nothing or anybody / anyone / anything 

1 That house is empty. . Nobody .lives there. 

2 Jack has a bad memory. He can't remember. anything . 

3 Be quiet! Don't say. 

4 I didn't know about the meeting.told me. 

5 'What did you have to eat?’ '. I wasn't hungry.' 

6 I didn't eat. I wasn't hungry. 

7 Helen was sitting alone. She wasn't with. 

8 I'm afraid I can't help you. There's.I can do. 

9 I don't know.about car engines. 

10 The museum is free. It doesn't cost.to go in. 

11 I heard a knock on the door, but when I opened it, there was.there. 

12 The hotel receptionist spoke very fast. I didn't understand. 

13 'What are you doing tonight?' '. Why?' 

14 Sophie has gone away. .knows where she is. She didn’t tell 

.where she was going. 
























































Unit 

somebody/anything/nowhere etc 



Somebody (or Someone) She has got something in Tom lives somewhere near 

has broken the window. her mouth. London. 

somebody/someone something - a thing, somewhere = in/to 

= a person, but we but we don't know what a place, but we don't 

don't know who know where 



people (-body or -one) 
somebody or someone 


anybody or anyone 


nobody or no-one 


O There is somebody (or someone) at the door. 
Is there anybody (or anyone) at the door? 
There isn't anybody (or anyone) at the door. 
There is nobody (or no-one) at the door. 


-body and -one are the same, somebody = someone, nobody = no-one etc 


things (-thing) 

something 

anything 

nothing 


O Lucy said something but I didn't understand what she said. 
O Are you doing anything at the weekend? 

O I was angry, but I didn't say anything. 

O 'What did you say?' 'Nothing.' 


places (-where) 


somewhere 

anywhere 

nowhere 


O Ruth's parents live somewhere in the south of England. 
O Did you go anywhere interesting for your holidays? 

O I'm staying here. I'm not going anywhere. 

O I don't like this town. There is nowhere to go. 




something/anybody etc. + adjective (big/cheap/interesting etc.) 

O Did you meet anybody interesting at the party? 

O We always go to the same place. Let's go somewhere different. 
O 'What's that letter?' 'It's nothing important.' 


A 

D 


something/anybody etc + to 

O I'm hungry. I want something to eat. (= something that I can eat) 
Tony doesn't have anybody to talk to. (= anybody that he can talk to) 
There is nowhere to go in this town. (= nowhere where people can go) 


168 


some and any ^ Unit 76 any and no ^ Unit 77 anybody/nothing etc. ^ Unit 78 
everything/-body/-where ^ Unit 80 






Exercises 


Write somebody (or someone) / something / somewhere. 

JSs_ SL 


1 

' Lucy said something 


r \ 

What did she say? 

2 

I've lost. 


What have you lost? 

3 

Sue and Tom went.. 


Where did they go? 

4 

I'm going to phone. 


^Who are you going to phoney 


Write nobody (or no-one) / nothing / nowhere. 


la 

2a 

3a 

4a 



Now answer the same questions with full sentences. 
Use not + anybody/anything/anywhere. 

1 b . I didn't say anything, . 3b 

2b I'm not. 4b 


Write somebody/anything/nowhere etc. 

1 It's dark. I can't see. anything . 

2 Tom lives. somewhere .near London. 

3 Do you know.about computers? 

4 'Listen!' 'What? I can't hear..' 

5 'What are you doing here?' Tm waiting for..' 

6 We need to talk. There's.I want to tell you. 

7 'Did.see the accident?' 'No,. 

8 We weren't hungry, so we didn't eat. 

9 'What's going to happen?' 'I don't know .knows.' 

10 'Do you know..in Paris?' 'Yes, a few people.' 

11 'What's in that cupboard?' '. It's empty.' 

12 I'm looking for my glasses. I can't find them. 

13 I don't like cold weather. I want to live.warm. 

14 Is there.interesting on TV tonight? 

15 Have you ever met.famous? 


Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes. 


something anything nothing 
something anywhere nowhere 
somewhere nowhere 


do 

drink 


eat 


park sit 
read stay 


1 We don't go out very much because there's. nowhere.To go . 

2 There isn't any food in the house. We don't have. 

3 I'm bored. I've got. 

4 'Why are you standing?' 'Because there isn't. 

5 'Would you like.?' 'Yes, please - a glass of water.' 

6 If you're going to the city centre, take the bus. Don't drive because there's 


7 I want. I'm going to buy a magazine. 

8 I need..in London. Can you recommend a hotel? 




















































Unit 

80 every and all 


every 


w n m ii 


11 


Every house in the street is the same. 

every house in the street = 
all the houses in the street 


We use every + singular noun (every house / every country etc): 
O Sarah has been to every country in Europe. 

O Every summer we have a holiday by the sea. 

O She looks different every time I see her. 

Use a singular verb after every 

O Every house in the street is the same. ( not are the same) 
O Every country has a national flag. ( not have) 


Compare every and all: 

O Every student in the class passed the 
exam. 

O Every country has a national flag. 


O All the students in the class passed 
the exam. 

O All countries have a national flag. 


every day and all day 

every day = on all days: 

how often? 



EVERY DAY 


O It rained every day last week. 

O Ben watches TV for about two hours 
every evening. (= on all evenings) 

also every morning/night/summer etc. 


all day = the complete day: 

how long? 

beginning 
of the day 

■ALL DAY- 


end of 
the day 


It rained all day yesterday. 

O On Monday, I watched TV all evening. 
(= the complete evening) 

also all morning/night/summer etc 


everybody (or everyone) / everything / everywhere 

everybody or everyone O Everybody (or Everyone) needs friends. 
(people) (= all people need friends) 

everything Do you have everything you need? 

(things) (= all the things you need) 

everywhere O I lost my watch. I've looked everywhere for it. 

(places) (= I've looked in all places) 

Use a singular verb after everybody/everyone/everything: 

Everybody has problems, (not Everybody have) 


170 


[ all ^ Unit 81 



















Exercises 


Complete the sentences. Use every + these words: 

day room stud e nt time word 

1 Eyery student in the class passed the exam. 

2 My job is very boring.is the same. 

3 Kate is a very good tennis player. When we play, she wins. 

4 .in the hotel has free internet access and a minibar. 

5 'Did you understand what she said?' 'Most of it, but not. 


Complete the sentences with every day or all day. 

1 Yesterday it rained ajl day . 

2 I buy a newspaper., but sometimes I don’t read it. 

3 I’m not going out tomorrow. I'll be at home. 

4 I usually drink about four cups of coffee. 

5 Paula was ill yesterday, so she stayed in bed. 

6 I'm tired now because I've been working hard. 

7 Last year we went to the seaside for a week, and it rained 


Write every or all. 


Bill watches TV for about two hours. every evening. 

Julia gets up at 6.30 morning. 

The weather was nice yesterday, so we sat outside afternoon. 

I'm going away on Monday. I'll be away.week. 

a: How often do you go skiing? 

b: .year. Usually in March. 

a: Were you at home at 10 o'clock yesterday? 

B: Yes, I was at home morning. I went out after lunch. 

My sister loves new cars. She buys one year. 

I saw Sam at the party, but he didn't speak to me evening. 

We go away on holiday for two or three weeks.summer. 


Write every body/every th i ng / everywhere. 

1 Everybody needs friends. 

2 Chris knows about computers. 

3 I like the people here.is very friendly. 

4 This is a nice hotel. It’s comfortable and.is very clean. 

5 Kevin never uses his car. He goes...by motorcycle. 

6 Let's get something to eat.is hungry. 

7 Sue's house is full of books. There are books. 

8 You are right.you say is true. 

Complete the sentences. Use one word only each time. 

1 Everybody has .problems. 

2 Are you ready yet? Everybody.waiting for you. 

3 The house is empty. Everyone.gone out. 

4 Gary is very popular. Everybody.him. 

5 This town is completely different now. Everything.changed. 

6 I got home very late last night. I came in quietly because everyone asleep. 

7 Everybody.mistakes! 

8 a: .everything clear? .everybody know what to do? 

b: Yes, we all understand. 















































all most some any no/none 


Compare: 

children/money/books etc. (in general): 
O Children like playing. 

(= children in general) 

O Money isn't everything. 

(= money in general) 

O I enjoy reading books. 

O Everybody needs friends. 


the children / the money / these books etc.: 
O Where are the children? 

(= our children) 

O I want to buy a car, but I don't have 
the money. (= the money for a car) 
O Have you read these books? 

O I often go out with my friends. 


most / most of..., some / some of ... etc 


7 


all most some any 



most/some etc. + noun 


all 

most 

some 

any 

no 


-ef 


cities 

children 

books 

money 


most of/some of etc. + the/this/my ... etc. 


all 

(of) 

most 

some 

any 

none 

of 


the 

this/that... 
these/those... 

my/your... etc. 


O Most children like playing. 

(= children in general) 

□ I don't want any money. 

O Some books are better than others. 
O He has no friends. 

O All cities have the same problems. 
(= cities in general) 

Do not use of in these sentences: 

O Most people drive too fast. 

(not Most of people) 

O Some birds can't fly. 

(not Some of birds) 


O Most of the children at this school 
are under 11 years old. 

O I don't want any of this money 
O Some of these books are very old. 

O None of my friends live near me. 

You can say all the ... or all of the ... (with or 
without of): 

O All the students in our class passed 
the exam, (or All of the students ...) 
O Amy has lived in London all her life, 
(or. all of her life.) 


all of it / most of them / none of us etc. 

O You can have some of this cake, but not all of it. 

O a: Do you know those people? 

b: Most of them, but not all of them 
O Some of us are going out tonight. Why don't you come with us? 
O I have a lot of books, but I haven't read any of them. 

O 'How many of these books have you read?' 'None of them.' 


all 


it 

most 

of 

them 

some 

us 


any 


you 

none 



the ... (children / the children etc.) -4 Unit 72 some and any -4 Unit 76 no/none/any -4 Unit 77 
all and every -4 Unit 80 
























Exercises 


Complete the sentences. Use the word in brackets (some/most etc.). Sometimes you need of 
(some of / most of etc.). 

1 . Most. children like playing, (most) 

2 Some of t hj s money is yours, (some) 


3 .people never stop talking, (some) 

4 .the shops in the city centre close at 6.30. (most) 

5 .people have mobile phones these days, (most) 

6 I don’t like the pictures in the living room, (any) 

7 He's lost.his money, (all) 

8 .my friends are married, (none) 

9 Do you know the people in this picture? (any) 

10 .birds can fly. (most) 

1 1 I enjoyed the film, but I didn't like the ending, (most) 

12 .sports are very dangerous, (some) 

13 We can't find anywhere to stay. the hotels are full, (all) 

14 You must have this cheese. It's delicious, (some) 


15 The weather was bad when we were on holiday. It rained the time, (most) 

Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use: 

all/most/some/none + of them /of it 



1 How many of the people are women? . Most of them. . 

2 How many of the boxes are on the table? . 

3 How many of the men are wearing hats? . 

4 How many of the windows are open? . 

5 How many of the people are standing? 

6 How much of the money is Ben's? 

Are these sentences OK? Correct the sentences that are wrong. 

1 Most of children like playing. . Most children 

2 All the students failed the exam. OK, . 

3 Some of people work too hard. . 

4 Some of questions in the exam were very easy. . 

5 I haven't seen any of those people before. . 

6 All of insects have six legs. . 

7 Have you read all these books? . 

8 Most of students in our class are very nice. 

9 Most of my friends are going to the party. 

10 I'm very tiled this morning • I was awake most of night. 

















































Unit 

82 both either neither 


r " 



both either neither (not + either) 


O Rebecca has two children. Both are married, (both = the two children) 

O Would you like tea or coffee? You can have either, (either = tea or coffee) 

O a: Do you want to go to the cinema or the theatre? 

b: Neither. I want to stay at home, (neither = not the cinema or the theatre) 


Compare either and neither: 

O 'Would you like tea or coffee?' 


'Either. I don't mind.' (= tea or coffee) 

'I don't want either.' (not I don't want neither) 
'Neither.' (= not tea or coffee) 


B 


both/either/neither + noun 


both 

either 

neither 


+ plural 
+ singular 


both 

windows/books/children etc. 

either 

neither 

window/book/child etc. 


O Last year I went to Paris and Rome. I liked both cities very much. 

O First I worked in an office, and later in a shop. Neither job was very interesting. 
O There are two ways from here to the station. You can go either way. 


1 

C 


both of... / either of... / neither of. 


both 

(of) 

the .. 

either 

neither 

of 

these/those... 
my/your/Paul's ... etc. 


O Neither of my parents is British. 

O I haven’t read either of these books. 



You can say both of the/those/my ... or both the/those/my ... (with or without of): 
O I like both of those pictures, or 
I like both those pictures. 

O Both of Paul's sisters are married, or 
Both Paul's sisters are married. 

but O Neither of Paul's sisters is married. (not Neither Paul's sisters) 


D 


both of them / neither of us 


both 


them 

either 

of 

us 

neither 


you 


O Paul has two sisters. Both of them are married. 

O Sue and I didn't eat anything. Neither of us was hungry. 
Who are those two people? I don’t know either of them. 


174 


D 


( I can't either / neither can I Unit 42 































Exercises 

jJJJ Write both/either/neither. Use of where necessary. 

1 Last year I went to Paris and Rome. I liked. both .cities very much. 

2 There were two pictures on the wall. I didn’t like either .of .them. 

3 It was a good football match. teams played well. 

4 It wasn't a good football match.team played well. 

5 'Is your friend English or American?' '.. She’s Australian.' 

6 We went away for two days, but the weather wasn't good. It rained days. 

7 a: I bought two newspapers. Which one do you want? 

b: . It doesn't matter which one. 

8 I invited Sam and Chris to the party, but.them came. 

9 ’Do you go to work by car or by bus?' '. I always walk.' 

10 'Which jacket do you prefer, this one or that one?’ 'I don't like.them.' 

11 'Do you work or are you a student?' '.. I work and I'm a student too.' 

12 My friend and I went to the cinema, but us liked the film. It was really bad. 

13 Helen has two sisters and a brother. .sisters are married. 

14 Helen has two sisters and a brother. I’ve met her brother, but I haven't met 
her sisters. 



Complete the sentences for the pictures. Use Both ... and Neither... . 


© # 

i A. 

© 

f T 

i 

p © 

© 

• 0 

© 

¥ 

- 

a i 

f 


ill 

|5P 




27+18; 47 
f?+38--77 


1 . Bpth.cup5.are .empty. 

2 .are open. 

3 .wearing a hat. 


4 .beards. 

5 .to the airport. 

6 .correct. 



A man and a woman answered some questions. Their answers were the same. Write sentences 
with Both/Neither of them .... 




Tl 


■ ** A 

»f 

m m 

[ *. 4 



1 Are you married? No 

No -• 

2 How old are you? 21 

21 -1 

3 Are you a student? Yes 

Yes - 1 

4 Do you have a car? No 

No 

5 Where do you live? London London 

6 Do you like cooking? Yes 

Yes 

7 Can you play the piano? No 

No 

8 Do you eat seafood? Yes 

Yes 

9 Are you interested in No 

No 

sport? 



.Neither of . 

Both of them . a . 

.students. 

.a car. 

















































Unit 

83 a lot much many 



a lot of money not much money a lot of books not many books 

y 


We use much + uncountable noun 

(much food / much money etc ): 

O Did you buy much food? 

O We don't have much luggage. 

O How much money do you want? 

O a: Do you have any money? 
b: 1 have some, but not much. 

We use many + plural noun 

(many books / many people etc ): 

O Did you buy many books? 

O We don't know many people. 

O How many photos did you take? 

O a: Did you take any photos? 
b: 1 took some, but not many. 

We use a lot of + both types of noun: 


O We bought a lot of food. 

O We bought a lot of books. 

O Paula doesn't have a lot of free time. 

O Did they ask a lot of questions? 

We say: 


O There is a lot of food/money/water ... 

O There are a lot of trees/shops/ 

(singular verb) 

people ... (plural verb) 


O A lot of people speak English. 


(not speaks) 


B 


We use much in questions and negative sentences: 
O Do you drink much coffee? 

O I don't drink much coffee. 


But we do not often use much in positive sentences: 

O I drink a lot of coffee, (not I drink much coffee) 

'Do you drink much coffee?' 'Yes, a lot.' (not Yes, much) 



We use many and a lot of in all types of sentences (positive/negative/question): 

O We have many friends / a lot of friends. 

O We don't have many friends / a lot of friends. 

O Do you have many friends / a lot of friends? 

You can use much and a lot without a noun: 

O Amy spoke to me, but she didn't say much. 

'Do you watch TV much?' 'No, not much.' (= not often) 

0 We like films, so we go to the cinema a lot. (not go to the cinema much) 
I don't like him very much. 


176 


( countable/uncountable Units 67-68 


D 
















Exercises 


Write much or many. 

1 Did you buy. much .food? 

2 There aren't.hotels in this town. 

3 We don't have.petrol. We need to stop and get some. 

4 Were there.people on the train? 

5 Did.students fail the exam? 

6 Paula doesn't have.money. 

7 I wasn't hungry so I didn't eat. 

8 I don't know where Cary lives these days. I haven't seen him for.years. 

Write How much or How many. 


9 .people are coming to the party? 

10 .milk do you want in your coffee? 

11 .bread did you buy? 

12 .players are there in a football team? 


Complete the sentences. Use much or many with these words: 

books countries luggage people time times 


1 I don't read very much. I don't have. many.books . 

2 Hurry up! We don't have. 

3 Do you travel a lot? Have you been to. 

4 Tina hasn't lived here very long, so she doesn't know. 

5 'Do you have.?' 'No, only this bag.' 

6 I know Tokyo well. I've been there. 



Complete the sentences. Use a lot of + these words: 


accidents boo k s fun interesting things 


traffic 


1 I like reading. I have. a Jot of .books. 

2 We enjoyed our visit to the museum. We saw 

3 This road is very dangerous. There are. 

4 We enjoyed our holiday. We had. 

5 It took me a long time to drive here. There was 



some of these sentences much is not natural. Change the sentences or write OK. 


1 Do you drink much coffee ? . OK . 

2 I dri n k much tea . . a Jot of tea 

3 It was a cold winter. We had much snow . . 

4 There wasn't much snow last winter. . 

5 It costs much money to travel around the world. 

6 We had a cheap holiday. It didn't cost much . . 

7 Do you know much about computers? 

8 'Do you have any luggage?' 'Yes, much .' . 


Write sentences about these people. Use much and a lot. 

1 James loves films, (go to the cinema) . Ho.goe6.to.the dnema ajot... 

2 Nicola thinks TV is boring, (watch TV) . bhedoeent watoh.iy.much,.. 

3 Tina is a good tennis player, (play tennis) She. 

4 Mark doesn't like driving, (use his car) He. 

5 Paul spends most of the time at home, (go out) . 

6 Sue has been all over the world, (travel) . 





















































Unit 

84 (a) little (a) few 


(a) little + uncountable noun: 

(a) little water 
(a) little time 
(a) little money 
(a) little soup 


(a) few + plural noun: 

(a) few books 
(a) few questions 
(a) few people 
(a) few days 



a little water 


a few books 


1 

B 

a little = some but not much 

O She didn't eat anything, but she drank 

a little water 

O 1 speak a little Spanish. 

(- some Spanish but not much) 

O a: Can you speak Spanish? 

b: A little. 

a few = some but not many 

O Excuse me, 1 have to make a few 

phone calls. 

O We're going away for a few days. 

O 1 speak a few words of Spanish. 

O a: Are there any shops near here? 

B: Yes, a few. 




- 

X little (without a) = nearly no or nearly 
nothing 

Xfew (without a) = nearly no 


O There was little food in the fridge. 

O There were few people in the theatre. 


It was nearly empty. 

It was nearly empty. 


You can say very little: 

You can say very few: 


O Dan is very thin because he eats very 

O Your English is very good. You make 


little. (= nearly nothing) 

very few mistakes. 

J 




Compare little and a little: 

They have a little money so they're 
not poor. (= they have some money) 

They have little money. They are very 
poor. (= nearly no money) 




Compare few and a few: 

I have a few friends, so I'm not lonely. 
(= I have some friends) 

I'm sad and I'm lonely. I have few 
friends. (= nearly no friends) 


I have a few 
friends. 



178 


( countable/uncountable ^ Units 67-68 
















Exercises 

Answer the questions with a little or a few. 

1 'Do you have any money?' 'Yes,. a.Little. ; 

2 'Do you have any envelopes?' 'Yes,. 

3 'Do you want sugar in your coffee?' 'Yes,., please.' 

4 'Did you take any photos when you were on holiday?' 'Yes,.* 

5 'Does your friend speak English?' 'Yes,.* 

6 'Are there any good restaurants in this town?' 'Yes,.’ 

Write a little or a few + these words: 

chairs days fresh air friends milk Russian times y e ars 

1 Mark speaks Italian well. He lived in Italy for. a few .years . 

2 Can I have in my coffee, please? 

3 'When did Amy go away?' '.ago.' 

4 'Do you speak any foreign languages?' 'I can speak. 

5 'Are you going out alone?' 'No, I'm going with. 

6 'Have you ever been to Mexico?' 'Yes,. 

7 There wasn't much furniture in the room - just a table and. 

8 I'm going out for a walk. I need. 

Complete the sentences. Use very little or very few + these words: 
coffee hotels m i stak e s people rain time work 

1 Your English is very good. You make very fevy mistakes . 

2 I drink. I prefer tea. 

3 The weather here is very dry in summer. There is. 

4 It's difficult to find a place to stay in this town. There are 

5 Hurry up. We have. 

6 The town is very quiet at night. .go out. 

7 Some people in the office are very lazy. They do. 

Write little/a little or few/a few. 

1 There was. (Hfck food in the fridge. It was nearly empty. 

2 'When did Sarah go out?' '.minutes ago.' 

3 I can't decide now. I need time to think about it. 

4 There was traffic, so we arrived earlier than we expected. 

5 The bus service isn't very good at night - there are buses after 9 o'clock. 

6 'Would you like some soup?' 'Yes,., please.' 

7 I'd like to practise my English more, but I have opportunity. 

Right or wrong? Change the sentences where necessary. Write OK if the sentence is correct. 

1 We're going away forfewjdays next week. for a few days . 

2 Everybody needs little luck. 

3 I can't talk to you now - I have few things to do. 

4 I eat very little meat - I don't like it very much. 

5 Excuse me, can I ask you few questions? . . 

6 There were little people on the bus - it was nearly empty. . 

7 Mark is a very private person. Few people know him well. 






































Unit 


85 old/nice/interesting etc (adjectives) 




adjective + noun (nice day / blue eyes etc.) 

adjective + noun 


It's a nice 

day today. 

Laura has brown 

eyes 

There's a very old 

bridge in this village. 

Do you like Italian 

food? 

1 don’t speak any foreign 

languages. 

There are some beautiful yellow 

flowers in the garden. 


The adjective is before the noun: 

They live in a modern house. (not a house modern) 

O Have you met any famous people? (not people famous) 

The ending of an adjective is always the same: 

a different place different places (not differents) 



be (am/is/was etc.) + adjective 

O The weather is nice today. 

These flowers are very beautiful. 

Are you cold? Shall I close the window? 
I'm hungry. Can I have something to eat? 
The film wasn’t very good It was boring 
Please be quiet. I'm reading. 


O 

O 

O 



look/feel/smell/taste/sound + adjective 



O a: You look tired. 
b: Yes, I feel tired. 

Joe told me about his new job. It sounds very interesting. 
1 I'm not going to eat this fish. It doesn't smell good. 


Compare: 


He 

is 

feels 

tired. 


looks 




are 


They 

look 

sound 

happy 



is 


It 

smells 

tastes 

good 


( get + adjective get hungry/tired etc) Unit 56 something/anybody + adjective -4 Unit 79 



















































Exercises 


Put the words in the right order. 

1 (new / live in / house / they / a) They live in a new house . 

2 (like / jacket /1 / that / green) I 

3 (music / like/do / classical / you?) Do. 

4 (had / wonderful / a /1 / holiday) 

5 (went to / restaurant / a / Japanese / we) 

The words in the box are adjectives (black/foreign etc.) or nouns (air/job etc.). Use an adjective 
and a noun to complete each sentence. 

air clouds foreign holiday job l anguag e s sharp 

black dangerous fresh hot knife long water 

1 Do you speak any foreign languages . ? 

2 Look at those. It’s going to rain. 

3 Sue works very hard, and she's very tired. She needs a. 

4 I would like to have a shower, but there’s no 

5 Can you open the window? We need some. 

6 I need a.to cut these onions. 

7 Fire-fighting is a. 

Write sentences for the pictures. Choose from the boxes. 

feel(s) look(s) sound(s) happy ill nice 

look(s) smell(s) taste(s) horrible new surprised 




A and B don’t agree. Complete B's sentences. Use feel/look etc. 


























































quickly/badly/suddenly etc (adverbs) 




He ate his dinner very quickly. 

Quickly and suddenly are adverbs. 
adjective + -ly —» adverb: 


Suddenly the shelf fell down. 


adjective 

quick 

bad 

sudden 

careful 

heavy 

adverb 

quickly 

badly 

suddenly 

carefully 

heavily etc. 


Spelling (—» Appendix 5): easy —> easily heavy —» heavily 

Adverbs tell you how something happens or how somebody does something: 

The train stopped suddenly. 

O I opened the door slowly. 

Please listen carefully. 

I understand you perfectly. 





Ats'v'.H'e 




4 


Mi 


Compare: 

adjective 

O Sue is very quiet 

O Be careful! 

O It was a bad game. 

O 1 felt nervous. 

(= 1 was nervous) 

It's raining heavily 

adverb 

Sue speaks very quietly. (not speaks very quiet) 

O Listen carefully! (not listen careful) 

O Our team played badly. (not played bad) 

1 waited nervously. 


hard fast late early 

These words are adjectives and adverbs: 

i 

O Sue's job is very hard. 

O Ben is a fast runner. 

O The bus was late/early. 

O Sue works very hard. (not hardly) 

O Ben can run fast. 

O 1 went to bed late/early. 


good (adjective) —> well (adverb) 

Your English is very good. 

D It was a good game. 

O You speak English very well, (not very good) 

Our team played well. 

But well is also an adjective (= not ill in good health): 

'How are you?' Tm very well, thank you. And you?' 


( adjectives ■» Unit 85 


) 














Exercises 



Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with these adverbs: 

angrily badly dangerously fast heavily quietly 



1 It's raining. heavily . 4 She shouted at me 

2 He sings very. 5 She can run very 

3 They came in. 6 He was driving. 


Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes. 

come know sleep win car e fu l ly clearly hard well 

explain lis t e n think work carefully easily quickly well 

1 I'm going to tell you something very important, so please. Ii5ten..carefuljy . 

2 They. At the end of the day they're always tired. 

3 I'm tired this morning. I didn't.last night. 

4 You play tennis much better than me. When we play, you always 


5 .before you answer the question. 

6 I've met Alice a few times, but I don't.her very. 

7 Our teacher doesn't.things very. We never understand him. 

8 Helen! I need your help.! 

Which is right? 

1 Don't eat so -guiek-Zquickly . It's not good for you. ( quickly is right) 

2 Why are you angry/angrily ? I haven't done anything. 

3 Can you speak slow/slowly , please? 

4 Come on, Dave! Why are you always so slow/slowlv ? 

5 Sam is a very careful/carefully driver. 

6 Amy is studying hard/hardlv for her examinations. 

7 'Where's Anna?' 'She was here, but she left sudden/suddenly .' 

8 Please be quiet/quietlv . I'm studying. 

9 Some companies pay their workers very bad/badlv . 

10 Those oranges look nice/nicely . Can I have one? 

11 I don't remember much about the accident. Everything happened quick/quickly . 

Write good or well. 

1 Your English is very. SQod . You speak it very. wejl . 

2 Jackie did very.in her exams. 

3 The party was very. I enjoyed it very much. 

4 Mark has a difficult job, but he does it. 

5 How are your parents? Are they.? 

6 Did you have a.holiday? Was the weather.? 
















































old/older expensive / more expensive 



old older heavy heavier expensive more expensive 


Older / heavier / more expensive are comparative forms. 

The comparacive is -er (older) or more (more expensive). 

older/heavier etc. 

Short words (1 syllable) —> -er: 

old —> older slow —> slower cheap —> cheaper 

nice —> nicer late —> later big bigger 

Spelling (—> Appendix 5): big —> bigger hot —> hotter thin —»thinner 

Words ending in -y —> -ier: 

easy — > easier heavy —> heavier early -> earlier 

Rome is old, but Athens is older. ( not more old) 

O Is it cheaper to go by car or by train? ( not more cheap) 

O Helen wants a bigger car. 

O This coat is OK, but I think the other one is nicer 
□ Don't take the bus. It's easier to take a taxi, (not more easy) 

far -> further: 

O a: How far is it to the station? A mile? 

B: No, it's further. About two miles. 

more 

Long words (2/3/4 syllables) —» more ... 

careful —» more careful polite — > more polite 

expensive —> more expensive interesting —> more interesting 

C You must be more careful. 

O I don't like my job. I want to do something more interesting. 

O Is it more expensive to go by car or by train? 

good/well —> better bad —> worse 

O The weather wasn't very good yesterday, but it's better today. 

O 'Do you feel better today?' 'No, I feel worse.' 

Which is worse - a headache or a toothache? 


[ older than ... / more expensive than .. Unit 88 the oldest / the most expensive ■» Unit 90 










Exercises 



Write the comparative. 


1 old . older . 6 good 

2 strong 7 large 

3 happy 8 serious 

4 modern 9 pretty 

5 important 10 crowded 

Write the opposite. 

1 younger . older . 4 better 

2 colder 5 nearer 

3 cheaper 6 easier 


^2} Complete the sentences. Use a comparative. 

1 Helen's car isn’t very big. She wants a bigger one. 

2 My job isn’t very interesting. I want to do something more interesting 

3 You're not very tall. Your brother is. 

4 David doesn’t work very hard. I work. 

5 My chair isn’t very comfortable. Yours is. 

6 Your idea isn't very good. My idea is. 

7 These flowers aren’t very nice. The blue ones are. 

8 My bag isn't very heavy. Your bag is. 


9 I’m not very interested in art. I’m.in history. 

10 It isn't very warm today. It was.yesterday. 


11 These tomatoes don't taste very good. The other ones tasted 

12 Britain isn’t very big. France is. 

13 London isn’t very beautiful. Paris is. 

14 This knife isn’t very sharp. Have you got a. 

15 People today aren't very polite. In the past they were 

16 The weather isn't too bad today. Often it is much 


one? 




























































Unit 

88 


older than ... more expensive than 


taller than you.) 


«**£?*> •** 

Grand wow . 

I ^ o >' aU A 0 J\. 


£150 

£130 

£120 

£U5 


She's taller than him 


The Europa Hotel is more expensive than the Grand 


We use than after comparatives (older than ... / more expensive than ... etc): 
O Athens is older than Rome. 

O Are oranges more expensive than bananas? 

O It's easier to take a taxi than to take the bus. 

O 'How are you today?' 'Not bad. Better than yesterday.' 

O The restaurant is more crowded than usual. 

We usually say: than me / than him / than her / than us / than them. 

You can say: 

O I can run faster than him. or I can run faster than he can. 

O You are a better singer than me. or You are a better singer than I am. 
O I got up earlier than her. or I got up earlier than she did. 


^ more/less than 

O a: How much did your shoes cost? £60? 

b: No, more than that. (= more than £60) 
O The film was very short - less than an hour. 
O They have more money than they need. 

O You go out more than me. 


60- 


■ 50- 


40- 


MORETHAN 50 

▲ 


▼ 

LESS THAN 50 


a bit older / much older etc. 


Box A is a bit bigger than Box B. 


Box C is much bigger than Box D. 


186 



bigger 


a bit 
much 

older 

better 

more difficult 
more expensive 

than 


Canada is much bigger than France. 

Sue is a bit older than Joe - she's 25 and he's 24. 
The hotel was much more expensive than I 
expected. 

O You go out much more than me. 


( old —> older, expensive —> more expensive -» Unit 87 not as as Unit 89 























Exercises 


Write sentences about Kate and Ben. Use than. 


fir 


m 


Ben 




f - \ 

1 I’m 26. 


1 I'm 24. 

2 I'm not a very good swimmer. 


2 I'm a very good swimmer. 

3 I'm 1 metre 68 tall. 


3 I'm 1 metre 63 tall. 

4 1 start work at 8 o'clock. 


4 1 start work at 8.30. 

5 1 don't work very hard. 


5 1 work very hard. 

6 1 don't have much money. 


6 1 have a lot of money. 

7 I'm a very good driver. 


7 I'm not a very good driver. 

8 I'm not very patient. 


8 I'm very patient. 

9 I'm not a very good dancer. 


9 I'm a good dancer. 

10 I'm very intelligent. 


10 I'm not very intelligent. 

11 1 speak French very well. 


11 1 don't speak French very well. 

^12 1 don't go to the cinema very much. a 


J2 1 go to the cinema a lot. j 


1 Kate. is older than. Ben . 

2 Ben. is a better swi mmar than Kata . 

3 Kate is. 

4 Kate starts.Ben. 

5 Ben. 

6 Ben has. 


7 Kate is a 

8 Ben 

9 Ben 

10 Kate 

11 Kate 

12 Ben 


Complete the sentences. Use than. 

1 He isn’t very tall. You're. taller t ha n him (O R taller than he is) 

2 She isn’t very old. You're. 

3 I don’t work very hard. You work 

4 He doesn't watch TV very much. You. 

5 I'm not a very good cook. You. 

6 We don’t know many people. You. 

7 They don’t have much money. You 

8 I can’t run very fast. You can. 

9 She hasn't been here very long. You. 

10 They didn't get up very early. You 

11 He wasn't very surprised. You. 


Complete the sentences with a bit or much + comparative (older/better etc.). 

1 Emma is 25. Joe is 24|. 

Emma. [s a bit.older than Joe. 

2 Jack's mother is 52. His father is 69. 

Jack's mother. 

3 My camera cost £120. Yours cost £112. 

My camera. 

4 Yesterday I felt terrible. Today I feel OK. 

I feel. 

5 Today the temperature is 12 degrees. Yesterday it was 10 degrees. 

It’s. 

6 Sarah is an excellent tennis player. I'm not a very good player. 

Sarah. 









































not as... as 




She's old, but she's not as old as he is. 


Box A isn't as big as Box B 


O Rome is not as old as Athens. 

(= Athens is older) 

O The Grand Hotel isn't as expensive as the Europa. 

(= the Europa is more expensive) 

O I don't play tennis as often as you. 

(= you play more often) 

O The weather is better than it was yesterday. It isn't as cold. 
(= as cold as it was yesterday) 


B 


not as much as ... / not as many as 

O I don't have as much money as you. (- you've got more money) 
O I don't know as many people as you. (= you know more people) 
O I don't go out as much as you. (= you go out more) 


c 


Compare not as ... as and than: 

O Rome is not as old as Athens. 

Athens is older than Rome. (not older as Rome) 

O Tennis isn't as popular as football. 

Football is more popular than tennis. 

O I don't go out as much as you. 

You go out more than me. 



We usually say: as me / as him / as her etc. 

You can say: 

O She's not as old as him. or She's not as old as he is. 

□ You don't work as hard as me. or You don't work as hard as I do. 

We say the same as ... 

O The weather today is the same as yesterday. 

□ My hair is the same colour as yours. 

O I arrived at the same time as Tom. 


188 


C 


much/many *4 Unit 83 


older than ... / more expensive than -4 Unit 88 


) 











Exercises 


Look at the pictures and write sentences about A, B and C. 



1 A is. bigger than C, but not as big. as 3 . 

2 A is.B, but not.C 

3 Cis.A, but. 

4 A is., but. 

5 B has got. 

6 C works. 


Write sentences with as... as... . 

1 Athens is older than Rome. 

2 My room is bigger than yours. 

3 You got up earlier than me. 

4 We played better than them. 

5 I’ve been here longer than you. 

6 She's more nervous than him. 


Rome. isn't, as old as Athens 

Your room isn’t. 

I didn't. 

They. 

You. 

He. 


Write as or than. 

1 Athens is older than. Rome. 

2 I don't watch TV as much you. 

3 You eat more.me. 

4 I'm more tired today.I was yesterday. 


5 Joe isn't as intelligent.he chinks. 

6 Belgium is smaller.Switzerland. 

7 Brazil isn’t as big Canada. 

8 I can't waic longer.an hour. 


Complete the sentences about Julia, Andy and Laura. Use the same age / the same street etc. 



1 (age) Andy is the some age as Laura 

2 (street) Julia lives. 

3 (time) Julia got up. 

4 (colour) Andy’s. 






























































Unit 


90 the oldest the most expensive 



HOTEL PRICES IN 

KINTON 


(Per room per 

night) 



Europa Hotel 

£150 

Grosvenor 

£110 

Grand Hotel 

£130 

Ben nets 

£100 

Royal 

£120 

Carlton 

£98 

Astoria 

£115 

Star 

£85 

Palace 

£115 

Station 

£75 


Box A is bigger than Box B. 

Box A is bigger than all the 
ocher boxes. 

Box A is the biggest box. 


The Europa Hotel is more expensive than the Grand. 

The Europa Hotel is more expensive than all the other 
hotels in the city. 

The Europa Hotel is the most expensive hotel in the 


city. 


Bigger and more expensive etc. are comparative forms (—> Unit 87). 
Biggest and most expensive etc. are superlative forms. 


The superlative form is -est (oldest) or most... (most expensive). 


Short words (old/cheap/nice etc.) — > the -est: 

old — > the oldest cheap — > the cheapest 

but good — > the best bad — » the worst 

Spelling (—> Appendix 5): big — » the biggest 

nice — > the nicest 

hot — > the hottest 

Words ending in -y (easy/heavy etc.) — > the -iest: 

easy — » the easiest heavy — > the heaviest 

pretty — > the prettiest 

Long words (careful/expensive/interesting etc.) — > the most...: 

careful — » the most careful interesting the most interesting 



We say the oldest... / the most expensive ... etc. (with the): 

O The church is very old. It's the oldest building in the town. 

(= it is older than all the other buildings) 

O What is the longest river in the world? 

O Money is important, but it isn't the most important thing in life. 

O Excuse me, where is the nearest bank? 

You can use the oldest / the best / the most expensive etc. without a noun: 
O Luke is a good player, but he isn't the best in the team. 

(the best = the best player) 

You can use superlative + I've ever ... / you've ever ... etc: 

O The film was very bad. I think it's the worst film I've ever seen. 
What is the most unusual thing you've ever done? 


( present perfect + ever 4 Unit 17 older / more expensive 4 Units 87-88 



















Exercises 

Write sentences with comparatives (older etc.) and superlatives (the oldest etc.). 


big/small 

(A/D) . A is bigger than D. 

(A) A is the biggest, 

(B) E3 is the smallest. 


long/short 

(C/A) Cis.A. 

(D) Dis. 

(B) B. 


young/old 
(D/C) D 

(B) 

(C) 


expensive/cheap 

(D/A) 

(0 

(A) 


good/bad 

(A/C) . 

(A) 

(D) 


1 

( 

Eal tO IB 13 

2 

D 


3 (lm 23 .) (l'm ia) (l'm 24 ) ( 

III 

A bH C® 

r I'm 21 .') 

r| 

A B 

rt?s 

no 

C 

gr 

D 

s - 

Rtifavranr A, Excellent 

jtoZZZc Mbitvt 


Complete the sentences. Use a superlative (the oldest etc.). 

1 This building is very old It's. the oldest building. j n the town. 


2 It was a very happy day. It was.of my life. 

3 Its a very good film. Its.I've ever seen. 

4 She's a very popular singer. She's.in the country. 

5 It was a very bad mistake. It was.I've ever made. 

6 It's a very pretty village. It's.I've ever seen. 

7 It was a very cold day. It was of the year. 

8 He's a very boring person. He's.I've ever met. 


Write sentences with a superlative (the longest etc.). Choose from the boxes. 


Sydney 

Alaska 

high 

country 

river 

Africa 

South America 

Everest 

the Nile 

large 

city 

state 

Australia 

the world 

Brazil 

Jupiter 

long 

mountain 

planet 

the USA 

the solar system 


1 Sydney is the Jargest c.^y|n Australia.. 

2 Everest. 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 






























































Unit 

91 enough 


She isn't going to take a taxi. 
She hasn't got enough money. 


Ve only got five pounds - 
not enough for a taxi. 


Mlnkl 



He can't reach the shelf. 
He isn't tall enough. 


B 


enough + noun (enough money / enough people etc.) 

O a: Is there enough milk in your coffee? 
b: Yes, thank you. 

O We wanted to play football, but we didn't have enough players. 

O Why don't you buy a car? You've got enough money, (not money enough) 

enough without a noun 

I've got some money, but not enough to buy a car. 

(= I need more money to buy a car) 

□ a: Would you like some more to eat? 

b: No, thanks. I've had enough. 

O You're always at home. You don't go out enough. 



adjective + enough (good enough / tall enough etc.) 

O A: Shall we sit outside? 

b: No, it isn't warm enough. (not enough warm) 

Can you hear the radio? Is it loud enough for you? 

O Don't buy that coat. It's nice, but it isn't long enough. (= it's too short) 


Remember: 

enough + noun but adjective + enough 


enough money tall enough 

enough time good enough 

enough people old enough 


D 


We say: 

enough for somebody/something 

enough to do something 


enough for somebody/something 
to do something 


O This pullover isn't big enough for me. 

O I haven't got enough money for a new car. 

O I haven't got enough money to buy a new car. 

(not for buy) 

Is your English good enough to have a conversation? 
(not for have) 

There aren't enough chairs for everybody to sit 

down. 


192 


( to and for ... Unit 54 too -4 Unit 92 


) 



















Exercises 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use enough + these words: 

chairs money paint wind 



1 She hasn't got. enough money. 

2 There aren't 


3 She hasn't got 

4 There isn't. 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences, 
big long strong -taJL 


Use these adjectives + enough: 



1 He isn’t tall enough . 3 His legs aren't 

2 The car. 4 He 


Complete the sentences. Use enough with these words: 

big eat loud miHe old practise space time tired 

1 'Is there. enough mjlk. j n your coffee?' 'Yes, thank you.' 

2 Can you hear the radio? Is it. !oud enough .for you? 

3 He can leave school if he wants - he's. 

4 When I visited New York last year, I didn't have.to see all the 

things I wanted to see. 

5 This house isn't.for a large family. 

6 Tina is very thin. She doesn't.. 

7 My office is very small. There isn't.. 

8 It's late, but I don't want to go to bed now. I'm not. 

9 Lisa isn't a very good tennis player because she doesn't. 


Complete the sentences. Use enough with these words: 


1 We haven't got. enough.mpnoy.to. buy. a new car. 

2 This knife isn't. 

3 The water wasn't. 

4 Have we got. 

5 We played well, but not. 

6 I don't have. 


tomatoes. 

...swimming. 

sandwiches? 

.the game. 

newspapers. 


(money/buy) 

(sharp/cut) 

(warm/go) 

(bread/make) 

(well/win) 

(time/read) 




















































There is too much sugar in it. 


too + adjective / adverb (too big / too hard etc.) 
Can you turn the radio down? 

Its too loud (- louder than I want) 

I can't work. I'm too tired. 

O I think you work too hard. 



too much / too many = more than you want, more than is good: 

O l don't like the weather here. There is too much rain. (= more rain than is good) 
Let's go to another restaurant. There are too many people here. 

O Emily studies all the time. I think she studies too much. 

Traffic is a problem in this town. There are too many cars. 


Compare too and not enough: 



too big 


The hat is too big for him. 

The music is too loud. Can you turn it down, please? 
There's too much sugar in my coffee. 

(= more sugar than I want) 

O I don't feel very well. I ate too much. 



not big enough 


The hat isn't big enough for him. (= it's too small) 

The music isn't loud enough. Can you turn it up, please? 
There's not enough sugar in my coffee. 

(= I need more sugar) 

O You're very thin. You don't eat enough. 


We say: 

too... for somebody/something 

too ... to do something 

too ... for somebody to do something 


These shoes are too big for me. 

O It's a small house - too small for a large 
family. 

O I'm too tired to go out. (not for go out) 

It's too cold to sit outside 

She speaks too fast for me to understand 


(to ... and for ... ■» Unit 54 much/many Unit 83 enough Unit 91 


) 













Exercises 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use too + these words: 

big crowded fast heavy loud low 



1 The music is. too loud . 4 She's driving. 

2 The box is. 5 His jacket is. 

3 The net is. 6 The museum is. 

Write too / too much / too many or enough. 

1 You're always at home. You don’t go out enough . 

2 I don't like the weather here. There's. too much rain. 

3 I can't wait for them. I don't have.time. 

4 There was nowhere to sit on the beach. There were people. 

5 You're always tired. I think you work hard. 


6 ‘Did you have to eat?' 'Yes, thank you.' 

7 You drink.coffee. It's not good for you. 

8 You don’t eat vegetables. You should eat more. 


9 I don't like the weather here. It's cold. 

10 Our team didn't play well. We made mistakes. 


11 'Would you like some milk in your tea?’ 'Yes, but not 

Complete the sentences. Use too or enough with these words: 

1 I couldn’t work. I. was.too tired . 

2 Can you turn the radio up, please? It isn’t loud enough. 

3 I don't want to walk home. It’s. 

4 Don't buy anything in that shop. It. 

5 You can't put all your things in this bag. It. 

6 I couldn’t do the exercise. It. 

7 Your work needs to be better. It. 

8 I can't talk to you now. I. 

9 I thought the film was boring. It. 

Complete the sentences. Use too (+ adjective) + to... . 

1 (I’m not going out/cold) It's too cold to go out 

2 (I’m not going to bed / early) It's. 

3 (they're not getting married / young) They're. 

4 (nobody goes out at night / dangerous) 

It's. 

5 (don't phone Sue now / late) 

It's. 

6 (I didn't say anything / surprised) 

I was. 


• 

(tired) 

(loud) 

(far) 

(expensive) 

(big) 

(difficult) 

(good) 

(busy) 

(long) 









































He speaks English very well. 
93 . (word order 1) 


verb + object 


l-1 

Sue bought some new shoes yesterday. 

I T 

subject verb object 

The verb (bought) and the object (some new shoes) 
are usually together. We say: 

O Sue bought some new shoes yesterday. 

(not Sue bought yesterday some new shoes) 

sue (subject) some new shoes (object) 


verb + object 

He speaks 

English very well, (not He speaks very well English) 

1 like 

Italian food very much, (not 1 like very much ...) 

Did you watch 

TV all evening? (not ... watch all evening TV) 

Paul often wears 

a black hat. (not Paul wears often ...) 

We invited 

a lot of people to the party. 

1 opened 

the door slowly. 

Why do you always make 

the same mistake? 

I'm going to borrow 

some money from a friend. 



B 


where and when 


I-1 

We went to a party last night 

l l 

i where? when? 

Place (where?) is usually before time (when?). We say: 


We went to a party last night. 

(not We went last 

night tc 

) a party) 


place 

(where?) 

time 

(when? how long? how often?) 

Lisa walks 

to work 

every day 

(not ... 

every day to work) 

Will you be 

at home 

this evening? 

(not ... 

this evening at home) 

1 usually go 

to bed 

early. 

(not ... 

early to bed) 

We arrived 

at the airport 

at 7 o'clock. 



They've lived 

in the same house 

for 20 years. 



Joe's father has been 

in hospital 

since June. 




196 


(word order in questions *4 Units 44-46 always/usually/often etc -4 Unit 94 














Exercises 


Right or wrong? Correct the sentences that are wrong. 

1 Did you watch all evening TV? . Rid^ou watch TV' all evening?, 

2 Sue bought some new shoes yesterday. . QE . 

3 I like very much this picture. 

4 Tom started last week his new job. 

5 I want to speak English fluently. 

6 Jessica bought for her friend a present. 

7 I drink every day three cups of coffee. 

8 Don't eat your dinner too quickly! 

9 I borrowed from my brother fifty pounds. 

Put the words in order. 

1 (the door / opened /1 / slowly) 

2 (a new phone /1 / last week / got) 

3 (finished / Paul / quickly / his work) 

4 (Emily / very well / French / doesn't speak) 

5 (a lot of shopping / did /1 / yesterday) 

6 (London / do you know / well?) 

7 (we / enjoyed / very much / the party) 

8 (the problem / carefully /1 / explained) 

9 (we / at the airport / some friends / met) 

10 (did you buy / in England / that jacket?) 

11 (every day / do / the same thing / we) 

12 (football / don’t like / very much /1) 

Put the words in order. 

1 (to work / every day / walks / Lisa) 

2 (at the hotel /1 / early / arrived) 

3 (goes/every year / to Italy /Julia) 

4 (we / since 1998 / here / have lived) 

5 (in London / Sue / in 1990 / was born) 

Sue. 

6 (didn’t go / yesterday / Paul / to work) 

Paul. 

7 (to a wedding / last weekend / went / Helen) 

Helen. 

8 (I / in bed / this morning / my breakfast / had) 


9 (in September / Amy / to university / is going) 

Amy. 

10 (I / a beautiful bird / this morning / in the garden / saw) 

I. 

11 (many times / have been / my parents / to the United States) 

My. 

12 (my umbrella /1 / last night / left / in the restaurant) 

I. 

13 (to the cinema / tomorrow evening / are you going?) 

Are. 

14 (the children /1 / took / this morning / to school) 

I. 


! opened the door slowly. 


.Lisa wa lk s to w ork every day. 

I. 

Julia. 

We. 









































Unit 

94 always/usually/often etc. (word order 2) 



These words (always/never etc.) go with the verb in the middle of a sentence: 


always 

often 

ever rarely 

also 

already 

all 

usually 

sometimes 

never seldom 

just 

still 

both 


My brother never speaks to me. 

She's always late. 

Do you often go to restaurants? 

I sometimes eat too much, (or Sometimes I eat too much.) 
a: Don't forget to phone Laura. 

b: I've already phoned her. 

I've got three sisters. They're all married. 


B 


Always/never etc go before the verb: 


verb 


always 

go 

often 

play 

never 

have 

etc. 

etc. 


O 

O 

O 

o 

o 


o 


o 


I always drink coffee in the morning. 

(not I drink always coffee) 

Helen often goes to London. 

(not Helen goes often) 

You sometimes look unhappy. 

They usually have dinner at 7 o'clock. 

We rarely watch TV. or 
We seldom watch TV 

Richard is a good footballer. He also plays tennis and volleyball. 
(not He plays also tennis) 

I've got three sisters. They all live in London. 


But always/never etc go after am/is/are/was/were: 



I am always tired. 

(not I always am tired) 

O They are never at home during the day. 

O It is usually very cold here in winter. 

O When I was a child, I was often late for school. 

O a: Where's Laura? 
b: She's still in bed. 

O I've got two brothers. They're both doctors. 
Always/never etc. go between two verbs (have ... been / can ... find etc.): 

I will always remember you. 

It doesn't often rain here. 

O Do you usually go to work by car? 

I can never find my keys. 

Have you ever been to Egypt? 

O a: Where's Laura? 

b: She's just gone out. (She's = She has) 
My friends have all gone to the cinema. 


verb 1 


verb 2 


go 


find 


remember 


etc. 

gone 


been 

etc. 


will 

can 

do 

etc. 


have 

has 


always 

often 

never 

etc. 


am 

always 

IS 

often 

are 

never 

was 

etc. 

were 



198 


always/never + present simple -4 Unit 5 just/already + present perfect *4 Unit 16 all 4 Units 80-81 
both -4 Unit 82 still -4 Unit 95 

•_• 






















Exercises 


Read Pauls answers to the questions. Write sentences about Paul with often/never etc. 




A 


1 

Do you ever play tennis? 


Yes, often. 

2 

Do you get up early? 


Yes, always. 

3 

Are you ever late for work? 


No, never. 

4 

Do you ever get angry? 


Sometimes. 

5 

Do you ever go swimming? 


Rarely. 

6 

^ Are you at home in the evenings?^ 


^Yes, usually. ^ 


Paul 

Paul often plays tennis. 

He. 

He. 


Write these sentences with never/always/usually etc. 

1 My brother speaks to me. (never) . My brother never speaks to me. 

2 Susan is polite, (always) Susan. 

3 I finish work at 5 o'clock, (usually) I. 

4 Sarah has started a new job. (just) Sarah. 

5 I go to bed before midnight, (rarely) . 

6 The bus isn’t late, (usually) . 

7 I don’t eat fish, (often) . 

8 I will forget what you said, (never) . 

9 Have you lost your passport? (ever) . 

10 Do you work in the same place? (still) . 

11 They stay in the same hotel, (always) . 

12 Jane doesn't work on Saturdays, (usually) . 

13 Is Tina here? (already) . 

14 What do you have for breakfast? (usually) . 

15 I can remember his name, (never) . 


Write sentences with also. 

1 Do you play football? (tennis) 

2 Do you speak Italian? (French) 

3 Are you tired? (hungry) 

4 Have you been to England? (Ireland) 

5 Did you buy any clothes? (some books) 


Yes, and [also play tennis. 

Yes, and I. 

Yes, and. 

Yes,. 


Write sentences with both and all. 






! live in London. 
I play football. 
I'm a student. 
I've got a car. 




I live in London. 
I play football. 
I'm a student. 
I've got a car. 




I'm married. I was born in England. 
I live in New York. 




I 




'* 


1 [hey both live in London, . 

They.football. 

.students. 

.cars. 


2 They 
They 


married. 

England. 



























































Unit 

95 still yet already 



still 

an hour ago 



An hour ago it was raining. 


now 



It is still raining now. 


still = something is the same as before: 

O I had a lot to eat, but I'm still hungry. (= I was hungry before, and I'm hungry now) 
O 'Did you sell your car?' 'No, I've still got it.' 

O 'Do you still live in Barcelona?' 'No, I live in Madrid now.' 


yet 



Twenty minutes ago they were They are still waiting for Ben. 

waiting for Ben. Ben hasn't come yet. 


yet = until now 

We use yet in negative sentences (He hasn't come yet.) and in questions (Has he come yet?). 
Yet is usually at the end of a sentence: 

O a: Where's Emma? 

b: She isn't here yet. (= she will be here, but until now she hasn't come) 

O a: What are you doing this evening? 

b: I don't know yet. (- I will know later, but I don't know at the moment) 

O a: Are you ready to go yet? 

b: Not yet In a minute. (= I will be ready, but I'm not ready at the moment) 

□ a: Have you finished with the newspaper yet? 
b: No, I'm still reading it. 

Compare yet and still: 

O She hasn't gone yet. = She's still here. (not she is yet here) 

O I haven't finished eating yet. = I'm still eating. 

already - earlier than expected: 

'What time is Joe coming?' 'He's already here.' (= earlier than we expected) 

'I'm going to tell you what happened.' 'That's not necessary. I already know.' 
Sarah isn't coming to the cinema with us. She has already seen the film. 


200 


f already/yet + present perfect ^ Unit 16 word order (still/already) •¥ Unit 94 





















Exercises 



You meet Tina. The last time you saw her was two years ago. You ask her some questions with still. 

Tina - two years ago 1 .Do you still play the piano?. 

2 Do you. 

3 Are. 


"* (l play che piano, 



want to be a teacher. \ 


Write three sentences for each situation. Look at the example carefully. 

before now 


1 



(before) They were waitina for the bus. 

(still) . They are still waiting. . 

(yet) . The bus. hasn’t come yet. . 


(before) He was 

(still) He. 

(yet) 


yet. 


(before) She.asleep. 

(still) . 

(yet) . 


(before) They. 
(still) 

(yet) 


dinner 

Write questions with yet. 

1 You and Sue are going out together. You are waiting for her to get ready. Perhaps she is ready now. 

You ask her: . Areypu.ready yet? . 

2 You are waiting for Helen to arrive. She wasn't here ten minutes ago. Perhaps she is here now. 

You ask somebody: .Helen. 

3 Anna did an exam and is waiting for the results. Perhaps she has her results now. 

You ask her: .you. 

4 A few days ago you spoke to Tom. He wasn't sure where to go on holiday. Perhaps he has decided 
now. 

You ask him: . 

Complete the sentences. Use already. 



201 



























































































Unit 

96 Give me that book! 


Give it to me! 


give lend pass send show 

After these verbs (give/lend etc.), there are 
two possible structures: 

give something to somebody 
O I gave the keys to Sarah. 

give somebody something 
O I gave Sarah the keys. 


SARAH 


give something to somebody 


something to somebody 


That’s my book. Give 

it 

to me. 

These are Sue’s keys. Can you give 

them 

to her? 

Can you give 

these flowers 

to your mother? 

1 lent 

my car 

to a friend of mine. 

Did you send 

the money 

to Kate? 

We’ve seen these photos. You showed 

them 

to us. 


give somebody something 


somebody something 



Give 

me 

that book. It's mine. 

Tom 

gave 

his mother 

some flowers. 

1 

lent 

Joe 

some money. 

How much money did you 

lend 

him? 


1 

sent 

you 

an email. Did you get it? 

Nicola 

showed 

us 

her holiday photos. 

Can you 

pass 

me 

the salt, please? 


You can also say 'buy/get somebody something’: 

O I bought my mother some flowers. (= I bought some flowers for my mother.) 
O I’m going to the shop. Can I get you anything? (= get anything for you) 

You can say: 

O I gave the keys to Sarah. 
and I gave Sarah the keys. 

(but not I gave to Sarah the keys) 

O That’s my book. Can you give it to me? 
and Can you give me that book? 

(but not Can you give to me that book?) 

We prefer the first structure (give something to somebody) with it or them: 

O I gave it to her. (not I gave her it) 

O Here are the keys. Give them to your father, (not Give your father them) 


202 I ^ it/him/them etc Unit 59 


) 















Exercises 



Mark had some things that he didn't want. He gave them to different people. 



SARAH 


ROBERT 


A NEIGHBOUR 


HIS SISTER 


HIS BROTHER 


CARY 


Write sentences beginning He gave 


1 What did Mark do with the armchair? . He gave jt.to his brother.. 

2 What did he do with the tennis racket? He gave. 

3 What happened to the books? He. 

4 What about the lamp? . 

5 What did he do with the pictures? . 

6 And the ladder? . 


^231 You 8 ave Presents to your friends. You decided to give them the things in the pictures. Write a 
sentence for each person. 


/ CD PAUL 

n 

(2) JOANNA 

(U RICHARD 

(4) EMMA 

© RACHEL 

fh 

© KEVIN 


• 




1 

m 





1 . LgayePaulabook. . 4 

2 I gave. 5 

3 1 . 6 



Write questions beginning Can you give 


1 (you want the salt) (pass) 

2 (you need an umbrella) (lend) 

3 (you want my address) (give) 

4 (you need twenty pounds) (lend) 

5 (you want more information) (send) 

6 (you want to see the letter) (show) 


me ... ? / Can you pass me ... ? etc. 

. Can.you.pass ma the salt? . 

Can you. 

Can.your 


Which is right? 

1 I gav e to-Sarah the k eys r- / 1 gave Sarah the keys . ( I gave Sarah the keys is right ) 

2 I'll lend to you some money if you want. / I'll lend you some money if you want. 

3 Did you send the bill me ? / Did you send the bill to me ? 

4 I want to buy for you a present . /1 want to buy you a present . 

5 Can you pass to me the sugar , please? / Can you pass me the sugar , please? 

6 This is Lisas bag. Can you give it to her ? / Can you give her it ? 

7 I showed to the policeman my identity card . /1 showed the policeman my identity card . 


203 























































Unit 

97 


and but or so because 


and but or so because 

We use these words (conjunctions) to join two sentences. They make one longer sentence from two 
shorter sentences: 


sentence A The car stopped. ——| The driver got out. sentence B 


The car stopped and the driver got out. 


and/but/or 


sentence A 


sentence B 

We stayed at home 

and 

(we)* watched television. 

My sister is married 

and 

(she)* lives in London. 

He doesn't like her, 

and 

she doesn't like him. 

1 bought a sandwich, 

but 

1 didn't eat it. 

It's a nice house, 

but 

it doesn't have a garden. 

Do you want to go out, 

or 

are you too tired? 


* It is not necessary to 
repeat we' and she'. 


In lists, we use commas (,). We use and before the last thing: 

O I got home, had something to eat, sat down in an armchair and fell asleep. 
S' S' S' 

Karen is at work, Sue has gone shopping and Chris is playing football. 


so (the result of something) 

sentence A 

It was very hot, 
Joe does a lot of sport, 
They don't like travelling, 


sentence B 

I opened the window, 
he's very fit. 

they haven't been to many places. 


because (the reason for something) 


sentence A 


sentence B 

1 opened the window 

because 

it was very hot. 

Joe can't come to the party 

because 

he's going away. 

Lisa is hungry 

because 

she didn't have breakfast. 


Because is also possible at the beginning: 

O Because it was very hot, 1 opened the window. 

In these examples there is more than one conjunction: 

O It was late and I was tired, so I went to bed. 

I always enjoy visiting London, but I wouldn't like to live there because it's too big. 


204 ( when/while/before etc. ■» Unit 98 













Exercises 

Write sentences. Choose from the boxes and use and/but/or. 


■ 1 stayed at home. 


1 didn't have your number. 

1 bought a sandwich. 


Shall 1 wait here? 

1 went to the window. 


1 didn't eat it. 

1 wanted to phone you. 


1 went by bus this morning. 

1 jumped into the river. 


1 watched TV. 

1 usually drive to work. 


1 swam to the other side. 

Do you want me to come with you? 


1 looked out. 



1 . 1 stayed at home and wat ched TV. . 

2 . 1 bought a sandwich but I didn't eat it. 

3 I. 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 



1 It was very hot,. so he opened the window, 

2 They couldn't play tennis. 

3 They went to the museum,. 

4 Ben wasn't hungry,. 

5 Helen was late. 

6 Sue said 


Write sentences about what you did yesterday. Use and/but etc. 

1 (and) . |n the eyening I stayed at home and studied, . 

2 (because) . I went to bed ve ry early because I wag tired. . 

3 (but) . 

4 (and) . 

5 (so) . 

6 (because) . 


205 














































When... 


L 


When I went out, it was raining. 

This sentence has two parts: 

when I went out + it was raining 

You can say: 

O When I went out, it was raining, or 
It was raining when I went out. 

We write a comma (,) if When ... is at the beginning: 
When you're tired, don't drive. 

Don’t drive when you’re tired. 

I Helen was 25 when she got married. 

| When Helen got married, she was 25. 



We do the same in sentences with before/while/after: 


| Always look both ways before you cross the road. 

I Before you cross the road, always look both ways. 

! While I was waiting for the bus, it began to rain. 

1 It began to rain while I was waiting for the bus. 

q He never played football again after he broke his leg. 
After he broke his leg, he never played football again. 

When I am ... / When I go ... etc. 


Next week Sarah is going to New York. 

She has a friend, Lisa, who lives in New York, 
but Lisa is also going away - to Mexico. 

So they won't see each other in New York. 

Lisa will be in Mexico when Sarah is in New York. 

The time is future (next week) but we say: 

... when Sarah is in New York. 

(not when Sarah will be) 



SARAH LISA 


We use the present (I am /1 go etc.) with a future meaning after when: 

O When I get home this evening, I'm going to have a shower. 

(not When I will get home) 

O I can’t talk to you now. I'll talk to you later when I have more time. 

We do the same after before/while/after/until: 

O Please close the window before you go out. 

(not before you will go) 

O Rachel is going to stay in our flat while we are away. 

(not while we will be) 

O I’ll wait here until you come back. 

(not until you will come back) 


( if and when ^ Unit 99 until ^ Unit 104 before/while/after Unit 105 
















Exercises 


Write sentences beginning with when. Choose from the boxes. 


When + 


1 went out 


1 turned off the TV 

I'm tired 


1 always go to the same place 

1 knocked on the door 


there were no rooms 

1 go on holiday 

+ 

it was raining 

the programme ended 


there was no answer 

1 got to the hotel 


1 like to watch TV 


1 . When,]. was raining. 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 


Complete the sentences. Choose from the box. 

somebody broke into the house before they came here when they heard the news 
b e for e th e y cro s s e d th e road while they were away they didn't believe me 
they went to live in New Zealand 

1 They looked both ways. ^sfore they cross^ the road. . 

2 They were very surprised. 

3 After they got married,. 

4 Their house was damaged in a storm. 

5 Where did they live. 

6 While we were asleep,. 

7 When I told them what happened,. 

Which is right? 

1 4-stav- / I'll stay here until you come / you' ll com e back. ( I'll stay and you come are right) 

2 I'm going to bed when I finish / I'll finish my work. 

3 We must do something before it's / it will be too late. 

4 Helen is going away soon. I'm / I'll be very sad when she leaves / she'll leave . 

5 Don't go out yet. Wait until the rain stops /will stop . 

6 We come / We'll come and visit you when we're / we'll be in England again. 

7 When I come to see you tomorrow, I bring / I'll bring our holiday photos. 

8 I’m going to Paris next week. I hope to see some friends of mine while I'm / I'll be there. 

9 Let's go out for a walk before it gets / it will get dark. 

10 I'm not ready yet. I tell / I'll tell you when I'm / I'll be ready. 

Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 

1 Can you close the window before. you <30 out . 

2 What are you going to do when. 

3 When I have enough money,. 

4 I'll wait for you while. 

5 When I start my new job,. 

6 Will you be here when. 















































Unit 


If we go... If you see... etc 




If can be ac the beginning of a sentence or in the middle: 
If at the beginning 


If we go by bus, 
If you don't hurry, 
If you’re hungry, 
If the phone rings, 


it will be cheaper, 
you’ll miss the train, 
have something to eat. 
can you answer it, please? 


if in the middle 


It will be cheaper 
You'll miss the train 
I'm going to the concert 
Is it OK 


if we go by bus. 
if you don't hurry, 
if I can get a ticket, 
if I use your phone? 


In conversation, we often use the if-part of the sentence alone: 

'Are you going to the concert?’ 'Yes, if I can get a ticket.' 

If you see Ann tomorrow ... etc. 

After if, we use the present (not will). We say 'if you see ...’ (not if you will see): 
If you see Ann tomorrow, can you ask her to call me? 

O If I'm lace this evening, don't wait for me. (not if I will be) 

What shall we do if it rains? (not if it will rain) 

If I don't feel well tomorrow, I'll stay at home. 

if and when 

If I go out = it is possible that I will go out, but I'm not sure: 
a: Are you going out later? 
b: Maybe. If I go out, I'll close the windows. 

When I go out = I'm going out (for sure): 
a: Are you going out later? 
b: Yes, I am. When I go out, I'll close the windows. 

Compare when and if: 

When I get home this evening, I'm going to have a shower. 

If I'm late this evening, don't wait for me. (not When I'm late) 

We're going to play tennis if it doesn't rain. (not when it doesn't rain) 


( when -► Unit 98 if I had / if we went ... etc. -» Unit 100 





































Exercises 

Write sentences beginning with if Choose from the boxes. 


-you don't hurry 


we can have lunch now 

you pass the exam 


you can have them 

you fail the exam 


1 can lend you some 

you don't want this magazine 

_i_ 

you'll get a certificate 

you want those pictures 

p 

you'll be late 

you're busy now 


I'll throw it away 

you're hungry 


we can talk later 

you need money 


you can do it again 


1 jf you. don’t .hur^.^ou]i.be..lat^.. i 

2 If you pass. 

3 If. 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 


Which is right? 

1 If I'm / 1 1 1 be late this evening, don't wait for me. (JVn is right ) 

2 Will you call me if I give / I'll give you my phone number? 

3 If there is / will be a fire, the alarm will ring. 

4 If I don't see you tomorrow morning, I call / 111 call you in the evening. 

5 I'm / I'll be surprised if Michael and Jane get /will get married. 

6 Do you go / Will you go to the party if they invite / they'll invite you? 


Use your own ideas to complete these sentences. 

1 I'm going to the concert if. ! can get a ticket, . 

2 If you don't hurry,. ypu’ll.miss.the train, . 

3 I don't want to disturb you if... 

4 If you go to bed early tonight,. 

Turn the TV off if. 

Tina won't pass her exams if. 

If I have time tomorrow, 


5 

6 

7 

8 We can go to the beach tomorrow if. 

9 I'll be surprised if. 


Write if or when. 

1 If . I'm late this evening, don't wait for me. 

2 I'm going to do some shopping now. I come back, we can have lunch. 

3 I'm thinking of going to see Tom.I go, will you come with me? 


4 you don't want to go out tonight, we can stay at home. 

5 Is it OK .I close the window? 


6 John is still at school.he leaves school, he wants to go to college. 

7 Shall we have a picnic tomorrow the weather is good? 

8 We're going to Madrid next week. We don't have anywhere to stay - we hope to find a hotel 

we get there. I don't know what well do.we don't find a room. 















































If I had... If we went... etc. 


Dan likes fast cars, but he doesn’t have one. 

He doesn't have enough money. 

If he had the money, he would buy a fast car. 

Usually had is past, but in this sentence had is 
not past. If he had the money = if he had the 
money now (but he doesn’t have it). 





1 

had / knew / lived (etc.) 

1 

would... 

If 

you 

didn't have / didn't know (etc.) 

you 

wouldn't.. . 

ic 

were..., 

it 

could... 


chey 

could ... , 

they 

couldn’t... 



DAN 


You can say: 

O If he had the money, he would buy a car. 
or He would buy a car if he had the money. 

Td / she'd / they'd etc = I would / she would / they would etc.: 

O I don't know the answer. If I knew the answer, I'd tell you. 

O It's raining, so we're not going out. We'd get wet if we went out. 

O Jane lives in a city. She likes cities. She wouldn't be happy if she lived in the country. 

O If you didn't have a job, what would you do? (but you have a job) 

O I'm sorry I can't help you. I'd help you if I could, (but I can't) 

O if we had a car, we could travel more, (but we don't have a car, so we can't travel much) 


If (I) was/were ... 

You can say: if l/he/she/it was or 
if l/he/she/it were 

O It's not a very nice place. I wouldn't go there 

if I were you. (or ... if I was you) 

Q It would be nice if the weather was better. 

(or ... if the weather were better) 

O What would Tom do if he were here? 

(or ... if he was here) 



Compare: 


if 1 have / if it is etc. 

if 1 had / if it was etc. 

O 1 must go and see Helen. 

O 1 must go and see Helen. 

If 1 have time, 1 will go today. 

If 1 had time, 1 would go today. 

(= maybe I'll have time, so maybe 

(= 1 don't have time today, so 1 will 

I'll go) 

not go) 

O 1 like that jacket. 

O 1 like this jacket, but it's very expensive. 

I'll buy it if it isn't too expensive. 

I'd buy it if it wasn't so expensive. 

(- maybe it will not be too expensive) 

(= it is expensive, so I'm not going to 


buy it) 

O I'll help you if 1 can. (= maybe 1 can) 

O I'd help you if 1 could, but 1 can't. 


) 


f if we go / if I have / if I can etc •+ Unit 99 



















Exercises 


Complete the sentences. 

1 I don't know the answer. If I. knew the answer, I'd tell you. 

2 I have a car. I couldn't travel very much if I. didn’t have .a car. 

3 I don't want to go out. If I.to go out, I'd go. 

4 We don't have a key. If we a key, we could get into the house. 

5 I'm not hungry. I would have something to eat if I hungry. 

6 Sue enjoys her work. She wouldn't do it if she.it. 

7 He can't speak any foreign languages. If he.speak a foreign language, 

perhaps he would get a better job. 

8 You don't try hard enough. If you.harder, you would have more success. 

9 I have a lot to do today. If I.so much to do, we could go out. 


50 Put the verb in the correct form. 


12 


If. he h ad .the money, he would buy a fast car. (he/have) 

Jane likes living in a city. . She wouldn’t be .happy if she lived in the country, (she/not/be) 

If I wanted to learn Italian,.to Italy. (I go) 

I haven't told Helen what happened. She'd be angry if. (she/know) 

If.a map, I could show you where I live, (we/have) 

What would you do if.a lot of money? (you/win) 

It's not a very good hotel.there if I were you. (I/not/stay) 

8 If.nearer London, we would go there more often, (we/live) 

9 It's a shame you have to go now.nice if you had more time, (it/be) 

I'm not going to take the job. I'd take it if.better, (the salary/be) 

I don't know anything about cars. If the car broke down,. what 

to do. (I/not/know) 

If you could change one thing in the world, what.? (you/change) 


10 

11 


Complete the sentences. Choose from the box and put the verb in the correct form. 

we (have) a bigger house i t (b e ) a b i t ch e ap e r 

we (buy) a bigger house the air (be) cleaner 

we (have) some pictures on the wall I (watch) it 
every day (be) the same I (be) bored 


1 I'd buy that jacket if. \t was a .bit cheaper 

2 If there was a good film on TV tonight,. 

3 This room would be nicer if. 

4 If there wasn't so much traffic,. 

5 Life would be boring if. 

6 If l had nothing to do,. 

7 We could invite all our friends to stay if. 

8 if we had more money,. 



Complete the sentences. Use your own ideas. 

1 I'd be happier if I. could . q at a better jo b 

2 If I could go anywhere in the world, 

3 I wouldn't be very happy if . 

4 I'd buy.if 

5 If I saw an accident in the street,. 

6 The world would be a better place if. 





















































a person who ... a thing that/which ... 
(relative clauses 1) 



she —> who 


can speak six languages.) 


I met a woman. She can speak six languages. 
•--— 2 sentences . 1 


1 . 7 sentence .j 

I met a woman who can speak six languages. 



Jack was wearing a hat. It was too big for him. 
.2 sentences .‘ 


it —> that or which 

s.7 sentence . 

Jack was wearing a hat that was too big for him. 
or 

Jack was wearing a hat which was too big for him. 


who is for people (not things): 


A thief is a person 
Do you know anybody 
The man 
The people 


who steals things, 
who can play the piano? 
who phoned 
who work in the office 


didn't give his name, 
are very friendly. 


that is for things or people: 


An airplane is a machine 

that flies. 


Emma lives in a house 

that is 400 years old. 


The people 

that work in the office 

are very friendly. 


You can use that for people, but who is more usual. 


which is for things (not peo 

pie): 

An airplane is a machine 
Emma lives in a house 

which flies, (not a machine who ...) 
which is 400 years old. 


Do not use which for people: 

Do you remember the woman who was playing the piano at the party? 
(not the woman which ...) 


who and which in questions ^ Units 45,47 the people we met (relative clauses 2) -4 Unit 102 


) 






































Exercises 


Choose from the boxes and write sentences: A ... is a person who ... . Use a dictionary if 
necessary. 


doesn't tell the truth 

is ill in hospital 

takes care of your teeth 

steals things 

is very intelligent 

does stupid things 

plays a musical instrument 

sells meat 


a thief 

a dentist 

a butcher 

a fool 

a musician 

a genius 

a patient 

a liar 


1 Athjef is a.person who.steajsthi.ngs, . 

2 A butcher is a person. 

3 A musician. 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 

^20 Make one sentence from two. 

1 (A man phoned. He didn’t give his name.) 

. The. man. who .phoned didn’t ^iye.his name, . 

2 (A woman opened the door. She was wearing a yellow dress.) 

The woman.a yellow dress. 

3 (Some students took the exam. Most of them passed.) 

Most of the students. 

4 (A policeman stopped our car. He wasn’t very friendly.) 

The. 



Write who or which. 

1 I met a woman who .can speak six languages. 

2 What’s the name of the man has just started work in your office? 

3 What’s the name of the river.flows through the town? 

4 Where is the picture.was hanging on the wall? 

5 Do you know anybody.wants to buy a car? 

6 You always ask questions.are difficult to answer. 

7 I have a friend is very good at repairing cars. 

8 I think everybody.went to the party enjoyed it very much. 

9 Why does he always wear clothes are too small for him? 


Right or wrong? Correct the mistakes. 

1 A thief is a person which steals things. . a pereon who steals 

2 An airplane is a machine that flies. . QK . 

3 A coffee maker is a machine who makes coffee. . 

4 What's happened to the money that was on the table? 

5 I don't like people which never stop talking. 

6 I know somebody that can help you. . 

7 I know somebody who works in that shop. 

8 Correct the sentences who are wrong. 

9 My neighbour bought a car who cost £40,000 







































the people we met the hotel you stayed at 
102 (relative clauses 2) 


A 



KATE 




You can say: 

O The bag that he is carrying ... or The bag he is carrying ... (with or without that) 
O ... the money that Kate won? or ... the money Kate won? 

You do not need that/who/which when it is the object: 


subject verb object 


The man 

was carrying 

a bag 

—> the bag (that) the man was carrying 

Kate 

won 

some money 

—»the money (that) Kate won 

You 

wanted 

some books 

—> the books (that) you wanted 

We 

met 

some people 

—> the people (who) we met 


O Did you find the books you wanted? (or ... the books that you wanted?) 
O The people we met were very friendly, (or The people who we met...) 

O Everything I said was true, (or Everything that I said ...) 

We say: 

O The film we saw was very good, (not The film we saw it was ...) 



Sometimes there is a preposition (to/in/at etc.) after the verb: 

Eve is talking to a man. —> Do you know the man Eve is talking to? 

We stayed at a hotel. —> The hotel we stayed at was near the station. 

I told you about some books. —» Ihese are the books I told you about 

We say: 

... the books I told you about, (not the books I told you about them) 


4 


You can say '(a place) where ...': 

O The hotel where we stayed was near the station. (= The hotel we stayed at...) 



You must use who/that/which when it is the subject (—> Unit 101): 

O I met a woman who can speak six languages, (who is the subject) 

O Jack was wearing a hat that was too big for him. (that is the subject) 


f a person who ... ; a thing that/which . (relative clauses 1 ) ^ Unit 101 


1 






























Exercises 



Make one sentence from two. 

1. (Helen took some pictures. Have you seen them?) 
. Have you seen the pictures Helen.took? . 


2 (You gave me a pen. I’ve lost it.) 

I’ve lost the. 

3 (Sue is wearing a jacket. I like it.) 

I like the. 

4 (I gave you some flowers. Where are they?) 

Where are the. 

5 (He told us a story. I didn’t believe it.) 


6 (You bought some oranges. How much were they?) 
How. 


Make one sentence from two. 


1 


(I was carrying a bag. It was very heavy.) 

. Thebag.l wascarrying, was yery.heayy.... 

(You cooked a meal. It was excellent.) 

The. 


3 (I’m wearing shoes. They aren’t very comfortable.) 

The shoes. 

4 (We invited some people to dinner. They didn't come.) 

The. 


You ask your friend some questions. Complete the sentences. 

1 Your friend stayed at a hotel. You ask: 

What's the name of. the hotel you stayed at . 

2 Your friend was talking to some people. You ask: 

Who are the people. 

3 Your friend was looking for some keys. You ask: 

Did you find the. 

4 Your friend is going to a party. You ask: 

Where is the. 

5 Your friend was talking about a film. You ask: 

What’s the name of. 

6 Your friend is listening to some music. You ask: 

What's that. 

7 Your friend applied for a job. You ask: 

Did you get. 


Complete the questions. Use where. 

1 John stayed at a hotel. You ask him: 

Did you like. the, hotel where you stayed 

2 Sue had dinner in a restaurant. You ask her: 

What's the name of the restaurant. 

3 Sarah lives in a village. You ask her: 

How big is the. 

4 Richard works in a faccory. You ask him: 

Where exactly is. 


175 




































Unit 


103 at 8 o'clock on Monday in April 


at 



on 


We say: 


at the weekend 
at night 
at Christmas 
at the end of 
at the moment 



8 o'clock 

at 

10.30 


midnight etc. 



on 


Sunday(s) / Monday(s) 
25 April / 6 June etc 
New Years Day etc 


etc. 



April/June etc. 

in 

2013/1988 etc. 


summer/spring etc. 


O I start work at 8 o’clock. 
O The shops dose at 5.30. 


O Bye! HI see you on Friday. 

O What do you usually do on 

Sundays? 

O The concert is on 22 November. 


I'm going on holiday in October. 
Emma was born in 1995. 

The park is beautiful in spring. 


Are you going away at the weekend? 

I can't sleep at night. 

Where will you be at Christmas? (but on Christmas Day) 
I'm going on holiday at the end of October. 

Are you busy at the moment? 


216 


in the morning / in the afternoon / in the evening 

O I always feel good in the morning. 

O Do you often go out in the evening? 
but 

on Monday morning / on Tuesday afternoon / on Friday evening / on Saturday night etc.: 
□ I'm meeting Jackie on Monday morning 
O Are you doing anything on Saturday night? 


We do not use at/on/in before: 


this ... (this morning/this week etc.) 
last (last August / last week etc.) 
next... (next Monday / next week etc.) 
every ... (every day / every week etc.) 


o 


Are you going out this evening? 

We go on holiday every summer. Last summer we 

went to Canada. 

I'm leaving next Monday. 

(not on next Monday) 


in five minutes / in a few days / in six weeks / in two years etc. 

O Hurry! The train leaves in five minutes. 
(= it leaves five minutes from now) 
j Bye! I'll see you in a few days. 

(= a few days from now) 




now 


in five minutes 


( in/on/at (places) ^ Units 106-107 






























Exercises 


Write at/on/in. 


1 

. on .6 June 

7 . 

.24 September 

13 . 

.Friday morning 

2 

. in .the evening 

8 . 

Thursday 

14 . 

.Saturday night 

3 

.half past two 

9 . 

.11.45 

15 . 

.night 

4 

.Wednesday 

10 

.Christmas Day 

16 . 

.the end of the day 

5 

.2007 

11 . 

.Christmas 

17 . 

.the weekend 

6 

.September 

12 . 

.the morning 

18 

.winter 


Write at/on/in. 


i 

Bye! See you. on . 

Friday. 

ii 

1 often go away. 

the weekend. 

2 

Where were you. 

.28 February? 

12 

I'm starting my new job 

3 July. 

3 

1 got up. 8 o'clock this morning. 

13 

We often go to the beach.summer. 

4 

1 like getting up early 

.the morning. 

14 

George isn't here. 

... the moment. 

5 

My sister got married 

.May. 

15 

Jane's birthday is. 

.. December. 

6 

Jessica and 1 first met 

.2006. 

16 

Do you work.Saturdays? 

7 

Did you go out. 

.Tuesday? 

17 

The company started. 

.1999. 

8 

Did you go out. 

.Tuesday evening? 

18 

1 like to look at the stars 

.night. 

9 

Do you often go out 

.the evening? 

19 

I'll send you the money. 

.the end of 

10 

Let’s meet.7.30 tomorrow evening. 


the month. 



Look at Lisa's diary for next week and complete the sentences. 



1 Lisa is going to the cinema on ..Wednesday evening. 

2 She has to phone Chris. 

B She isn't doing anything special. 

4 She's got a driving lesson. 

5 She's going to a party. 

6 She's meeting Sam. 


Write sentences with in ... . 

1 It's 8.25 now. The train leaves at 8.30. 

2 It's Monday today. I’ll call you on Thursday. 

3 Today is 14 June. My exam is on 28 June. 

4 It’s 3 o'clock now. Tom will be here at 3.30. 


The train leaves in five rninuteo. . 

I'll.days. 

My. 

Tom. 



Write at/on/in if necessary. Sometimes the sentence is already complete, and no word is 
necessary. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 


I'm going. on .Friday. 


7 

I'm going. r. .next Friday. (already complete) 

8 

1 always feel tired. 

. the evening. 

9 

Will you be at home. 

.this evening? 

10 

We went to France. 

.last summer. 

11 

Laura was born. 

1997. 

12 


What are you doing.the weekend? 

I phone Robert.every Sunday. 

Shall we play tennis.next Sunday? 

1 can’t go to the party.Sunday. 

I'm going out. I'll be back.an hour. 

I don't often go out.night. 





































































Compare: 

O 'How long will you be away?' 
O 'When are you coming back?’ 


'Until Monday.' 
'On Monday.' 





since + a time in the past (to now) 

We use since after the present perfect (have been / have done etc.): 

O Joe is in hospital. He has been 
in hospital since Monday. 

(= from Monday to now) 

O Sue and Dave have been - 

married since 1998. Monday 

(= from 1998 to now) 

O It has been raining since I arrived. 

Compare: 

O We lived in Japan from 2003 to 2010 . 

We lived in Japan until 2010 . 

O Now we live in Canada. We came to Canada in 2010. 

We have lived in Canada since 2010. (= from 2010 until now) 

We use for ( not since) + a period of time (three days / ten years etc.): 
O Joe has been in hospital for three days. ( not since three days) 

for + a period of time 


since Monday 


now 


for 

three days 
ten years 
five minutes 

Gary stayed with us for 

three days. 

I'm going away for 

a few weeks. 

Sunday 

for three days 

Monday Tuesday 


a long time 




O I'm going away for the weekend. 




O They've been married for ten years. 


218 


( present perfect + for/since 4 Units 18-19 present perfect (I have lived) and past simple (I lived) Unit 20 j 





























Exercises 

Read the information and complete the sentences. Use from ... to / until / since. 


ALEX 



I live in England now. 
I lived in Canada 
before. 

I came to England in 
2009. 


KAREN 


I live in Switzerland 

now. 

I lived in France before 
I came to Switzerland 
in 2011. 


CLARE 



I worked in a restaurant 
before. 


I started work in the 
hotel in 2012. 


ADAM 

\ -Jr 



I was a teacher 


before. 

I started work as a 
journalist in 2008. 


1 (Alex / Canada / 2001 2009) 

2 (Alex / Canada / —> 2009) 

3 (Alex / England / 2009 —>) 

4 (Karen / France / —> 2011) 

5 (Karen / Switzerland / 2011 —>) 

6 (Clare / a restaurant / 2010 —> 2012) 

7 (Clare / a hotel / 2012 —>) 

8 (Adam / a teacher / 2002 —» 2008) 

9 (Adam / a journalist / 2008 —») 


Alex lived. in Canada from 2001 to 2009 . 

Alex lived in Canada.2009 

Alex has lived in England. 

Karen lived in. 

Karen has lived in. 

Clare worked.2010 

Clare has worked. 

Adam was a. 

Adam has been. 


Now write sentences with for. 


10 (Alex / Canada) 

11 (Alex / England) 

12 (Karen / Switzerland) 

13 (Clare / a restaurant) 

14 (Clare / a hotel) 

15 (Adam / a teacher) 

16 (Adam / a journalist) 


Alex Jived .in Canada for eight .years 
Alex has lived in England 

Karen has. 

Clare worked 

Clare. 

Adam. 

Adam. 


Write until/since/for. 

1 Sue and Dave have been married since . 1998 . 

2 I was tired this morning. I stayed in bed 10 o’clock. 

3 We waited for Sue half an hour, but she didn’t come. 


4 'Have you just arrived?’ 'No, I've been here half past seven.' 

5 'How long did you stay at the party last night?’ ' midnight.’ 

6 Dan and I are good friends. We have known each other.ten years. 


7 I'm tired. I'm going to lie down.a few minutes. 

8 Don't open the door of the train the train stops. 

9 This is my house. I've lived here 1 was seven years old. 

10 Jack has gone away. He'll be away.Wednesday. 

11 Next week I’m going to Paris three days. 


12 I usually finish work at 5.30, but sometimes I work six. 

13 'How long have you known Anna?’ ' we were at school together.' 

14 Where have you been? I've been waiting for you twenty minutes. 


























































Unit 

105 ^before after during while 


before, during and after 



before che film during the film after the film 


O Everybody feels nervous before exams. 

O I fell asleep during the film. 

O We were tired after our visit to the museum. 



O Don't forget to close the window before you go out. 
O I often fall asleep while I'm reading. 

O They went home after they did the shopping. 


C 


during while and for 


We use during + noun (during the film). We use while + verb (while I'm reading): 
O We didn't speak during the meal. 

but We didn't speak while we were eating (not during we were eating) 


Use for (not during) + a period of time (three days / two hours / a year etc): 
O We played tennis for two hours, (not during two hours) 

O I lived in London for a year, (not during a year) 



You can use before/after + -ing (before going / after eating etc ): 

O I always have breakfast before going to work. (= before I go to work) 
After doing the shopping they went home. (= after they did) 

We say before going (not before to go), after doing (not after to do) etc.: 

O Before eating the apple, I washed it carefully, (not before to eat) 

O I started work after reading the newspaper, (not after to read) 


past continuous (I was -ing) ^ Units 13-14 before/after/while/when Unit 98 for Unit 104 
prepositions + -ing -4 Unit 112 
















Exercises 



Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes. 


after during 

before while 


lunch 

+ the concert 
the course 


the end they went to Australia 

the exam you're waiting 

the night 


1 Everybody was nervous. before the exam . 

2 I usually work four hours in the morning, and another three hours. 

3 The film was really boring. We left. 

4 Anna went to evening classes to learn German. She learnt a lot. 

5 My aunt and uncle lived in London. 

6 a: Somebody broke a window. Did you hear anything? 

b: No, I was asleep all the time. 

7 Would you like to sit down.? 

8 a: Are you going home.? 

b: Yes, I have to get up early tomorrow. 

Write during/while/for. 

1 We didn't speak. w.bM .we were eating. 

2 We didn't speak. during .the meal. 

3 Gary called.you were out. 

4 Amy went to Italy and stayed in Rome.five days. 

5 l didn't check my email.I was away. 

6 The students looked very bored.the lesson. 

7 I fell out of bed.I was asleep. 

8 Last night I watched TV.three hours. 

9 I don't usually watch TV.the day. 

10 Do you ever watch TV.you are having dinner? 

Complete the sentences. Use -ing (doing, having etc.). 

1 After. doing .the shopping, they went home. 

2 I felt sick after.too much chocolate. 

3 I'm going to ask you a question. Think carefully before.it. 

4 I felt awful when I got up this morning. I felt better after.a shower. 

5 After.my work, I left the office and went home. 

6 Before.to a foreign country, it's good to try and learn a little of the language. 

Write sentences with before + -ing and after + -ing. 

1 They did the shopping. Then they went home. 

After. doing, the shopping,. they went home, . 

2 John left school. Then he worked in a bookshop for two years. 

John worked. 

3 I read for a few minutes. Then I went to sleep. 

Before. 

4 We walked for three hours. We were very tired. 

After. 

5 Let's have a cup of coffee. Then we'll go out. 


Let's 









































Unit 

106 


222 


on (places 1) 



X 


in a room 
in a shop 
in a car 
in the water 



in a garden 
in a town 
in the city centre 
in Brazil 


'Where's David?' In the kitchen. / In the garden. / In London.' 
What's in that box / in that bag / in that cupboard? 

Rachel works in a shop / in a bank / in a factory. 

I went for a swim in the river / in the pool / in the sea. 

Milan is in the north of Italy. Naples is in the south. 

I live in a big city, but I’d like to live in the country. 


at 




T 


J 




at the bus stop 


at the door 


at the traffic lights 


at her desk 


O There’s somebody at the bus stop / at the door. 
O The car is waiting at the traffic lights. 

O Vicky is working at her desk. 

at the top / at the bottom / at the end (of...): 

O Write your name at the top of the page. 

O My house is at the end of the street. 


at the top (of the page) 


at the bottom (of the page) 


on 



on a shelf 
on a plate 
on a balcony 
on the floor 
etc 



on a wall 
on a door 
on the ceiling 
etc. 




O There are some books on the shelf and some pictures on the wall 
O There are a lot of apples on those trees. 

O Don't sit on the grass. It's wet. 

O There is a stamp on the envelope. 

on a horse / on a bicycle / on a motorbike: 

O Who is that man on the motorbike? 


( the top / the bottom Unit 70 at/on/in (time) “► Unit 103 in/at/on (places) Unit 107 
















































Exercises 



Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use in/at/on. 



(11 (the bus stop) 


CD (the field) 


(D (the box) 



(7) (the balcony) 


CD (the wall) 



(D (the pool) 



1 Where is he? . In the kitchen. 

2 Where are the shoes? . 

3 Where is the pen? . 

4 Where is the clock? . 

5 Where is the bus? . 

6 Where are the horses? . 


7 Where are they standing? 

8 Where is she swimming? 

9 Where is he standing? 

10 Where is the spider? 

11 Where is he sitting? 

12 Where is she sitting? 


Write in/at/on. 

1 Don't sit. on the grass. It’s wet. 

2 What do you have your bag? 

3 Look! There’s a man the roof. What’s he doing? 

4 There are a lot of fish this river. 

5 Our house is number 45 - the number is the door. 

6 'Is the hospital near here?’ 'Yes, turn left the traffic lights.' 

7 It’s difficult to park.the centre of town. It's better to take the bus. 

8 My sister lives Brussels. 

9 There’s a small park the top of the hill. 

10 I think I heard the doorbell. There’s somebody the door. 

11 Munich is a large city the south of Germany. 

12 There are a few shops the end of the street. 

13 It's difficult to carry a lot of things a bike. 

14 I looked at the list of names. My name was the bottom. 

15 There is a mirror the wall.the living room. 


223 
























































Unit 

107 in at on (places 2) 


O 'Where's Kate?' 'She’s in bed.' 

O David's father is ill. He’s in hospital. 

O I like to look at the stars in the sky at night. 

O What's the largest city in the world? 

O I read about the accident in the newspaper. 
O You look sad in this picture. 

O Did you come here in your car? 

O There's a big tree in the middle of the garden. 


A 


in bed 
in hospital 
in the sky 
in the world 

in a newspaper / in a book 
in a photo(graph) / in a picture 
in a car / in a taxi 
in the middle (of...) 


O Will you be at home this evening? 

O 'Where's Kate?' ‘She's at work’ 

O Helen is studying law at university. 

O I’ll meet you at the station, OK? 

O a: Where were you yesterday? 

b: At my sister’s. 

O I saw Tom at the doctor’s. 

O There weren't many people at the party. 


Often it is possible to use in or at for buildings (hotels, restaurants etc.): 
O We stayed at a nice hotel, or We stayed in a nice hotel. 


at home 

at work / at school 
at university / at college 
at the station / at the airport 

at Lisa's (house) / at my sister’s (house) / 
at the doctor's / at the hairdresser's 
etc. 

at a concert / at a party / at a football 
match etc. 




on a bus / on a train / on a plane / 
on a ship 

on the ground floor / on the first floor 
etc. 

on the way (to ...) / on the way home 


O Did you come here on the bus? 

O The office is on the first floor. 

O I met Anna on the way to work / on the way home. 


224 


( in/at/on (places) Unit 106 to/in/at -► Unit 108 on the left/right "♦ Unit 109 















Exercises 


Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use in/at/on. 


© (hospital) 


GD (the airport) 


© (bed) 



© (a ship) 




® (work) 


iiy ta plane; 





1 Where is she? . In hospital, 

2 Where are they? . 

3 Where is he? . 

4 Where are they? . 

5 Where are the stars? . 

6 Where are they? . 


7 Where is Steve? . 

8 Where is the restaurant? 

9 Where is she? . 

10 Where are they? 

11 Where are they? . 

12 Where are they? 


Write in/at/on. 

1 Helen is studying law. at. university. 

2 There was a big table.the middle of the room. 

3 What is the longest river.the world? 

4 Were there many people.the concert last night? 

5 Will you be.home tomorrow afternoon? 

6 Who is the man.this photo? Do you know him? 

7 Where are your children? Are they.school? 

8 Gary is coming by train. I'm going to meet him.the station. 

9 Charlie is.hospital. He had an operation yesterday. 

10 How many pages are there.this book? 

11 Are you hungry after your journey?' 'No, I had something to eat the train.' 

12 I'm sorry I'm late. My car broke down.the way here. 

13 'Is Tom here?' 'No, he's.his friend's house.' 

14 Don't believe everything you see.the newspaper! 

15 I walked to work, but I came home.the bus. 


225 






















































Unit 


108 to in at (places 3) 


to 


go/come/return/walk (etc) to 


TO 

LONDON 


LONDON 


o 


We're going to London on Sunday. 
I want to go to Italy next year. 

We walked from my house to the 

centre of town. 

What time do you go to bed? 


in/at (-> Units 106-107) 

be/stay/do something (etc.) in 


O 


IN 

LONDON 


Piccadilly Circus is in London. 

My brother lives in Italy. 

The main shops are in the centre of 
town. 

I like reading in bed. 


be/stay/do something (etc.) at... 




O The bus is going to the airport. 

O Karen didn't go to work yesterday. 

O I went to a party last night. 

O You must come to our house. 


O The bus is at the airport. 

O Sarah wasn't at work yesterday. 

O I met a lot of people at the party. 

□ Helen stayed at her brother's house 



home 


go/come/walk (etc) home (without to): 

be/stay/do something (etc.) at home: 

O I'm tired. I'm going home. 

I'm staying at home tonight. 

(not to home) 

Dan doesn't work in an office. 

O Did you walk home? 

He works at home. 



arrive and get 

arrive in a country or town (arrive in Italy / arrive in Paris etc.): 

They arrived in this country last week. (not arrived to this country) 

arrive at other places (arrive at the station / arrive at work etc): 

What time did you arrive at the hotel? (not arrive to the hotel) 

get to (a place): 

What time did you get to the hotel? 

O What time did you get to Paris? 

get home / arrive home (no preposition). 

I was tired when I got home, or I was tired when I arrived home. 


( been to ^ Unit 17 get (to ) Unit 56 in/at -► Units 106-107 


226 
























































Exercises 


Write to or in. 

1 I like reading. in bed. 

2 We're going Italy next month. 

3 Sue is on holiday.Italy at the moment. 

4 I have to go the hospital tomorrow. 

5 I was tired so I stayed bed late. 

6 What time do you usually go bed? 

7 Does this bus go.the centre? 

8 Would you like to live.another country? 

Write to or at if necessary. One sentence is already complete, and no word is necessary. 

1 Paula didn’t go fd work yesterday. 

2 I'm tired. I'm going. r. .home, (already complete) 

3 Tina is not very well. She has gone.the doctor. 

4 Would you like to come a party on Saturday? 

5 'Is Lisa home?' ’No, she's gone work.’ 

6 There were 20,000 people the football match. 

7 Why did you go home early last night? 

8 A boy jumped into the river and swam.the other side. 

9 There were a lot of people waiting.the bus stop. 

10 We had a good meal a restaurant, and then we went back.the hotel. 

Write to, at or in if necessary. One sentence is already complete, and no word is necessary. 

1 I’m not going out this afternoon. I’m staying. at home. 


2 We’re going a concert tomorrow evening. 

3 I went New York last year. 


4 How long did you stay.New York? 

5 Next year we hope to go Canada to visit some friends. 

6 Do you want to go the cinema this evening? 

7 Did you park your car the station? 

8 After the accident three people were taken.hospital. 

9 How often do you go.the dentist? 

10 'Is Sarah here?' 'No, she's Helen's.' 

11 My house is.the end of the street on the left. 

12 I went.Maria's house, but she wasn't.home. 

13 There were no taxis, so we had to walk.home. 

14 'Who did you meet.the party?' 'I didn't go.the party.’ 

^2^ Write to, at or in if necessary. Sometimes the sentence is already complete, and no word is 
necessary. 

1 What time do you usually get work? 4 When did you arrive London? 

2 What time do you usually get.home? 5 What time does the train get Paris? 

3 What time did you arrive the party? 6 We arrived home very late. 

Complete these sentences about yourself. Use to/in/at. 

1 At 3 o'clock this morning I was. in bed . 

2 Yesterday I went. 

3 At 11 o'clock yesterday morning I was. 

4 One day I'd like to go. 

5 I don't like going. 

6 At 9 o'clock yesterday evening I was. 


















































Unit 


109 under, behind, opposite etc. 


next to / beside / between / in front of / behind 

Ef 



opposite / in front of 



by (= next to / beside) 


A is next to B. or A is beside B. 
B is between A and C. 

D is in front of B. 

E is behind B. 

also 

A is on the left. 

C is on the right 

B is in the middle (of the group). 


A is sitting in front of B. 
A is sitting opposite C. 
C is sitting opposite A. 


y 





by the window 


under 


ra 


under the table 


above and below 


O Our house is by the sea. (= beside the sea) 
O Who is that man standing by the window? 
O If you feel cold, why don't you sit by the fire? 



A is above the line. 

(= higher than the line) 

B is below the line. 

(= lower than the line) 


□ The cat is under the table 

O The girl is standing under a tree. 

O I'm wearing a jacket under my coat. 


E3 15 

il II II <=» 


The pictures are 

above the shelves 

The shelves are 

below the pictures 




( up/over/through etc -» Unit 110 by -» Unit 111 
























Exercises 


i 






Where are the people in the picture? 

ALAN BECKY CARL 


Complete 

1 

2 

3 

4 


DANIELA EMMA FRANK 


5 

6 
7 


the sentences. 

Carl is standing. behind .Frank. 

Frank is sitting.Emma. 

Emma is sitting.Becky. 

Emma is sitting.Daniela and Frank. 

Daniela is sitting.Emma. 

Frank is sitting.Carl. 

Alan is standing.Daniela. 

Alan is standing.left. 

Becky is standing.middle. 



Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. 



1 The cat is. under. the table. 

2 There is a big tree.the house. 

3 The plane is flying.the clouds. 

4 She is standing.the piano. 

5 The cinema is.the right. 

6 She's standing.the fridge. 


7 

The switch is. 

.the window. 

8 

The cupboard is. 

.the sink. 

9 

There are some shoes. 

.the bed. 

10 

The plant is. 

the piano. 

11 

Paul is sitting. 

.Fiona. 

12 

In Britain people drive. 

.the left. 



Write sentences about the picture. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 


(next to) . Ihe.bank is next to the.bpokshop. . 

(in front of) The.in front of 


(opposite) 


(next to) 


(above) 


(between) 


229 















































































Unit 


110 up, over, through etc. 


to 


1 


into (in) 


O 


on 


\u p | 


-0 


O Jane is going to France next week. 

O We walked from the hotel to the station. 

O A lot of English words come from Latin. 

□ We jumped into the water. 

□ A man came out of the house and got 
into a car. 

O Why are you looking out of the window? 

O I took the old batteries out of the radio. 

We say put something in ... (not usually into): 

O I put new batteries in the radio. 

O Don't put your feet on the table. 

O Please take your feet off the table. 

□ I'm going to hang some pictures on the wall. 
O Be careful! Don't fall off your bike. 

O We got on the bus in Princes Street. 

O We walked up the hill to the house. 

□ Be careful! Don't fall down the stairs. 


from 


out of 


o 


off 




\^lown | 


over 


through 


□ The plane flew over the mountains. 

O I jumped over the wall into the garden. 

O Some people say it is unlucky to walk under 
a ladder. 

O A bird flew into the room through a 
window. 

O The old road goes through the village. 

O The new road goes round the village. 

O The bus stop is just round the corner. 

O I walked round the town and took 
some photographs. 

You can also use around (= round): 

O We walked around the town. 



round 


0^-1 



round the town 


O I was walking along the road with my dog. 
O Let's go for a walk along the river. 

O The dog swam across the river. 


across 


230 


past 


O They walked past me without speaking. 

□ a: Excuse me, how do I get to the hospital? 
b: Go along this road, past the cinema, 
under the bridge and the hospital is on 
the left. 


hospital 


cinema 




bridge 


( get in/on etc. "» Unit 56 in/on -» Units 106-107 to •+ Unit 108 fall off/ run away etc. *♦ Unit 114 J 














Exercises 

Somebody asks you how to get to a place. 

You say which way to go. Look at the pictures 
and write sentences beginning Co... . 





Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. 





1 The dog swam 

2 A book fell. 

3 A plane flew. 

4 A woman got 

5 A girl ran. 


.across the river, 
the shelf, 
the village, 
the car. 
the road. 


6 Suddenly a car came the corner. 

7 They drove.the village. 

8 They got.the train. 

9 The moon travels.the earth. 

10 They got the house.a window. 


Complete the sentences. Use over/from/into etc. 

1 I looked the window and watched the people in the street. 

2 My house is very near here. It's just...the corner. 

3 'Where's my phone?' 'You put it your bag.’ 

4 How far is it here the airport? 

5 We walked the museum for an hour and saw a lot of interesting things. 

6 You can put your coat the back of the chair. 

7 In tennis, you have to hit the ball the net. 

8 Silvia took a key her bag and opened the door. 


231 







































































































on at by with about 


jane isn't at work this week. She's on holiday. 
We watched the news on TV. 

We listened to the news on the radio. 

I spoke to Rachel on the phone last night. 
The house is on fire! Call the fire brigade. 
'Was the train late?' 'No, it was on time.' 


at (the age of) 21 / at 50 kilometres an hour / at 100 degrees etc.. 

O Lisa got married at 21. (or... at the age of 21.) 

O A car uses more petrol at 120 kilometres an hour than at 90. 
O Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius. 


by car / by bus / by plane / by bike etc.: 

O Do you like travelling by train? 

O Jane usually goes to work by bike. 

but on foot: 

O You can't get there by car. You have to 
go on foot. (= you have to walk) 

a book by.. / a painting by . / a piece of music 
by ... etc.: 

O Have you read any books by Charles 
Dickens? 

O Who is that painting by? Picasso? 

by after the passive (—> Unit 21): 

O I was bitten by a dog. 

with/without 

O Did you stay at a hotel or with friends? 

O Wait for me. Please don't go without me. 

O Do you like your coffee with or without milk? 
O I cut the paper with a pair of scissors. 

a man with a beard / a woman with glasses etc.: 

O Do you know that man with the beard? 

O I'd like to have a house with a big garden. 


about 

talk/speak/think/hear/know about... 

O Some people talk about their work all the time. 

O I don't know much about cars. 

a book / a question / a programme / information (etc.) about... 

O There was a programme about volcanoes on TV last night. Did you see it? 

) 



by bus 



on 

on holiday 
on television 
on the radio 
on the phone 
on fire 

on time (= not late) 


( by-4 Units 21, 63,109 at/on -4 Units 103, 106-107 preposition + -ing^ Unit 112 






Exercises 


Complete the sentences. Use on + these words: 

holiday the phone th e rad i o TV time 


1 We heard the news. on the radio . 

2 Please don't be late. Try to be here. 

3 I won't be here next week. I'm going. 

4 'Did you see Linda?' 'No, but I talked to her .' 

5 'What's.this evening?' 'Nothing that I want to watch.' 

Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences with at/by/with etc. 



1 I cut the paper with. a pair of 

scissors. 

2 She usually goes to work.car. 

3 Who is the woman short hair? 

4 They are talking.the weather. 

5 The car is.fire. 


She's listening to some music Mozart. 

The plane is flying 600 miles an hour. 

They're.holiday. 

Do you know the man.sunglasses? 

He's reading a book.grammar 

Vera P. Bull. 


6 

7 

8 
9 

10 


Complete the sentences. Use at/by/with etc. 

1 In tennis, you hit the ball.a racket. 

2 It's cold today. Don't go out a coat. 

3 Hamlet, Othello and Macbeth are plays.William Shakespeare. 

4 Do you know anything.computers? 

5 My grandmother died.the age of 98. 

6 How long does it take from New York to Los Angeles.plane? 

7 I didn't go to the football match, but I watched it.TV. 

8 My house is the one.the red door on the right. 

9 These trains are very fast. They can travel very high speeds. 

10 I don't use my car very often. I prefer to go.bike. 

11 Can you give me some information hotels in this town? 

12 I was arrested.two policemen and taken to the police station. 

13 The buses here are very good. They're nearly always..time. 

14 What would you like to drink..your meal? 


15 We travelled from Paris to Moscow train. 

16 The museum has some paintings Rembrandt. 




























































afraid of..., good at... etc. 
of/at/for etc. (prepositions) + -ing 


afraid of... / good at ... etc. (adjective + preposition) 



O Are you afraid of dogs? 

O Why are you angry with me? What have I done? 

O Are you angry about last night? (= something that 
happened last night) 

O Lisa is very different from (or to) her sister. 

O I'm fed up with my job. I want to do something different. 
(= I've had enough of my job) 

O The room was full of people. 

O Are you good at maths? 

O I'm not interested in sport. 

O Sue is married to a dentist. (= her husband is a dentist) 

O It was kind of you to help us. Thank you very much. 

O David is very friendly. He's always very nice to me. 

O I'm afraid I can’t help you. I’m sorry about that. 

O I'm sorry for/about not phoning you yesterday. 

(or I'm sorry I didn't phone you) 

O I feel sorry for them. They are in a very difficult situation. 


of/at/for (etc.) + -ing 

After a preposition (of/at/for etc.), a verb ends in -ing; 


I'm not very good at 

telling 

stories. 

Are you fed up with 

doing 

the same thing every day? 

I'm sorry for 

not phoning 

you yesterday. 

Thank you for 

helping 

me. 

Mark is thinking of 

buying 

a new car. 

Tom left without 

saying 

goodbye. (= he didn’t say goodbye) 

After 

doing 

the shopping, they went home. 


afraid of... / scared of... 

angry with somebody 
angry about something 

different from ... 
or different to ... 

fed up with ... 

full of 
good at... 
interested in ... 
married to... 

nice/kind of somebody to ... 
be nice/kind to somebody 

sorry about a situation 

sorry for/about doing something 

be/feel sorry for somebody 


( before/after -ing 4 Unit 105 think about/of-> Unit 113 



















Exercises 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with of/with/in etc. 



3 She’s married a footballer. 6 a: Can I help you? 

b: Thanks, that’s very kind you. 


Complete the sentences with in/of/with etc. 

1 I'm not interested. in .sport. 

2 I'm not very good sport. 

3 I like Sarah. She’s always very kind me. 

4 I’m sorry.your broken window. It was an accident. 

5 He’s very brave. He isn't scared anything. 

6 It was very nice.Jane to let us stay in her apartment. 

7 Life today is very different life 50 years ago. 

8 Are you interested politics? 

9 I feel sorry her, but I can't help her. 

10 Chris was angry what happened. 

11 These boxes are very heavy. They are full books. 

12 I'm sorry.getting angry.you yesterday. 

Complete the sentences. 

1 I'm not very. good at telling .stories, (good/tell) 

2 I wanted to go to the cinema, but Paula wasn’t. (interested/go) 


3 Sue isn’t very.up in the morning, (good/get) 

4 Let's go! I'm. (fed up / wait) 

5 I'm.you up in the middle of the night, (sorry/wake) 

6 Sorry I’m late! . (thank you / wait) 


Complete the sentences. Use without -ing. 

1 (Tom left / he didn't say goodbye) . Tpm left .Mthout saying goodbye, 

2 (Sue walked past me / she didn’t speak) 

Sue walked. 

3 (Don't do anything / ask me first) 

Don’t. 

4 (I went out /1 didn't lock the door) 

I. 

Write sentences about yourself. 

1 (interested) I'm interested in sport. . 

2 (scared) I’m. 

3 (not very good) I’m not. 

4 (not interested) . 

5 (fed up) 

















































listen to..., look at ... etc. (verb + preposition) 




ask (somebody) for 

belong to ... 
happen to 
listen to 

talk to somebody (about...) 
speak to somebody (about...) 
thank somebody for... 

think about ... or think of 

wait for 


O Don't ask me for money. 1 don't have any. 

O This house doesn't belong to me. (= it's not mine) 
O I can't find my phone. What's happened to it? 

O Listen to this music. It's great. 

O Did you talk to Paul about the problem? 

O I'd like to speak to the manager, please. 

O Thank you very much for your help. 

O He never thinks about (or of) other people. 

O Mark is thinking of (or about) buying a car. 

O Wait for me. I'm nearly ready. 



Note that we say call/phone/text/email somebody (no preposition): 
O I have to phone my parents today. 

(not phone to my parents) 

O Shall I text you or email you? 



look at / look for / look after 


look at... 


look for 

(= try to find) 


look after... 

(= take care of, keep safe) 




O He's looking at his watch. 

O Look at these flowers! TTiey're beautiful. 
O Why are you looking at me like that? 


O She's lost her key. She's looking for it. 

O I'm looking for Sarah. Have you seen her? 


O When Emily is at work, a friend of hers 
looks after her children. 

O Don't lose this book. Look after it. 

(- Keep it safe.) 


depend 


We say depend on 

O a: Do you like eating in restaurants? 

b: Sometimes. It depends on the restaurant, (not it depends of) 

You can say it depends what/where/how (etc.) with or without on: 

O a: Do you want to come out with us? 

b: It depends where you're going, or It depends on where you're going. 


( wait -► Unit 54 preposition + -ing -» Unit 112 


3 
























Exercises 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with to/for/at etc. 



1 She's looking. at .her watch. 4 Paul is talking.Jane. 

2 He's listening the radio. 5 Tliey're looking.a picture. 

3 They're waiting.a taxi. 6 Sue is looking.Tom. 

Complete the sentences with to/for/about etc Two sentences are already complete, and no word 
is necessary. 

1 Thank you very much. for .your help. 


2 This isn't my umbrella. It belongs.a friend of mine. 

3 I saw Steve, but I didn't speak.him. 


4 Don't forget to phone.your mother tonight. 

5 Thank you.the present. It was lovely. 

6 What happened Ella last night? Why didn't she come to the party? 

7 We're thinking going to Australia next year. 

8 We asked the waiter.coffee, but he brought us tea. 

9 'Do you like reading books?' 'It depends.the book.' 

10 John was talking, but nobody was listening.what he was saying. 

11 We waited.Karen until 2 o'clock, but she didn't come. 

12 I texted.Lisa to tell her I would be late. 

13 He's alone all day. He never talks.anybody. 

14 'How much does it cost to stay at this hotel?' 'It depends.the type of room.' 

15 Catherine is thinking.changing her job. 


Complete these sentences. Use at/for/after. 

1 I looked.the letter, but I didn't read it carefully. 

2 When you are ill, you need somebody to look.you. 

3 Excuse me, I'm looking Hill Street. Is it near here? 

4 Bye! Have a great holiday and look.yourself. 

5 I want to take a picture of you. Please look.the camera and smile. 

6 Ben is looking.a job. He wants to work in a hotel. 



Answer these questions with It depends .... 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 


Do you want to go out with us? 
Do you like eating in restaurants? 
Do you enjoy watching TV? 
Can you do something for me? 
Are you going away this weekend? 
Can you lend me some money? 


SL 


. | 

. |T depends.on The restaurant,,. 

It depends. 

It. 





























































go in, fall off, run away etc. 
(phrasal verbs 1) 


A phrasal verb is a verb (go/look/be etc.) + in/out/up/down etc 




O I waited outside the shop. I didn't go in. 
O Sarah opened the door of the car and 
got in. (- into the car) 



□ I went to the window and looked out. 
O The car stopped and a woman got out 
(= out of the car) 




Be careful! Don't fall off. 




-A- 

FALL DOWN 


O He stood up and left the room. 

O I usually get up early. (= get out of 
bed) 

O We looked up at the stars in the sky. 



O The thief ran away, (or ... ran off) 

O Emma got into the car and drove away, 
(or... drove off) 


O The picture fell down. 

O Would you like to sit down? 
O Lie down on the floor. 


back 

co 


O Co away and don't come back! 

O We went out for dinner and then went 
back to our hotel. 



be/go away (= in/to another place) 

O Tom has gone away for a few days. 


be back 

O Tom is away. He'll be back on Monday. 



CLIMB OVER TURN OVER 


O The wall wasn't very high, so we 

climbed over. 

Turn over and look at the next page. 



O Somebody shouted my name, so I 

looked round (or around) 

O We went for a long walk. After an hour 

we turned round (or around) and 

went back. 


f get Unit 56 put on / take off etc, (phrasal verbs 2) ■» Unit 115 


more phrasal verbs -► Appendix 6 


) 

























Exercises 


Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use these verbs + in/out/up etc. 


got got l ook e d looked rode sat turned went 



1 I went to the window and. looked out 

2 The door was open, so we. 

3 He heard a plane, so he. 

4 She got on her bike and. 


5 I said hello, and he. 

6 The bus stopped, and she 

7 There was a free seat, so she.. 

8 A car stopped, and two men 


Complete the sentences. Use out/away/back etc. 

1 'What happened to the picture on the wall?' 'It fell. down . 

2 Wait a minute. Don't go. I want to ask you something. 

3 Lisa heard a noise behind her, so she looked.to see what it was. 

4 I’m going.now to do some shopping. I'll be.at 5 o'clock. 

5 I'm feeling very tired. I’m going to lie.on the sofa. 

6 When you have read this page, turn.and read the other side. 

7 Mark is from Canada. He lives in London now, but he wants to go.to Canada. 

8 We haven't got a key to the house, so we can't get. 

9 I was very tired this morning. I couldn’t get. 

10 a: When are you going.? 

b: On the 5th. And I'm coming.on the 24th. 


^^2) Before you do this exercise, study the verbs in Appendix 6 (page 250). Complete the sentences. 
Choose a verb from the box + on/off/up etc. If necessary, put the verb into the correct form. 


break fall give hold speak wak e 

carry get go slow take 


+ on/off/up/down/over 


1 I went to sleep at 10 o'clock and. woke up .at 8 o’clock the next morning. 

2 'It's time to go.' '.a minute. I'm not ready yet.' 

3 The train.and finally stopped. 

4 I like flying, but I'm always nervous when the plane. 

5 How are your children? How are they.at school? 

6 It's difficult to hear you. Can you.a little? 

7 This car isn't very good. It has.many times. 

8 When babies try to walk, they sometimes. 

9 The hotel isn't far from here. If you.along this road, you'll see it 

on the left. 

10 I tried to find a job, but I 

11 The fire alarm. 


. It was impossible. 

and everyone had to leave the building. 















































put on your shoes 
15 (phrasal verbs 2) 


put your shoes on 


Sometimes a phrasal verb (put on / take off etc) has an object For example: 


verb object 
put on your coat 

PUT ON 


verb object 
takeoff your shoes 

0 


TAKE OFF 


You can say: 

put on your coat 
or put your coat on 


You can say: 


or 


But it/them (pronouns) always go before on/off etc. 
put it on ( not put on it) 

O It was cold, so I put on my coat. 

or ... I put my coat on. 

O Heres your coat. Put it on. 


take off your shoes 
take your shoes off 

take them off (not take off them) 

O I'm going to take off my shoes. 

or ... take my shoes off. 

O Your shoes are dirty. Take them off. 



Some more phrasal verbs + object: 


turn on / turn off (lights, machines, taps etc.): 

O It was dark, so I turned on the light. 

or ... I turned the light on. 

O I don't want to watch this programme. 

You can turn it off. 

also switch on / switch off (lights, machines etc.): 

O I switched on the light and switched off the television, 



pick up / put down: 

O Those are my keys on the floor. 

Can you pick them up for me? 

O I stopped reading and put my book 

down 

or ... put down my book. 




bring back / take back / give back / put back: 

O You can take my umbrella, but please 

bring it back 

O I took my new sweater back to the 
shop. It was too small for me. 

O I've got Rachel's keys. I have to give them 
back to her. 

O I read the letter and then put it back in 
the envelope. 



[ go in / fall off etc. (phrasal verbs 1) -4 Unit 114 more phrasal verbs + object Appendix 7 





















Exercises 


8 

Look at the pictures. What did these people do? 



1 He. ty.rned.on.theJ)ight . 4 She. 

2 She. S He. 

3 He. 6 She. 

You can write these sentences in three different ways. Complete the table. 


1 turned on the radio. 

1 turned the radio on. 

[turned it on. 



He put on his jacket. 

He. 

He. 

She. 

She took her glasses off. 


1 picked up the phone. 





They gave back the key. 






We turned the lights off. 





Complete the sentences. Use these verbs with it or them, 
bring back pick up switch off take back turn err 

1 I wanted to watch something on TV, so I. turned .it on . 

2 My new lamp doesn't work. I'm going to.to the shop. 

3 There were some gloves on the floor, so I.and put them on 

the table. 

4 The heating was on but it was too warm, so I. 

5 Thank you for lending me these books. I won't forget to.. 

Before you do this exercise, study the verbs in Appendix 7 (page 251). Complete the sentences. 
Use a verb from the box. Sometimes you will also need to use it/them/me. 

fill in knockdown lookup show round turndown 

give up knock over put out throw away try on 

1 They. knocked .a lot of houses. down .when they built the new road. 

2 That music is very loud. Can you. tym .it down .? 

3 I a glass and broke it. 

4 'What does this word mean?' 'Why don't you.?' 

5 I want to keep these magazines. Please don't. 

6 I.a pair of shoes in the shop, but I didn't buy them. 

7 I visited a school last week. One of the teachers . 

8 'Do you play the piano?' 'No, I started to learn, but I.after a month 

9 Somebody gave me a form and told me to. 

10 Smoking isn't allowed here. Please. your cigarette. 


2 



























































Appendix 1 

Active and passive 


Present and past 

active passive 


present 

simple 

O We make butter from milk. 
Somebody cleans these rooms 
every day. 

People never invite me to parties. 

O How do they make butter? 

O Butter is made from milk. 

These rooms are cleaned every day. 

1 am never invited to parties. 

O How is butter made? 

past 

simple 

□ Somebody stole my car last week. 

O Somebody stole my keys yesterday. 

O They didn’t invite me to the party. 

O When did they build these houses? 

O My car was stolen last week. 

O My keys were stolen yesterday. 

O 1 wasn't invited to the party. 

O When were these houses built? 

present 

continuous 

O They are building a new airport at 
the moment. (= it isn't finished) 

ID They are building some new houses 
near the river. 

O A new airport is being built at the 
moment. 

O Some new houses are being built 
near the river. 

past 

continuous 

O When 1 was here a few years ago, 
they were building a new airport. 

(= it wasn't finished at that time) 

O When 1 was here a few years ago, a 
new airport was being built. 

present 

perfect 

O Look! They have painted the door. 

O These shirts are clean. Somebody 

has washed them. 

O Somebody has stolen my car. 

O Look! The door has been painted. 

O These shirts are clean. They have 
been washed. 

O My car has been stolen. 

past 

perfect 

Tina said that somebody had stolen 
her car. 

O Tina said that her car had been 
stolen. 


will / can / must / have to etc. 

active 

passive 

O Somebody will clean the office tomorrow. 

O The office will be cleaned tomorrow. 

O Somebody must clean the office. 

O The office must be cleaned. 

O 1 think they'll invite you to the party. 

O 1 think you'll be invited to the party. 

O They can't repair my watch. 

O My watch can't be repaired. 

O You should wash this sweater by hand. 

O This sweater should be washed by hand. 

O They are going to build a new airport. 

O A new airport is going to be built. 

O Somebody has to wash these clothes. 

O These clothes have to be washed. 

O They had to take the injured man to 

O The injured man had to be taken to 

hospital. 

hospital. 


243 























Appendix 2 

List of irregular verbs (—> Unit 24) 


infinitive 

past simple 

past participle 

be 

was/were 

been 

beat 

beat 

beaten 

become 

became 

become 

begin 

began 

begun 

bite 

bit 

bitten 

blow 

blew 

blown 

break 

broke 

broken 

bring 

brought 

brought 

build 

built 

built 

buy 

bought 

bought 

catch 

caught 

caught 

choose 

chose 

chosen 

come 

came 

come 

cost 

cost 

cost 

cut 

cut 

cut 

do 

did 

done 

draw 

drew 

drawn 

drink 

drank 

drunk 

drive 

drove 

driven 

eat 

ate 

eaten 

fall 

fell 

fallen 

feel 

felt 

felt 

fight 

fought 

fought 

find 

found 

found 

fly 

flew 

flown 

forget 

forgot 

forgotten 

get 

got 

got 

give 

gave 

given 

go 

went 

gone 

grow 

grew 

grown 

hang 

hung 

hung 

have 

had 

had 

hear 

heard 

heard 

hide 

hid 

hidden 

hit 

hit 

hit 

hold 

held 

held 

hurt 

hurt 

hurt 

keep 

kept 

kept 

know 

knew 

known 

leave 

left 

left 

lend 

lent 

lent 

Some verbs can be regular (-ed) or i 

irregular (-t): 

infinitive 

past simple / past participle 

burn 

burned or burnt 


dream 

dreamed or dreamt 


infinitive 

past simple 

past participle 

let 

let 

let 

lie 

lay 

lain 

light 

lit 

lit 

lose 

lost 

lost 

make 

made 

made 

mean 

meant 

meant 

meet 

met 

met 

pay 

paid 

paid 

put 

put 

put 

read (reed)* 

read (red)* 

read (red)* 

ride 

rode 

ridden 

ring 

rang 

rung 

rise 

rose 

risen 

run 

ran 

run 

say 

said 

said 

see 

saw 

seen 

sell 

sold 

sold 

send 

sent 

sent 

shine 

shone 

shone 

shoot 

shot 

shot 

show 

showed 

shown 

shut 

shut 

shut 

sing 

sang 

sung 

sit 

sat 

sat 

sleep 

slept 

slept 

speak 

spoke 

spoken 

spend 

spent 

spent 

stand 

stood 

stood 

steal 

stole 

stolen 

swim 

swam 

swum 

take 

took 

taken 

teach 

taught 

taught 

tear 

tore 

torn 

tell 

told 

told 

think 

thought 

thought 

throw 

threw 

thrown 

understand 

understood 

understood 

wake 

woke 

woken 

wear 

wore 

worn 

win 

won 

won 

write 

wrote 

written 


* pronunciation 


infinitive 

past simple / past participle 

learn 

learned or learnt 

smell 

smelled or smelt 


244 









Appendix 3 

Irregular verbs in groups 


The past simple and past participle are the same: 


cost 

-> 

cost 

cut 

-> 

cut 

hit 

—> 

hit 

hurt 

—> 

hurt 


let 

—> 

let 

put 


put 

shut 

-> 

shut 


lend 

—> 

lent 

send 


sent 

spend 

-> 

spent 

build 

-> 

built 


burn 

-> 

burnt 

learn 


learnt 

smell 

-» 

smelt 


lose 

—» 

lost 

shoot 

—> 

shot 

get 

—> 

got 

light 

—^ 

lit 

sit 

—> 

sat 


keep 

—» kept 

sleep 

—> slept 


feel 

-» 

felt 

leave 

-> 

left 

meet 

—> 

met 

dream 

-> 

dreamt (dremt)* 

mean 

—> 

meant (ment)* 


bring 


brought (brort)* 

buy 

-> 

bought (bort)* 

light 

—> 

fought (fort)* 

think 

-> 

thought (thort)* 

catch 

-> 

caught (kort)* 

teach 


taught (tort)* 


sell 

—» sold 

tell 

—> told 


find 


found 

have 

-> 

had 

hear 

—> 

heard 

hold 

-> 

held 

read 

—» 

read (red)* 

say 

-> 

said (sed)* 


pay 

—> paid 

make 

—» made 


stand —> stood 

understand —> understood 


The past simple and past participle are different: 


break 

—> 

broke 

broken 

choose 


chose 

chosen 

speak 

-> 

spoke 

spoken 

steal 


stole 

stolen 

wake 

—> 

woke 

woken 


drive 

—» 

drove 

driven 

ride 

-> 

rode 

ridden 

rise 

-> 

rose 

risen 

write 

—» 

wrote 

written 


beat 

—> 

beat 

beaten 

bite 

—> 

bit 

bitten 

hide 

-> 

hid 

hidden 


eat 

—> ate 

eaten 

fall 

-> fell 

fallen 

forget 

—» forgot 

forgotten 

give 

—> gave 

given 

see 

—» saw 

seen 

take 

—> took 

taken 


blow 

-> 

blew 

blown 

grow 

—> 

grew 

grown 

know 

-> 

knew 

known 

throw 

-> 

threw 

thrown 

fly 


flew 

flown 

draw 

—> 

drew 

drawn 

show 

-> 

showed 

shown 


begin 

—> 

began 

begun 

drink 


drank 

drunk 

swim 


swam 

swum 

ring 


rang 

rung 

sing 

-> 

sang 

sung 

run 

-> 

ran 

run 


come —> came come 
become —> became become 


>: 


pronunciation 













































































































Appendix 4 

Short forms (he's / I'd / don't etc.) 


In spoken English we usually pronounce 'I am' as one word. The short form (I'm) is a way of writing 
this: 


1 am 


I'm 

o 

I’m feeling tired this morning. 

it is 

-» 

it's 

o 

'Do you like this jacket?' 

'Yes, it’s nice.' 

they have 

-> 

they've 

o 

'Where are your friends?' 

'They've gone home.’ 


etc 


When we write short forms, we use' (an apostrophe ): 

I Xm —» I'm he)& he's you Mve —> you've she MW —> she'll 

We use these forms with l/he/she etc: 


am 


'm 

I’m 







is 

—» 

s 


he’s 

she's 

it's 




are 

-> 

're 





we’re 

you’re 

they’re 

have 


've 

I've 




we’ve 

you've 

they've 

has 

—> 

s 


he’s 

she's 

it's 




had 


'd 

I'd 

he’d 

she’d 


we’d 

you’d 

they’d 

will 

-> 

'II 

I'll 

he'll 

she'll 


we’ll 

you’ll 

they’ll 

would 

-> 

'd 

I’d 

he’d 

she'd 


we’d 

you’d 

they’d 


O I've got some new shoes. 

O We'll probably go out this evening. 
O It's 10 o'clock. You're late again. 


's = is or has: 

O She's going out this evening, (she's going = she is going) 

O She's gone out. (she's gone = she has gone) 

'd = would or had: 

O a: What would you like to eat? 

b: I'd like a salad please. (I'd like = I would like) 

O I told the police that I'd lost my passport. (I'd lost = I had lost) 

Do not use 'm/'s/'d etc at the end of a sentence (—» Unit 40): 

O 'Are you tired?' 'Yes, I am.' (not Yes, I'm.) 

O She isn't tired, but he is. (not he's) 


We use short forms with l/you/he/she etc, but you can use short forms (especially s) with other 
words too: 

O Who's your favourite singer? (= who is) 

O What's the time? (= what is) 

O There's a big tree in the garden. (= there is) 

O My sister's working in London. (= my sister is working) 

O Paul's gone out. (= Paul has gone out) 

□ What colour s your car? (= What colour is your car?) 


246 





Negative short forms (—> 


isn't 

(= 

is not) 

aren’t 

(= 

are not) 

wasn't 

(= 

was not) 

weren't 

(= 

were not) 

hasn't 

(= 

has not) 

haven't 

(= 

have not) 

hadn't 

(= 

had not) 


Unit 43): 

don't (= do not) 
doesn't (= does not) 
didn’t (= did not) 


can't (= cannot) 
couldn't (= could not) 
won't (= will not) 
wouldn't (= would not) 
shouldn't (= should not) 
mustn't (= must not) 


O We went to her house, but she wasn't at home. 

O 'Where's David?' 'I don’t know. I haven't seen him.' 
O You work all the time. You shouldn't work so hard. 
O I won't be here tomorrow. (= I will not) 


's ( apostrophe + s) 

's can mean different things: 

(D s = is or has (—» section 4.2 of this appendix) 

O It's raining. (= It is raining) 

O It's stopped raining. (= It has stopped) 

(2) let’s = let us (—> Units 35,53) 

O It’s a lovely day. Let's go out. (= Let us go out.) 

(3) Kate's camera = her camera 
my brother's car = his car 

the manager's office = his/her office etc. 

(-> Unit 64) 

Compare: 

O Kate’s camera was very expensive. (Kate's camera = her camera) 
O Kate’s a very good photographer. (Kate's = Kate is) 

O Kate’s got a new camera. (Kate’s got = Kate has got) 


Appendix 5 

Spelling 


Words + -s and -es (birds/watches etc) 
noun + s (plural) (—> Unit 66) 

bird —> birds mistake —> mistakes hotel —» hotels 

verb + s (he/she/it -s) (-> Unit 5) 

think —> thinks live —» lives remember —> remembers 


but 


+ es after -s / -sh / -ch / -x 

bus —»buses 
dish —> dishes 
watch —> watches 
box —> boxes 

pass —> passes 
wash —> washes 
teach —> teaches 

address —> addresses 
finish —> finishes 
sandwich —> sandwiches 

also 

potato —> potatoes 
do —> does 

tomato —> tomatoes 

go goes 


-f / -fe —> -ves 

shelf —> shelves 

knife —> knives 

but roof —> roofs 


Words ending in -y (baby —» babies / study —> studied etc.) 


-y —> -ies 

study —> studies (not studys) 
story —> stories city —» cities 

try —> tries marry — » marries 

-y —> -ied (—» Unit 11) 

study —> studied (not studyed) 

try —»tried marry —> married 

-y —> -ier/-iest (-> Units 87,90) 

easy —> easier/easiest (not easyer/easyest) 
happy —> happier/happiest 
heavy —> heavier/heaviest 

-y —> -ily (—> Unit 86) 

easy — > easily (not easyly) 

happy —» happily heavy — > heavily 


family families (not familys) 

baby — > babies 
fly —> flies 


copy —> copied 


lucky —> luckier/luckiest 
funny —> funnier/funniest 


lucky —> luckily 


y does not change to i if the ending is -ay/-ey/-oy/-uy: 
holiday —> holidays (not holidaies) 

enjoy —> enjoys/enjoyed stay —> stays/stayed buy —> buys key —> keys 

but 

say —> said pay —> paid (irregular verbs) 


248 



-ing 

Verbs chat end in -e (make/write/drive etc.) -» -Xing: 

make —> making write —> writing come — > coming dance —» dancing 

Verbs that end in -ie —> -ying: 

lie —> lying die —> dying tie —> tying 

stop —»stopped, big —> bigger etc. 

Vowels and consonants: 

Vowel letters: a e i o u 

Consonant letters: bcdfgkl mnprst 


Sometimes a word ends in a vowel + a consonant. For example: stop, big get. 
Before -ing/-ed/-er/-est, p/g/t etc. become pp/gg/tt etc. 

For example: 




V+C 




V = vowel 

stop 

ST 

o 

p 

P -> PP 

stopping 

stopped 

C = consonant 

run 

R 

u 

N 

n —> nn 

running 



get 

G 

E 

T 

t tt 

getting 



swim 

SW 

1 

M 

m —> mm 

swimming 



big 

B 

1 

G 

g ->gg 

bigger 

biggest 


hot 

H 

o 

T 

t —> tt 

hotter 

hottest 


thin 

TH 

1 

N 

n —> nn 

thinner 

thinnest 



This does not happen 

(1) if the word ends in two consonant letters (C + C): 

C+C 

help HE L P helping helped 

work WO R K working worked 

fast FA S T faster fastest 

(2) if the word ends in two vowel letters + a consonant letter (V + V + C): 

V+V+C 

need NEED needing needed 

wait WAIT waiting waited 

cheap CH E A P cheaper cheapest 

(3) in longer words (two syllables or more) if the last part of the word is not stressed: 

stress 

happen HAP-pen —> happening/happened (not happenned) 

visit VIS-it —> visiting/visited 

remember re-MEM-ber —> remembering/remembered 

but 

prefer pre-FER (stress at the end) -> preferring/preferred 

begin be-CIN (stress at the end) —> beginning 

(4) if the word ends in -y or -w. (At the end of words, y and w are not consonants.) 

enjoy —> enjoying/enjoyed snow —> snowing/snowed few —> fewer/fewest 



Appendix 6 

Phrasal verbs (take off / give up etc) 


This is a list of some important phrasal verbs (—> Unit 114). 


on carry on = continue 

O Don't stop working. Carry on. (= continue working) 

O a: Excuse me, where is the station? 

b: Carry on along this road and turn right at the lights. (= Continue along ...) 
also go on / walk on / drive on etc. = continue going/walking/driving etc. 

□ Don't stop here. Drive on. 


off 


come on = be quick 

O Come on! Everybody is waiting for you. 

get on = manage (in a job, at school, in an exam etc.) 

O How was your exam? How did you get on? 

(= how did you do?) 

hold on = wait 

□ Can you hold on a minute? (- can you wait?) 



take off = leave the ground (for planes) 

O The plane took off 20 minutes late, but 
arrived on time. 


TAKE OFF 


go off = explode (a bomb etc) or ring (an alarm, 
an alarm clock etc) 

O A bomb went off and caused a lot of damage. 

□ A car alarm goes off if somebody tries to break into the car. 



GO OFF 


up give up = stop trying 

O I know it's difficult, but don't give up. 

(= don't stop trying) 

grow up = become an adult 

O What does your son want to do when he grows up? 

hurry up = do something more quickly 

O Hurry up! We haven't got much time. 

speak up = speak more loudly 

O I can't hear you. Can you speak up, please? 

wake up - stop sleeping 

O I often wake up in the middle of the night. 

wash up = wash the plates etc. after a meal 
□ Do you want me to wash up? 

(or ... to do the washing-up?) 

down slow down = go more slowly 

O You're driving too fast. Slow down! 

break down = stop working (for cars, machines etc.) 

O Sue was very late because her car broke down. 

over fall over - lose your balance 

O I fell over because my shoes were too big for me. 



250 















Appendix 7 Phrasal verbs + object 
(put out a fire / give up your job etc.) 


This is a list of some important phrasal verbs + object (—» Unit 115). 


in/out fill in / fill out a form = complete a form 

O Can you fill in this form, please? or 

Can you fill out this form, please? 



out 


put out a fire, a cigarette etc. 

O The fire brigade arrived and put the fire out. 


cross out a mistake, a word etc. 

O If you make a mistake, cross it out. 


PUT OUT 




CROSS OUT 


on try on clothes = put on clothes to see if they fit you 

O (in a shop) This is a nice jacket. Shall I try it on? 


up give up something = stop doing it 

O Sue gave up her job when her baby was born. (= she stopped working) 
O 'Are you still learning Italian?' ‘No, I gave it up.’ 

look up a word in a dictionary etc. 

O I didn't know the meaning of the word, so I looked it up in a dictionary. 

turn up the TV, radio, music, heating etc. = make it louder or warmer 
O Can you turn the radio up? I can't hear it. 

wake up somebody who is sleeping 

O I have to get up early tomorrow. Can you wake me up at 6.30? 


down knock down a building = demolish it 

O They are going to knock down the school 
and build a new one. 

turn down the TV, radio, music, heating etc. 

= make it more quiet or less warm 

O The music is too loud. Can you turn it down? 



over 


knock over a cup, a glass, a person etc. 

O Be careful. Don't knock your cup over. 

O There was an accident at the end of the road. 
A man was knocked over by a car. 

(or A man was knocked down by a car.) 



KNOCK OVER KNOCK DOWN 


away throw away rubbish, things you don't want 

O These apples are bad. Shall I throw them away? 

O Don't throw away that picture. I want it. 

put something away = put it in the place where you usually keep it 
O After they finished playing, the children put their toys away. 

back pay somebody back = give back money that you borrowed 

O Thank you for lending me the money. I’ll pay you back next week. 



round/ show somebody round/around = take somebody on a tour of a place 
around O We visited a factory last week. The manager showed us round. 


2 




Additional exercises 


List of exercises: 


1-2 

am/is/are 

Units 1-2 

3 

present continuous 

Units 3-4 

4 

present simple 

Units 5-7 

5-7 

present simple, am/is/are and have (got) 

Units 1-2, 5-7,9 

8-9 

present continuous and present simple 

Units 3-8 

10-13 

was/were and past simple 

Units 10-12 

14 

past simple and past continuous 

Units 11-14 

15 

present and past 

Units 3-14 

16-18 

present perfect 

Units 15-19 

19-22 

present perfect and past simple 

Units 18-20 

23 

present, past and present perfect 

Units 3-20 

24-27 

passive 

Units 21-22 

28 

future 

Units 25-28 

29 

past, present and future 

Units 3-20, 25-28 

30-31 

past, present and future 

Units 3-22, 25-28, 52, 54,98,105 

32 

-mg and to ... 

Units 51-55,105,112 

33-34 

a and the 

Units 65,69-73 

35 

prepositions 

Units 103-108,111 


Units 1-2 



Write sentences for the pictures. Use the words in the boxes + is/isn’t/are/aren’t. 



0 




The w i ndows 

i i<—> 

LrJCl 

Kate 

The children 
Gary 

The books 
The hotel 
The bus 


on the table 
hungry 
asleep 
open 

full 

near the station 
a doctor 
happy 


1 . The ..Mndow5. are..open.. 

2 . Usa.i5irt.hap.py,. . 

3 Kate. 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 


252 































Additional exercises 


Complete the sentences. 


1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 
9 

10 

11 


'Are you hungry?' 'No, but. to .thirsty.' 

' How are your parents?' 'They're fine.' 

'Is Anna at home?' 'No,.at work.' 

'.my keys?' 'On your desk.' 

Where is Paul from? .American or British? 

very hot today. The temperature is 38 degrees. 

'Are you a teacher?' 'No,.a student.' 

'.your umbrella?' 'Green.' 

Where's your car? .in the car park? 

'.tired?' 'No, I'm fine.' 

'These shoes are nice. How.?' 'Sixty pounds.' 


present continuous (I’m working / are you working? etc.) 


Units 3-4 



Use the words in brackets to write sentences. 


a: Where are your parents? 

B- They're watching TV. 

a: Paula is going out. 
b- Where's she going? 


. (they / watch / TV) 

. (where / she / go?) 

a: Where's David? 

b: 


. (he / have / a shower) 

a: . 


.? (the children / play?) 

b: No, they're asleep. 

A: . . 


.? (it/rain?) 

b: No, not at the moment. 
a: Where are Sue and Steve? 

b: . 

A: 


. (they / come / now) 

? fwhv / vou / stand / here?) 

B: . (1 / wait / for somebody) 


present simple (I work / she doesn't work / do you work? etc.) 


Units 5-7 


Complete the sentences. Use the present simple. 


i 

. Sue always gets to work early. 


(Sue / always / get) 

2 

We don t watch TV very ofren 


(we / not / watch) 

3 

How often. Ho you wash .your hair? 


(you / wash) 

4 

1 want to go to the cinema, but. 

.to go. 

(Sam / not / want) 

5 


to go out tonight? 

(you / want) 

6 


near here? 

(Helen / live) 

7 


a lot of people. 

(Sarah / know) 

8 

1 enjoy travelling, but 

.very much. 

(1 / not / travel) 

9 

What time. 

in the morning? 

(you / usually / get up) 

10 

My parents are usually at home in the evening. 
.very often. 

(they / not / go out) 

11 


work at five o'clock. 

(Tom / always / finish) 

12 

a: What. 

? 

(Jessica / do) 


B: . 

.in a hotel. 

(she / work) 


253 






















































Additional exercises 


present simple, am/is/are and have (got) 


Units 1-2, 5-7,9 


Read the questions and Clare's answers. Then write sentences about Clare. 

__S\_ 


Are you married? 
Do you live in London? 
Are you a student? 
Have you got a car? 
Do you go out a lot? 
Have you got a lot of friends? 
Do you like London? 
Do you like dancing? 
Are you interested in sport? 



Complete the questions. 





Write sentences from these words. All the sentences are present. 

1 Sarah often / tennis . Sarah often plays tennis. . 

2 my parents / a new car . My.parents.haye.apt.aMw..ca.r : . 

3 my shoes / dirty . My shoes are dirty. . 

4 Sonia/32 years old Sonia. 

5 I / two sisters . 

6 we often / TV in the evening . 

7 Amy never / a hat . 

8 a bicycle / two wheels . 

9 these flowers / beautiful 
10 Emma / German very well 


254 
































































Additional exercises 


present continuous (I'm working) and present simple (I work) 


Units 3-8 



Complete the sentences. 





Which is right? 

1 1 A rc you speak i ng / Do you speak English?’ 'Yes, a little.’ ( Do you speak is right ) 

2 Sometimes we're going / we go away at weekends. 

3 It’s a nice day today. The sun is shining / shines . 

4 (You meet Kate in the street.) Hello, Kate. Where are you going / do you go ? 

5 How often are you going / do you go on holiday? 

6 Emily is a writer. She’s writing / She writes books for children. 

7 I'm never reading /1 never read newspapers. 

8 'Where are Mark and Laura?' ' They're watching / They watch TV in the living room.' 

9 Helen is in her office. She's talking / She talks to somebody. 

10 What time are you usually having / do you usually have dinner? 

11 Joe isn't at home at the moment. He's visiting / He visits some friends. 

12 'Would you like some tea?’ 'No. thank you. I'm not drinking /1 don’t drink tea.' 


255 



































































Additional exercises 


was/were and past simple (I worked / did you work? etc.) 


Units 10-12 


Complete the sentences. Use one word only. 

1 I got up early and. h M .a shower. 

2 Tom was tired last night, so he.to bed early. 

3 I.this key on the floor. Is it yours? 

4 Kate got married when she.23. 

5 Helen is learning to drive. She.her first lesson yesterday. 

6 Tve got a new job.' 'Yes, I know. David.me.' 

7 'Where did you buy that book?' 'It was a present. Amy.it to me/ 

8 We.hungry, so we had something to eat. 

9 'Did you enjoy the film?' 'Yes, I.it was very good/ 

10 'Did Andy come to your party?' 'No, we.him, but he didn't come/ 

Look at the questions and Joe's answers. Write sentences about Joe when he was a child. 




When you were a child ... 

Were you tall? 
Did you like school? 
Were you good at sport? 
Did you play football? 
Did you work hard at school? 
Did you have a lot of friends? 
Did you have a bike? 
Were you a quiet child? 



Complete the questions. 


yL^ 




..Qldyouhaye .a nice holiday? 

Where didyou.go .? 

.there? 

.Amsterdam? 

. ? 

.good? 

. back? 



Yes, it was great, thanks. 

To Amsterdam. 

Five days. 

Yes, very much. 

I have friends in Amsterdam, so I stayed with them. 
Yes, it was warm and sunny. 

Yesterday. 


Put the verb in the right form (positive, negative or question). 

1 It was a good party. . [enjoyed .it. (I / enjoy) 

2 '. Qidyoudo .the shopping?' (you/do) 'No,. I didn’t have .time/ (1 / have) 

3 'Did you phone Adam?' 'No, I'm afraid./ (I / forget) 

4 I like your new watch. Where.it? (you / get) 

5 I saw Lucy at the party, but.to her. (I / speak) 

6 a: .a nice weekend? (you / have) 

b: Yes, I went to stay with some friends of mine. 

7 Paul wasn't well yesterday, so.to work, (he / go) 

8 'Is Mary here?' 'Yes,. .five minutes ago/ (she / arrive) 

9 Where.before he moved here? (Robert / live) 

10 The restaurant wasn't expensive.very much, (the meal / cost) 


256 



























































Additional exercises 


r -^ 

^ past simple (I worked) and past continuous (I was working)^ 


Units 11-14 


Complete the sentences. Use the past simple or past continuous. 



It. was raining .(rain) when we When I arrived at the office, Lisa and Paul 

.went.(go) out. .(work) at their desks. 




I.(hear) a noise outside, 

so I.(look) out of the 

window. 



Tom. .(look) 

out of the window when the accident 


(happen). 



Richard had a book in his hand, but he 


(not/read) it. He 
.(watch) TV. 



I.(finish) my meal, 

.(pay) the bill and 

.(leave) the restaurant. 


Catherine bought a magazine, but she 
.(not/read) it. 


She didn't have time. 



I.(see) Kate this morning. 


I.(walk) along the street 

and she.(wait) for the bus. 


257 





































































Additional exercises 


present and past 


Units 3-14 


Complete the sentences. Use one of these forms: 

present simple (I work/drive etc.) present continuous (I am working/driving etc.) 
past simple (I worked/drove etc.) past continuous (I was working/driving etc.) 

1 You can turn off the television. I. ’W.not watching . (not/watch) it. 

2 Last night Jenny. Ml .(fall) asleep while she. was reading .(read). 

3 Listen! Somebody.(play) the piano. 

4 'Have you got my key?’ 'No, I.(give) it back to you.' 

5 David is very lazy. He.(not/like) hard work. 

6 Where.(your parents / go) for their holidays last year? 

7 I.(see) Laura yesterday. She. 

her new car. 

8 a: .(you/watch) TV much? 

b: No, I haven't got a TV. 

9 a: What.(you/do) at 6 o’clock last Sunday morning? 

b: I was in bed asleep. 

10 Andy isn't at home very much. He.(go) away a lot. 

11 I.(try) to find a job at the moment. It's not easy. 

12 I'm tired this morning. I.(not/sleep) very well last night. 


(drive) 


r-1 

^ present perfect (I have done / she has been etc.)^ 


Units 15-19 




Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use the present perfect. 

5 minutes later g) 

Is Tom at home? 


Who's that man?^ 


[No hesjust 
I . gone out . 


I dont kr 


I ve never seen 


Are you still watching the film? 


258 






















































Additional exercises 



Bookshop 


I’m looking for Jessica. 


Is this a good book? 


Yes. she was here 
a few minutes ago. 


No. thanks. I 


Yes. I went there 
a few years ago. 


Where are 
Steve and Jane? 


to the cinema 


Paul was asleep in the armchair. 


ALAN 


The weather is horrible here 


Yes, we. 

each other for a long time. 


i 

* a 

’1 


1' 



259 


































































Additional exercises 


Complete the sentences (1, 2 or 3 words). 

1 Mark and Sarah are married. They. have been .married for five years. 

2 David has been watching TV. since . 5 o'clock. 

3 Joe is at work. He.at work since 8.30. 

4 'Have you just arrived in London?' 'No, I've been here. 

5 I've known Helen.we were at school together. 

6 'My brother lives in Los Angeles.' 'Really? How long. 

7 George has had the same job. 20 years. 

8 Some friends of ours are staying with us at the moment. They. 

since Monday. 

Complete the sentences. Write about yourself. 

1 I've never ridden a horse. . 

2 I've. been to London .many times. 


3 I've just. 

4 I've.(once / twice / a few times / many times) 

5 I haven't.yet. 

6 I’ve never. 

7 I've.since. 

8 I've.for. 


.... five days.’ 
there?' 

.here 


present perfect (I have done etc.) and past simple (I did etc.) 


Units 18-20 


Present perfect or past simple? Complete the sentences (positive or negative). 

1 a: Do you like London? 

B: I don't know. I . haveirt been .there. 

2 a: Have you seen Kate? 

b: Yes, I. saw .her five minutes ago. 

3 a: That's a nice sweater. Is it new? 

b: Yes, I.it last week. 

4 a: Are you tired this morning? 

B: Yes, I.to bed late last night. 

5 a: Do you want this newspaper, or can I have it? 

B: You can have it. I.it. 

6 a: Are you enjoying your new job? 

b: I.yet. My first day is next Monday. 

7 a: The weather isn't very nice today, is it? 

B: No, but it.nice yesterday. 

8 a: Was Helen at the party on Saturday? 

3 : I don't think so. I.her there. 

9 a: Is your son still at school? 

b: No, he.school two years ago. 

10 a: Is Silvia married? 

b: Yes, she.married for five years. 

11 a: Have you heard of George Washington? 

b: Of course. He.the first President of the United States. 

12 a: How long does it take to make a pizza? 

B: I don't know. I.a pizza. 


260 



































Additional exercises 


Write sentences with the present perfect or past simple. 


1 / 

E 

v Have you been to Thailand? 

s: Yes,. 1 went there last year.. (1 / go / there / last year) 


2 / 

E 

v Do you like London? 

j: 1 don't know. . lye never been there, . (| / never / there) 


3 / 

E 

v What time is Paul going out? 

i: . 

. (he / already / go) 

4 / 

E 

v Has Catherine gone home? 

i: Yes,. 

. (she / leave / at 4 o'clock) 

5 / 

E 

v New York is my favourite city. 

>: Is it? . 

. ? (how many times / you / there?) 

6 / 

What are you doing this weekend? 


E 

5: 1 don't know. . 

. (1 / not / decide / yet) 

7 > 

E 

v 1 can't find my address book. Have you seen it? 
i: . 

. (it/on the table / last night) 

8 / 

E 

Do you know the Japanese restaurant in Leeson Street? 

5: Yes,. 

. (1 / eat / there a few times) 

9 / 

E 

v Paula and Sue are here. 

i: Are they? . 

. ? (what time / they / arrive?) 


Present perfect or past simple? Complete the sentences. 


1 a: . Hayeyou been. . co France? £ 

b: Yes, many times. 

a: When.the last time? jmM 

b: Two years ago. IV 

I 


2 a: Is this your car? r |gth|g 

B. Yes, it is. yourcar? J 

a: How long.it? ^ ^ 

b: It's new. 1.it yesterday. 

4 

, >r. * 

3 a: Where do you live? 

b: In Harold Street. £ 

a: How long.there? 

b: Five years. Before that. '•M 

in Mill Road. 

a: How long.in Mill Road? j TjW 

b: About three years. 1 | 

1 - 

^ f Wh ere do 

1 you live? 

4 a: What do you do? if 

b: 1 work in a shop. 

a: How long.there? 

b: Nearly two years. 1 

a: What.before that? 

b: 1.a taxi driver. 

1 1 V 

f 


261 



































Additional exercises 


Write sentences about yourself. 

1 (yesterday morning) ... I yyas late for work yestenslay morning, 

2 (last night) . 

3 (yesterday afternoon) . 

4 (...daysago) 

5 (last week) 

6 (last year) . 


present, past and present perfect 


Units 3-20 


Which is right? 

1 '.. is .Sue.working? . (C) .' 'No, she's on holiday' 

A Does Sue work? B Is working Sue? C Is Sue working? D Does work Sue? 

2 'Where.?' In a village near London.' 

A lives your uncle B does your uncle live C your uncle lives D does live your uncle 

3 I speak Italian, but.French. 

A I speak not B I'm not speaking C I doesn't speak D I don't speak 

4 'Where's Tom?' '.a shower at the moment.' 

A hies having B He have C He has D He has had 


5 Why.angry with me yesterday? 

A were you B was you C you were D have you been 

6 My favourite film is Geo’s Dream .it four times. 

A I'm seeing B I see Cl was seeing D I've seen 

7 I.out last night. I was too tired. 

A don't go B didn't went C didn't go D haven't gone 

8 Tina is from Chicago. She.there all her life. 

A is living B has lived C lives D lived 

9 My friend.for me when I arrived. 

Awaited B has waited C was waiting D has been waiting 


10 'How long.English?' 'Six months.' 

A do you learn B are you learning C you are learning D have you been learning 


11 Paul is Canadian, but he lives in France. He has been there. 

A for three years B since three years C three years ago D during three years 


1 2 'What time.?' 'About an hour ago.' 

A has Lisa phoned B Lisa has phoned C did Lisa phone D is Lisa phoning 

13 What.when you saw her? 

A did Sue wear B was Sue wearing C has Sue worn D was wearing Sue 

14 'Can you drive?' 'No,.a car, but I want to learn.' 

A I never drive B I'm never driving C I've never driven D I was never driving 

15 I saw Helen at the station when I was going to work this morning, but she 

me. 

A didn't see B don't see C hasn't seen D didn't saw 


262 





























Additional exercises 


Units 21-22, Appendix 1 


Complete the sentences. 



These houses. were built .(build) 20 years ago. 

Before that there was a cinema here, but the 

building.(damage) in a fire 

and had to.(knock down). 



This street.(call) Wilton 

Street. It used to.(call) 

James Street, but the name. 

(change) a few years ago. 


© 



This bridge.(build) in 1955. 

It.(use) by hundreds 


of people every day. At the moment the bridge 
.(paint). 



This is a bicycle factory. Bicycles. 

.(make) here since 1971. 

It's the largest bicycle factory in the country. 

Thousands of bicycles. 

(produce) here every year. 


Complete the sentences. 

1 We. were invited .(invite) to the party, but we didn't go. 

2 The museum is very popular. Every year it.(visit) by thousands of people. 

3 Many buildings.(damage) in the storm last week. 

4 A new road is going to.(build) next year. 

5 'Where’s your jacket?' 'It.(clean). It will be ready tomorrow.’ 

6 She's famous now, but in a few years her name will.(forget). 

7 ‘Shall I do the washing-up?' 'No, it.(already/do).’ 

8 Milk should.(keep) in a fridge. 

9 .(you/ever/bite) by a snake? 

10 My bag.(steal) from my car yesterday afternoon. 


Write a new sentence with the same meaning. 


1 Somebody has stolen my keys. 

2 Somebody stole my car last week. 

3 Somebody has eaten all the bananas. 

4 Somebody will repair the machine. 

5 Somebody is watching us. 

6 Somebody has to do the housework. 


My keys have been stolen, 

My car. 

All the. 

The. 

We. 

The. 


263 






























































Additional exercises 


Active or passive? Complete the sentences. 

1 They. are building (build) a new airport at the moment. 

2 These shirts are clean now. They have been[.washed .(wash). 

3 'How did you fall?’ 'Somebody.(push) me.' 

4 'How did you fall?’ 'I...(push).' 

5 I can't find my bag. Somebody.(take) it! 

6 My watch is broken. It.(repair) at the moment. 

7 Who (invent) the camera? 

8 When.(the camera/invent)? 

9 These shirts are clean now. They.(wash). 

10 These shirts are clean now. I.(wash) them. 

11 The letter was for me, so why.(they/send) it to you? 

12 The information will (send) to you as soon as possible. 



Units 25-28 


Which is the best alternative? 

1 We’re.haying.(B) a party next Sunday. I hope you can come. 

A We have B We're having C We’ll have 

2 Do you know about Karen? her job. She told me last week. 

A She leaves B She's going to leave C She'll leave 

3 There's a programme on TV that I want to watch.in 

five minutes. 

A It starts B It’s starting C It will start 

4 The weather is nice now, but I think.later. 

A it rains B it's raining C it will rain 

5 'What.next weekend?' 'Nothing. I've got no plans.' 


A do you do Bare you doing C will you do 

6 'When you see Tina, can you ask her to phone me?' 'OK,.her.' 

A I ask B I'm going to ask C I'll ask 

7 'What would you like to drink, tea or coffee?’ '..tea, please.' 

A I have B I'm going to have C I’ll have 


8 Don't take that magazine away. .it. 

A I read B I'm going to read C I'll read 

9 Rachel is ill, so to the party tomorrow night. 

A she doesn't come B she isn’t coming C she won't come 


10 I want to meet Sarah at the station. What time. 

A does her train arrive B is her train going to arrive C is her train arriving 

11 'Will you be at home tomorrow evening?’ ‘No. 

A I go out B I'm going out C I'll go out 

12 ' you tomorrow?’ 'Yes, OK.' 

A Do I phone B Am I going to phone C Shall I phone 


264 































Additional exercises 


past, present and future 


Complete the sentences. 


Units 3-20, 25-28 


1 a: . Pidyou go .(you/go) out last night? 


b: No, .(I/stay) at home. 

a: What.(you/do)? 

b: .(I/watch) TV 

a: .(you/go) out tomorrow night? 

b: Yes,.(I/go) to the cinema. 

a: Which film.(you/see)? 

b: .(I/not/know). 


(I/not/decide) yet. 


2 


a: 

b: 

a: 

b: 

a: 

b: 

a: 

b: 


Are you on holiday here? 
Yes, we are. 

How long. 


And how long. 

Until the end of next week. 

And. 

Yes,. 


.(you/be) here? 

(we/arrive) yesterday. 
.(you/stay)? 

.(you/like) it here? 

.(we/have) a wonderful time. 



3 a: .(I/go) out with Chris and Steve this evening. 

.(you/want) to come with us? 

b: Yes, where.(you/go)? 

a: To the Italian restaurant in North Street.(you/ever/eat) there? 

b: Yes,.(I/be) there two or three times. In fact I 

.(go) there last night, but I'd love to go again! 


4 


a: 

b: 

a: 

b: 

a: 


.(I/lose) my glasses again. 

.(you/see) them? 

.(you/wear) them 

when.(I/come) in. 

Well,.(l/not/wear) 

them now, so where are they? 

.(you/look) in the kitchen? 

No,.(I/go) and look now. 



265 




































Additional exercises 


past, present and future 


Units 3-22, 25-28, 52, 54, 98,105 

Rachel is talking about her best friend, Carolyn. Put the verbs in the correct form. 



Rachel 


^Carolyn is my best friend. 1 remember very well the first time > 

(1). 

(we/meet). It was our first day at secondary 

school, and (2). 

.(we/sit) next to each other for 

the first lesson. (3). 

.(we/not/know) any other 

students in our class, and so ( 4 ) 

.(we/become) 

friends. We found that (5). 

.(we/like) the same 

things, especially music and sport, and so (6). 

(we/spend) a lot of time together. 

( 7 ). 

(we/leave) school five years ago, but 

( 8 ) . 

(we/meet) as often as we can. For the last 

six months Carolyn p). 

. (be) in Mexico - at 

the moment (io) . 

. (she/work) in a school as a 

teaching assistant, (n) . 

. (she/come) back to 

England next month, and when .12). (she/come) 

back, (13). 

. (we/have) lots of things to talk about. 

04 ). 

V 

.. (it/be) really nice to see her again. 


Nick and his friend Jon are travelling round the world. Read the emails between Nick and his 
parents, and put the verbs in the correct form. 



Dear Mum and Dad 

We're in Los Angeles, the first stop on our round-the-world 

trip! (i). We arrived .(we/arrive) here yesterday, and now 

( 2 ).(we/stay) at a hotel near the airport. 

The flight was twelve hours, but (3). 

(we/enjoy) it. ( 4 ) .(we/watch) some 

films and ( 5 ).(sleep) a few hours, 

which is unusual for me - usually (6). 

(I/not/sleep) well on planes. 

Today is a rest day for us and ( 7 ). 

(we/not/do) anything special, but tomorrow 

( 8 ) .(we/go) to Hollywood 

(9) .(see) the film studios. 

(10) .(we/not/decide) yet what 

to do after Los Angeles. Jon (n).(want) 

to drive up the coast to San Francisco, but I'd prefer 

( 12 ).(go) south to San Diego. 

I hope all is well with you - (13). 

(I/send) you another email next week. 

Love 

Nick 



Nick 


SAN FRANCISCO 


I Jn i» r rv 


PACIFIC 

OCEAN 


USA 

LOS ANGELES 
SAN DIEGO 


MEXICO 


266 














































Additional exercises 



Dear Nick 


Thanks for your mail. It’s good to hear that (14) .(you/have) a good time. 

We're fine - Ellie and Jo (is).(work) hard for their exams next month. 

Dad has been busy at work and last week (16) .(he/have) a lot of important 

meetings. He's a little tired - I think (17) .(he/need) a good holiday. 

Keep in touch! 

Love 

Mum 


A month later... 


o 

Delete Junk Reply Reply All Forward Print To Do 


_ 


Hi Mum and Dad 

(is) .(we/be) in California for a month now. (19) .(we/get) 

back to Los Angeles yesterday after (20).(see) many wonderful places. 

I think the place (21).(I/like) most was Yosemite National Park - 

it's beautiful there and (22).(we/go) cycling a lot. The day before 

(23) .(we/leave), Jon (24) .(have) an accident on 

his bike. Luckily (25) .(he/not/injure), but the bike 

(26).(damage). 


( 27 ) .(we/change) our travel plans since my last message: now 

(28) .(we/leave) for Hawaii on Monday (not Tuesday). 

( 29 ) .(we/stay) there for a week before ( 30 ). 

to New Zealand. (31) .(that/be) different. I'm sure! 

All the best to Ellie and Jo for their exams. 

Love 

Nick m 


(fly) 


o 


A r\ Pi 

Delete Junk Reply Reply AH Forward Print To Do 

Hi Nick 

Have a good time in Hawaii! Ellie and Jo (32) .(finish) their exams yesterday - 

(33) .(I/let) you know when (34) .(we/get) the 

results. 

We're all OK. Dad and I (3s) .(look) forward to our holiday 

next month. (36) .(we/go) to Italy for two weeks - 

(37) .(we/send) you an email from there. 

Take care! 

Love 

Mum 


267 















































Additional exercises 



Which is correct? 

1 Don't forget to switch.(E) off the light before you go out. 

A switch B to switch C switching 


Units 51-55,105,112 


2 It's late. I must.now. 

A go B to go C going 

3 I'm sorry, but I don't have time.to you now. 

A for talking B to talk C talking 

4 Gary is always in the kitchen. He enjoys. 

A cook B to cook C cooking 

5 We've decided.away for a few days. 

A go B to go C going 

6 You're making too much noise. Can you please stop. 

A shout B to shout C shouting 

7 Would you like.and eat with us on Sunday? 


A come B to come C coming 

8 That bag is too heavy for you. Let me.you. 

A help B to help C helping 

9 There's a swimming pool near my house. I go.every day. 


A to swim B to swimming C swimming 

10 I need to go shopping.some food. 

A to buy B for buy C for buying 

11 I'd love.a car like yours. 

A have B to have C having 

12 Could you.me with this bag, please? 

A help B to help C helping 

13 I don't mind.here, but I'd prefer to sit by the window. 

A sit B to sit C sitting 

14 Do you want.you? 

A that I help B me to help C me helping 

15 You should think carefully before.an important decision. 

A make B to make C making 

16 I wasn't feeling very well, but the medicine made me.better. 

A feel B to feel C feeling 

17 Shall I phone the restaurant.a table? 

A for reserve B for reserving C to reserve 

18 Tom looked at me without.anything. 

A say B saying C to say 


268 


























Additional exercises 



Complete the sentences. 


Units 65, 69-73 



Shall we walk home? 


I'm interested in 


Can you play ]«T| Yes, but not 

. 7 very well. 


What's the difference between those cars? 


Nothing, they're 


■J TCan you pass. the sugar ., please? 

■■ » x ^ a 


Have you got 


No, I cant drive 




What do you do? 


Do you have any milk? 

- 1 / — ’ 


Yes, there's some in 


What did you do last night? 


I don't feel very well. 1 
I don't want to go to I uj 


I went to 


269 

















































Additional exercises 


Write a/an or the if necessary. If a/an/the are not necessary, leave an empty space (-). 

1 Who is. the. best player in your team? 

2 I don't watch..... TV very often. 

3 'Is there. a .bank near here?' 'Yes, at. the .end of this street.' 

4 I can't ride.horse. 

5 .sky is very clear tonight. 

6 Do you live here, or are you.tourist? 

7 What did you have for.lunch? 

8 Who was.first President of.United States? 

9 I'm not feeling very good. I've got.headache. 

10 I'm sorry, but I've forgotten your name. I can never remember.names. 

11 What time is.next train to London? 

12 Kate doesn't often send.emails. She prefers to call people. 

13 'Where's Sue?' 'She's in.garden.' 

14 Excuse me, I'm looking for.Majestic Hotel. Is it near here? 

15 Cary was ill.last week, so he didn't go to.work. 

16 Everest is.highest mountain in.world. 

17 I usually listen to.radio while I'm having.breakfast. 

18 I like.sport. My favourite sport is.basketball. 

19 Emily is.doctor. Her husband is.art teacher. 

20 My apartment is on.second floor. Turn left at.top of.stairs, and it's on 

right. 

21 After.dinner, we watched.TV. 

22 Last year we had.wonderful holiday in.south of.France. 



Units 103-108, 111 


P^P Write a preposition (in/for/by etc.). 

1 Helen is studying law. at .university. 

2 What is the longest river.Europe? 

3 Is there anything.TV this evening? 

4 We arrived.the hotel after midnight. 

5 'Where's Mark?' 'He's.holiday.' 


6 Tom hasn't got up yet. He's still.bed. 

7 Lisa is away. She's been away.Monday. 


8 The next meeting is.15 April. 

9 I usually go to work.car. 

10 There's too much sugar.my coffee. 

11 Joe lived in London.six months. He didn't like it very much. 

12 Were there a lot of people.the party? 

13 What are you doing.the moment? Are you working? 

14 I don't know any of the people.this photo. 

15 The train was very slow. It stopped.every station. 

16 I like this room. I like the pictures.the walls. 

17 'Did you buy that picture?' 'No, it was given to me.a friend of mine.' 

18 I'm going away.a few days. I'll be back.Thursday. 

19 Silvia has gone.Italy. She's.Milan at the moment. 

20 Emma left school.sixteen and got a job.a shop. 


270 





























































Study guide 


If you are not sure which units you need to study, use this study guide. 

You have to decide which alternative (A, B, C etc.) is right. SOMETIMES MORE THAN ONE ALTERNATIVE IS 
CORRECT. 

If you don't know (or if you are not sure) which alternatives are correct, study the unit (or units) on the right. 
You will find the correct sentence in the unit. 

The key to this study guide is on page 313. 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT 


STUDY 

UNIT 


Present 

1.1 .Can you close the window, please? 

A I cold B I'm cold C I have cold D It has cold 

1 2 Lisa.in politics. 

A isn't interested B not interested C doesn't interested D doesn't interest 


1 

1 


1 3 '.?' 'No, she's out.' 

A Is at home your mother B Does your mother at home 
C Is your mother at home D Are your mother at home 

1.4 These shoes are nice. 

A How much are they? B How many are they? C How much they are? 

D How much is they? 

1.5 Look, there's Sarah.a brown coat. 

A She wearing B She has wearing C She is wearing D She's wearing 

1.6 You can turn off the television.it. 

A I'm not watch B I'm not watching C I not watching D I don't watching 

1.7 '.today?' 'No, he's at home.' 

A Is working Ben B Is work Ben C Is Ben work D Is Ben working 

1.8 Look, there's Emily! . 

A Where she is going? B Where she go? C Where's she going? 

D Where she going? 

1.9 The earth. .round the sun. 

Agoing Bgo Cgoes D does go Eisgo 

1.10 We.away at weekends. 

A often go Bgo often C often going Dare often go 

1.11 We.TV very often. 

A not watch B doesn't watch C don't watch 
D don't watching E watch not 

1.12 '.play the guitar?' 'Yes, but I'm not very good.' 

A Do you play B Are you play C Does you play 

D Do you playing E Play you 

1.13 I don't understand this sentence. What.? 

A mean this word B means this word C does mean this word 
D does this word mean E this word means 


2 

2 

3.23 

3.23 

4.23 

4.23 

S, 23 

5,23.94 

6.23 

7.23 

7.23 


271 



















Study guide 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT 


STUDY 

UNIT 


1.14 Please be quiet. 

A I working. B I work. C l # m working. D I'm work. 

1.15 Tom.a shower every morning. 

A has B having C is having D have 

1.16 What.at weekends? 

A do you usually B are you usually doing C are you usually do 
D do you usually do E you do usually 

1.17 Sarah isn't feeling well.a headache. 

A She have B She have got C She has D She's got 

1.18 They.any children. 

A don't have B doesn't have C no have D haven't got E hasn't got 


8,23 

8 . S8 

8,23 

9. 58 

9, 58 


Past 




2.1 

The weather. 

.last week. 



A is good B was good C were good D good 

E had good 

2.2 

Why. 

.late this morning? 



A you was 

B did you C was you D you were 

E were you 

2.3 

Terry. 

.in a bank from 2005 to 2011. 



A work B working C works D worked E was work 

2.4 

Caroline. 

.to the cinema three times last week. 


A go B went C goes D got E was 


2.5 

1 . 

A didn't watch 

.TV yesterday. 

B didn't watched C wasn't watched 



D don't watch 

E didn't watching 


2.6 

'How. 

.?' 1 don't know. 1 didn't see it.' 



A happened the accident B did happen the accident 
C does the accident happen D did the accident happen 
E the accident happened 

2.7 What.at 11.30 yesterday? 

A were you doing B was you doing C you were doing 
D were you do E you was doing 

2.8 Jack was reading a book when his phone. 

A ringing B ring C rang D was ringing E was ring 

2.9 I saw Lucy and Steve this morning. They.at the bus stop. 

A waiting B waited C were waiting D was waiting E were waited 


10 

10 

11 

11 

12, 23 

12 

13 

14 

14 


Present perfect 

3.1 'Where's Rebecca?' '.to bed.' 

A She is gone B She has gone C She goes D She have gone 
E She's gone 


15 


3.2 'Are Laura and Paul here?' 'No, they..' 

A don't arrive yet B have already arrived C haven't already arrived 
D haven't arrived yet 


16 

L J 


272 






















Study guide 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT 


STUDY 

UNIT 


3.3 My sister.by plane. 

A has never travel B has never travelled C is never travelled 
D has never been travelled E have never travelled 

3.4 .that woman before, but I can't remember where. 

A I see B I seen C I've saw Dl've seen E I've seeing 

3.5 'How long.married?' 'Since 2007.' 

A you are B you have been C has you been D are you E have you been 

3.6 'Do you know Lisa?' 'Yes,.her for a long time.' 

A I knew B I've known C I know D 1 am knowing 

3.7 Richard has been in Canada. 

A for six months B since six months C six months ago D in six months 

3.8 'When did Tom go out?' '.' 

A For ten minutes. B Since ten minutes. C Ten minutes ago. 

D In ten minutes. 

3.9 We.a holiday last year. 

A don't have B haven't had C hasn't had D didn't have E didn't had 

3.10 Where.on Sunday afternoon? I couldn't find you. 

A you were B you have been C was you D have you been E were you 

Passive 

4.1 This house..100 years ago. 

A is built Bis building C was building D was built E built 

4.2 We.to the party last week. 

A didn't invite B didn't invited C weren't invited D wasn't invited 
E haven't been invited 

4.3 'Where.born?' 'In Cairo.' 

A you are B you were C was you D are you E were you 

4.4 My car is at the garage. It. 

A is being repaired B is repairing C have been repaired D repaired 
E repairs 

4.5 I can't find my keys. I think. 

A they've been stolen B they are stolen C they've stolen 
D they're being stolen 

Verb forms 

5.1 It., so we didn't need an umbrella. 

A wasn't rained B wasn't rain C didn't raining D wasn't raining 

5.2 Somebody.this window. 

A has broke B has broken C has breaked D has break 


17,23 


19,104 


21,23 


21,23 


273 






















Study guide 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT 


STUDY 

UNIT 


Future 

6.1 Andrew.tennis tomorrow. 

A is playing B play C plays D is play 

6.2 .out tonight? 

A Are you going B Are you go C Do you go D Go you E Do you going 

6.3 'What time is the concert tonight?' 'It.at 7.30.' 

A is start Bis starting C starts D start E starting 

6 A What.to the wedding next week? 

A are you wearing B are you going to wear C do you wear 
D you are going to wear 


6.5 I think Kelly.the exam. 

A passes B will pass C will be pass D will passing 

6.6 .to the cinema on Saturday. Do you want to come with us? 

A We go B Well go C We’re going D We will going 

6.7 ' you tomorrow, OK?' 'OK, bye.' 

A I phone B I phoning C I'm phoning D I’ll phone 

6.8 .tomorrow, so I can't meet you. 

A I work B I’ll work C I’m working D I'll working 

6.9 It’s a nice day. .for a walk? 

A Do we go B Shall we go C Are we go DWego EGowe 


25 

25 

25 

26 

27 

27 

28 

28 

28 


Modals, imperative etc. 

7.1 .to the cinema this evening, but I'm not sure. 

A I'll go B I'm going Cl may go D I might go 

7.2 ‘.here?' 'Yes, of course.' 

A Can I sit B Do I sit C May I sit D Can I to sit 

7.3 I'm having a party next week, but Paul and Rachel. 

A can't come B can't to come C can't coming D couldn't come 

7.4 Before Maria came to Britain, she.understand much English. 

A can B can't C not D couldn't E doesn't 


29 

29. 30 

30 

30 


7.5 We.walk home last night. There were no buses. 

A have to B had to C must D must to E must have 


31.33 


7.6 I.go yet. I can stay a little longer. 

A must B mustn't C must not D don't need E don't need to 


31 


7.7 

It's a good film. You. 

.go and see it. 


A should to 

B ought to 

C ought D should E need 

7.8 

What time. 


... go to the dentist tomorrow? 


A you must 

B you have to 

C have you to D do you have to 

7.9 

We. 

.wait long for the bus - it came in a few minutes. 


A don’t have to B hadn’t to C didn’t have to D didn't had to 
E mustn’t 


32 

33 

33 


274 




















Study guide 



STUDY 

UNIT 


7.10 '.some coffee?' 'No, thank you? 

A Are you liking B You like C Would you like D Do you like 

7.11 Please. Stay here with me. 

A don't go B you no go C go not D you don't go 

7.12 Dave.in a factory. Now he works in a supermarket. 

A working B works C worked D use to work E used to work 


34 

35 

36 


There and it 

8.1 Excuse me,.a hotel near here? 

A has there B is there C there is D is it 


8.2 .a lot of accidents on this road. It's very dangerous. 

A Have B It has C There have D They are E There are 

83 I was hungry when I got home, but..anything to eat. 

A there wasn't B there weren't C it wasn't D there hasn't been 


8.4 .three kilometres from our house to the city centre. 

Alt's B It has C There is D There are 


37 

37 

38 

39 


8.5 .true that you're going away? 

A Is there B Is it C Is D Are you 


39 


Auxiliary verbs 

9.1 I haven't got a car, but my sister. 

A have B is C has D hasn't E has got 

9.2 I don't like hot weather, but Sue. 

A does B doesn't C do D does like E likes 

93 'Nicola got married last week.' . Really?' 

A Is she? B Got she? C Did she? D Has she? 

9.4 You haven't met my mother,.? 


A haven't you B have you C did you D you have E you haven't 

9.5 Ben doesn't watch TV. He doesn't read newspapers. 

A too B either C neither D never 

9.6 'I'd like to go to Australia.' .‘ 

A So do I. B So am I. C So would I. D Neither do I. E So I would. 

9.7 Sue much at weekends. 

A don't B doesn't C don't do D doesn't do 

Questions 

10.1 'When.?' 'I'm not sure. More than 100 years ago.' 

A did the telephone invent B has the telephone invented 


C was invented the telephone D was the telephone invented 


E the telephone was invented 

10.2 'I broke my finger last week.' 'How.that?' 

A did you B you did C you did do D did you do 


40 

40 

41 

41 

42 

42 

43 

44 

44 


275 






















Study guide 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT STUDY 


UNIT 


10.3 Why me last night? I was waiting for you to phone. 

A didn't you phone B you not phone C you don’t phone 

D you didn't phone 

10.4 'Who.in this house?’ ’I don't know.' 

A lives B does live C does lives D living 

10.5 What.when you told him the story? 

A said Paul B did Paul say C Paul said D did Paul said 

10.6 'Tom's father is in hospital.' '.’ 

A In which hospital he is? B In which hospital he is in? 

C Which hospital he is in? D Which hospital is he in? 

10.7 Did you have a good holiday? . 

A How was the weather like? B What was the weather like? 

C What the weather was like? D Was the weather like? 

10.8 .taller - Joe or Gary? 

A Who is B What is C Which is D Who has 


44 

45 

45 

46 

46 

47 


10.9 There are four umbrellas here.is yours? 

A What BWho C Which D How E Which one 

10.10 How long.to cross the Atlantic by ship? 

A is it B does it need C does it take D does it want 


47, 75 

48 


10.11 I don't remember what.at the party. 

A Kate was wearing B was wearing Kate C was Kate wearing 

10.12 'Do you know.?' 'Yes, I think so.' 

A if Jack is at home B is Jack at home C whether Jack is at home 
D that Jack is at home 


49 

49 


Reported speech 

11.1 I saw Steve a week ago. He said that.me, but he didn't. 

A he phone B he phones C he'll phone D he's going to phone 

E he would phone 

11.2 'Why did Tim go to bed so early?' 'He.' 

A said he was tired B said that he was tired C said me he was tired 
D told me he was tired E told that he was tired 


50 

50 


-ing and to 

12.1 You shouldn't.so hard. 

A working B work C to work D worked 

12.2 It's late. I.now. 

A must to go B have go C have to going D have to go 

12.3 Tina has decided.her car. 

A sell B to sell C selling D to selling 

12.4 I don't mind.early. 

A get up B to get up C getting up D to getting up 


51 

51 

52 

52 


276 




















Study guide 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT 


STUDY 

UNIT 


12.5 

12.6 

12.7 

12.8 


Do you like early? 

A gee up B to get up C getting up D to getting up 

Do you want.you some money? 

A me lend B me lending C me to lend D that I lend 

He's very funny, He makes. 

A me laugh B me laughing C me to laugh D that I laugh 

Paula went to the shop.a newspaper. 

A for get B for to get C for getting D to get E get 


52 

53 

53 

54 


Go, get, do, make and have 

13.1 It's a nice day. Let's go. 

A for a swim B on a swim C to swimming D swimming 

13.2 I'm sorry your mother is ill. I hope she.better soon. 

A has B makes C gets D goes 

13.3 Kate.the car and drove away. 

A went into B went in C got in D got into 

13.4 'Shall I open the window?' 'No, it's OK. I’ll.it.’ 

A do B make C get D open 

13.5 I'm sorry, I.a mistake. 

A did B made C got D had 

13.6 *.a good time in Tokyo?' 'Yes, it was great. 

A Have you B Had you C Do you have D Did you have 


55 

56 

56 

57 

57 

58 


Pronouns and possessives 

14.1 I don't want this book. You can have. 

A it B them C her D him 

14.2 Sue and Kevin are going to the cinema. Do you want to go with 

. ? 

A her B they C them D him 

14.3 I know Amy, but I don't know.husband. 

A their B his C she D her 


59.62 

59.62 

60.62 


14.4 Oxford is famous for.university. 

A his B its C it's D their 

14.5 I didn't have an umbrella, so Sarah gave me. 

A her B hers C her umbrella D she's 

14.6 I went out to meet a friend of. 

A mine B my C me D I E myself 

14.7 We had a good holiday. We enjoyed. 

A us B our C ours D ourself E ourselves 

14.8 Kate and Helen are good friends. They know .well 

A each other B them C themselves D theirselves 


60 

61,62 

61,62 

63 

63 


277 
























Study guide 



This cup is dirty. Can 1 have.? 

A clean one B a clean one C clean Da clean 

I'm going shopping. I'm going to buy.clothes. 

A any B some 

'Where's your luggage?' 'I don't have 
A one B some C any 

Tracey and Jack. 

A have no children B don't have no children 
C don't have any children D have any children 

'How much money do you have?' 

A No. B No-one. C Any. D None. 

There is.in the room. It's empty. 

A anybody B nobody C anyone D no-one 

'What did you say?' '.' 

A Nothing. B Nobody. C Anything. D Not anything. 

I'm hungry. I want. 

A something for eat B something to eat C something for eating 
Ben watches TV for about two hours 

A all evening B all evenings C all the evenings D every evenings 
E every evening 

.friends. 

A Everybody need B Everybody needs C Everyone need D Everyone needs 

16.13 .children like playing. 

A Most B The most C Most of D The most of 

I like.those pictures. 

A both B both of C either D either of 

I haven't read.these books. 

A neither B neither of C either D either of 


E many of 


Do you have.friends? 

A a lot of B much C many D much of 

We like films, so we go to the cinema 
A a lot of B much C many Da lot 

There were.people in the theatre. It was nearly empty. 

A a little B few C little D a few of 

They have.money, so they're not poor. 

A a little Bafew Cfew D little E little of 


279 





















Study guide 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT 


STUDY 

UNIT 


Adjectives and adverbs 

17.1 I don't speak any. 

A foreign languages B languages foreign C languages foreigns 

17.2 He ate his dinner very. 

A quick B quicker C quickly 


17.3 

17.4 

17.5 

17.6 


You speak English very. 

A good B fluent C well D slow 

Helen wants. 

A a more big car B a car more big C a car bigger D a bigger car 

'Do you feel better today?’ 'No, I feel.' 

A good B worse C more bad D more worse 

Athens is older.Rome. 

A as B than C that D of 


17.7 I can run faster. 

A than him B that he can C than he can D as he can E as he 


17.8 Tennis isn’t.football. 

A popular as B popular than C as popular than D so popular that 
Eas popular as 

17.9 The weather today is the same.yesterday. 

A as B that C than D like 


85 

86 

86 

87 

87 

88 

88 

89 

89 


17.10 The Europa Hotel is.in the city. 

A the more expensive hotel B the most expensive hotel 

C the hotel most expensive D the hotel the more expensive 

E the hotel more expensive 

17.11 The film was very bad I think it's the.film I've ever seen. 

A worse B baddest C most bad D worst E more worse 

17.12 Why don't you buy a car? You've got. 

A enough money B money enough C enough of money 

17.13 Is your English..a conversation? 

A enough good to have B good enough for have C enough good for 
D good enough to have 

17.14 I'm out. 

A too tired for go B too much tired for going C too tired to go 
D too much tired to go 


90 

90 

91 

91 

92 


Word order 

18.1 Sue. They're very nice. 

A bought yesterday some new shoes B bought some new shoes yesterday 
C yesterday bought some new shoes 

18.2 ..coffee in the morning. 

A I drink always B Always I drink C i always drink 


93 

94 


280 


















Study guide 


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH IS RIGHT 


STUDY 

UNIT 


18.3 during the day. 

A They are at home never B They are never at home 
C They never are at home D Never they are at home 

18.4 'Where's Emma?' 'She..' 

A isn't here yet B isn't here already C isn't here still 

18.5 I locked the door and I gave 

A Sarah the keys B to Sarah the keys C the keys Sarah 
D the keys to Sarah 


94 

95 

96 


Conjunctions and clauses 

19.1 I can't talk to you now. I'll talk to you later when.more time. 

A I'll have B I had C I have D I'm going to have 

19.2 .late this evening, don't wait for me. 

A If I'm B If I'll be C When I'm D When I'll be 


19.3 I don't know the answer. If I.the answer, I'd tell you. 

A know B would know C have known D knew 


19.4 I like this jacket.it if it wasn't so expensive. 

A I buy B I'll buy C I bought D I'd bought E I'd buy 

19.5 Emma lives in a house.is 400 years old. 

A who B that C which D it E what 

19.6 The people.work in the office are very friendly. 

A who B that C they D which Ewhat 

19.7 Did you find the books.? 

A who you wanted B that you wanted C what you wanted 
D you wanted E you wanted it 

19.8 I met.can speak six languages. 

A a woman who B a woman which C a woman Da woman she 

Prepositions 

20.1 Bye! I'll see you 

A until Friday Bat Friday C in Friday Don Friday 

20.2 Hurry! The train leaves.five minutes. 

A at Bon C from D after E in 

20.3 'How long will you be away?' '.Monday.' 

A On B To C Until D Till E Since 

20.4 We played tennis yesterday. We played.two hours. 

Ain B for C since D during 

20.5 I always have breakfast before.to work. 

Algo Bgo Ctogo D going 

20.6 Write your name.the top of the page. 

A at B on C in D to 


98 

99 

100 

100 

101 

101 

102 

102 

103 

103 

104 

105 

105 

106 


281 



















Study guide 



20.18 

20.19 

20.20 


Do you like travelling.? 

A with train B with the train C in train Don train 

I'm not very good 
A on B with C at 

Tom left without.goodbye. 

A say B saying C to say D that he said 

I have to phone.today. 

A with my parents B to my parents C at my parents 

'Do you like eating in restaurants?' 'It depends. 
the restaurant.' 

Ain B at C of D on E over 


Phrasal verbs 

21.1 


21.2 


213 


The car stopped and a woman got 
A off B down C out D out of 

It was cold, so I. 

A put on my coat B put my coat on 
D put me the coat on 


C put the coat on me 


I've got Rachel's keys. I have to.to her. 

A give back B give them back C give back them D give it back 


282 



















Key to Exercises 


UNIT 1 

1.1 

2 they're 

3 it isn't / it's not 

4 that's 

5 I'm not 

6 you aren't / you're not 

1.2 

2 'm/am 6 are 

3 is 7 is... are 

4 are 8 'm/am ... is 

5 Vis 

1.3 

2 I'm /1 am 

3 He's / He is 

4 they're / they are 

5 It's/It is 

6 You're / You are 

7 She's / She is 

8 Here's / Here is 

1.4 

Example answers: 

1 My name is Robert. 

2 I'm 25. 

3 I'm from Australia. 

4 I'm a gardener. 

5 My favourite colours are 
black and white. 

6 I'm interested in plants. 

1.5 

2 They're / They are cold. 

3 He's / He is hot. 

4 He's / He is scared. 

5 They're / They are hungry. 

6 She's / She is angry. 

1.6 

2 It's/lt is windy today, or It 
isn't/lt's not windy today. 

3 My hands are cold, or My 
hands aren't/are not cold. 

4 Brazil is a very big country. 

5 Diamonds aren't/are not 
cheap. 

6 Toronto isn't/is not in the US. 

8 I'm/I am hungry, or I'm 
not/I am not hungry. 

9 l'm/1 am a good swimmer. 
or I'm not/I am not a good 
swimmer. 

10 I'm/lam interested in 
football, or I'm not/I am 
not interested in football. 


UNIT 2 

2.1 

2 F 6 E 

3 H 7 B 

4 C 8 1 

5 A 9 D 

2.2 

3 Is your job interesting? 

4 Are the shops open today? 

5 Where are you from? 

6 Are you interested in sport? 

7 Is the station near here? 

8 Are your children at school? 

9 Why are you late? 

2.3 

2 Where's / Where is 

3 How old are 

4 How much are 

5 What's / What is 

6 Who's / Who is 

7 What colour are 

2.4 

2 Are you American? 

3 How old are you? 

4 Are you a teacher? 

5 Are you married? 

6 Is your wife a lawyer? 

7 Where's/Where is she from? 

8 What's/What is her name? 

9 How old is she? 

2.5 

2 Yes, I am. or No, I'm not. 

3 Yes, it is. or No, it isn't. / No, 
it's not. 

4 Yes, they are. or No, they 
aren't. / No, they're not. 

5 Yes, it is. or No, it isn't. / No, 
it's not. 

6 Yes, l am. or No, I'm not. 

UNIT 3 

3.1 

2 's/is waiting 

3 're/are playing 

4 He's/He is lying 

5 They're/They are having 

6 She's/She is sitting 

3.2 

2 's/is cooking 

3 're/are standing 

4 's/is swimming 


5 're/are staying 

6 's/is having 

7 're/are building 

8 'm/am going 

3.3 

3 She's/She is sitting on the 
floor. 

4 She isn't/She's not reading a 
book. 

5 She isn't/She's not playing 
the piano. 

6 She's/She is laughing. 

7 She's/She is wearing a hat. 

8 She isn't/She's not drinking 
coffee. 

3.4 

3 I'm sitting on a chair, or I'm 
not sitting on a chair. 

4 I'm eating, or I'm not 
eating. 

5 It's raining, or It isn't raining. / 
It's not raining. 

6 I'm learning English. 

7 I'm listening to music, or 
I'm not listening to music 

8 The sun is shining, or The 
sun isn't shining. 

9 I'm wearing shoes, or I'm 
not wearing shoes. 

10 I'm not reading a newspaper. 

UNIT 4 

4.1 

2 Are you going now? 

3 Is it raining? 

4 Are you enjoying the film? 

5 Is that clock working? 

6 Are you waiting for a bus? 

4.2 

2 Where is she going? 

3 What are you eating? 

4 Why are you crying? 

5 What are they looking at? 

6 Why is he laughing? 

4.3 

3 Are you listening to me? 

4 Where are your friends going? 

5 Are your parents watching TV? 

6 What is Jessica cooking? 

7 Why are you looking at me? 

8 Is the bus coming? 


283 





Key to Exercises 


4.4 

2 Yes, I am. or No, I'm not. 

3 Yes, I am. or No, I'm not. 

4 Yes, it is. or No, it isn't. / 
No, it's not. 

5 Yes, I am. or No, I'm not. 

6 Yes, I am. or No, I'm not. 


UNITS 



5.1 

2 thinks 

5 

has 

3 flies 

4 dances 

6 

finishes 

5.2 

2 live 

5 

They go 

3 She eats 

4 He plays 

5.3 

6 

He sleeps 

2 open 

7 

costs 

3 closes 

8 

cost 

4 teaches 

9 

boils 

5 meet 

6 washes 

10 

like... likes 


5.4 

2 t never go to the cinema. 

3 Martina always works hard. 

4 Children usually like chocolate. 

5 Jackie always enjoys parties. 

6 I often forget people's names. 

7 Sam never watches TV. 

8 We usually have dinner at 
7.30. 

9 Kate always wears nice 
clothes. 

5.5 

Example answers: 

2 I sometimes read in bed. 

3 I often get up before 7 
o'clock. 

4 I never go to work by bus. 

5 I usually drink two cups of 
coffee in the morning. 

UNIT 6 

6.1 

2 Anna doesn't play the piano 
very well. 

3 They don't know my phone 
number. 

4 We don't work very hard. 

5 He doesn't have a bath every 
day. 

6 You don't do the same thing 
every day. 


6.2 

2 Kate doesn't like classical 
music. 

I like (or I don't like) classical 
music. 

3 Ben and Sophie don't like 
boxing. 

Kate likes boxing. 

I like (or I don't like) boxing. 

4 Ben and Sophie like horror 
movies. 

Kate doesn't like horror 
movies. 

I like (or I don't like) horror 
movies. 

6.3 

Example answers: 

2 I never go to the theatre. 

3 I don't ride a bike very often. 

4 i never eat in restaurants. 

5 I often travel by train. 

6.4 

2 doesn't use 

3 don't go 

4 doesn't wear 

5 don't know 

6 doesn't cost 

7 don't see 

.5 

don't know 
doesn't talk 
drinks 

don't believe 
like 

doesn't eat 

UNIT 7 
7.1 

2 Do you play tennis? 

3 Does Lucy live near here? 

4 Do Tom's friends play tennis? / 
Do his friends play tennis? / 

Do they play tennis? 

5 Does your brother speak 
English? / Does he speak 
English? 

6 Do you do yoga every 
morning? 

7 Does Paul go away a lot? / 
Does he go away a lot? or 
Does Paul go away much? / 
Does he go away much? 

8 Do you want to be famous? 

9 Does Anna work hard? / Does 
she work hard? 


6 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 


7.2 

3 How often do you watch TV? 

4 What do you want for 
dinner? 

5 Do you like football? 

6 Does your brother like 
football? 

7 What do you do in your free 
time? 

8 Where does your sister work? 

9 Do you always have 
breakfast? 

10 What does this word mean? 

11 Does it snow here in winter? 

12 What time do you usually go 
to bed? 

13 How much does it cost to 
phone New York? 

14 What do you usually have for 
breakfast? 

7.3 

2 Do you enjoy / Do you like 

3 do you start 

4 Do you work 

5 do you go 

6 does he do 

7 does he teach 

8 Does he enjoy / Does he like 

7.4 

2 Yes, I do. or No, I don't. 

3 Yes, I do. or No, I don't. 

4 Yes, it does, or No, it 
doesn't. 

5 Yes, I do. or No, I don't. 

UNIT 8 

8.1 

2 No, she isn't. 

Yes, she does. 

She's playing the piano. 

3 Yes, he does. 

Yes, he is. 

He's cleaning a window. 

4 No, they aren't. 

Yes, they do. 

They teach. 

8.2 

2 don't 6 do 

3 are 7 does 

4 does 8 doesn't 

5 's/is... don't 


284 












Key to Exercises 


8.3 

4 is singing 

5 She wanes 

6 do you use 

7 you're sitting 

8 I don't understand 

9 I'm going ... Are you coming 

10 does your father finish 

11 I'm not listening 

12 He's/He is cooking 

13 doesn't usually drive ... 
usually walks 

14 doesn't like ... She prefers 

UNIT 9 

9.1 

3 He's got a new job. 

4 Have you got an umbrella? 

5 We've got a lot of work to do. 

6 I haven't got your phone 
number. 

7 Has your father got a car? 

8 How much money have we 
got? 

9.2 

2 I don't have many clothes. 

3 Does Tom have a brother? 

4 How many children do they 
have? 

5 Do you have any questions? 

6 Sam doesn't have a job. 

9.3 

2 He's got a bike, or He has a 
bike. 

3 He hasn't got a dog. or He 
doesn't have a dog. 

4 He's got a mobile phone, or 
He has a mobile phone. 

5 He hasn't got a watch, or 
He doesn't have a watch. 

6 He's got two brothers and 
a sister, or He has two 
brothers and a sister. 

7 I've got a dog. /1 have a dog. 
or I haven't got a dog. /1 
don't have a dog. 

8 I've got a bike. /1 have a bike. 
or I haven't got a bike. /1 
don't have a bike. 

9 (Example answer) I've got 
a brother and a sister, or I 
have a brother and a sister. 


9.4 

3 has 6 don't have 

4 don't have 7 doesn't 

5 have have 

9.5 

2 's got / has got a lot of friends 

3 hasn't got a key 

4 haven't got much time 

5 has got six legs 

6 haven't got a job 

UNIT 10 

10.1 

2 Jack and Kate were at/in the 
cinema. 

3 Sue was at the station. 

4 Mr and Mrs Hall were in/at a 
restaurant. 

5 Ben was on the beach / on a 
beach / at the beach / at the 
seaside. 

6 (Example answer) I was at 
work. 

10.2 

2 is... was 

3 'm/am 

4 was 

5 were 

10.3 

2 wasn't... was 

3 was... were 

4 'Were Kate and Ben at the 
party?' 'Kate was there, but 
Ben wasn't' or 'Kate wasn't 
there, but Ben was.' 

5 were 

6 weren't... were 

10.4 

2 Was your exam difficult? 

3 Where were Sue and Chris 
last week? 

4 How much was your new 
camera? 

5 Why were you angry 
yesterday? 

6 Was the weather nice last 
week? 


6 're/are 

7 Was 

8 was 

9 are... were 


UNIT 11 
11.1 

2 opened 

3 started ... finished 

4 wanted 

5 happened 

6 rained 

7 enjoyed ... stayed 

8 died 

11.2 


2 

saw 

8 

thought 

3 

played 

9 

copied 

4 

paid 

10 

knew 

5 

visited 

11 

put 

6 

bought 

12 

spoke 

7 

went 



11.3 



2 

got 

9 

checked 

3 

had 

10 

had 

4 

left 

11 

waited 

5 

drove 

12 

departed 

6 

got 

13 

arrived 

7 

parked 

14 

took 

8 

walked 




11.4 

2 lost her keys 

3 met her friends 

4 bought a newspaper 

5 went to the cinema 

6 ate an orange 

7 had a shower 

8 came (to see us) 

11.5 

2-6 Example answers 
I got up late yesterday. 

I met some friends at lunchtime. 
I went to the supermarket. 

I phoned a lot of people. 

1 lost my keys. 

UNIT 12 
12.1 

2 didn't work 

3 didn't go 

4 didn't have 

5 didn't do 

12.2 

2 Did you enjoy the party? 

3 Did you have a good holiday? 

4 Did you finish work early? 

5 Did you sleep well last night? 


285 






Key to Exercises 


12.3 

2 I got up before 7 o'clock, or 
I didn't get up before 

7 o'clock. 

3 I had a shower, or I didn't 
have a shower. 

4 I bought a magazine, or I 
didn't buy a magazine. 

5 I ate meat, or I didn't eat 
meat. 

6 I went to bed before 10.30. 
or I didn't go to bed before 
10.30. 

12.4 

2 did you arrive 

3 Did you win 

4 did you go 

5 did it cost 

6 Did you go to bed late 

7 Did you have a nice time 

8 did it happen/did that 
happen 

12.5 

2 bought 6 didn't have 

3 Did it rain 7 did you do 

4 didn't stay 8 didn't know 

5 opened 

UNIT 13 

13.1 

2 jack and Kate were at the 
cinema. They were watching 
a film. 

3 Tom was in his car. He was 
driving. 

4 Tracey was at the station. She 
was waiting for a train. 

5 Mr and Mrs Hall were in the 
park. They were walking. 

6 (Example answer) I was in 
a cafe. I was having a drink 
with some friends. 

13.2 

2 she was playing tennis 

3 she was reading a/the 
paper/newspaper 

4 she was cooking (lunch) 

5 she was having breakfast 

6 she was cleaning the kitchen 

13.3 

2 What were you doing 

3 Was it raining 

4 Why was Sue driving 

5 Was Tom wearing 


13.4 

2 He was carrying a bag. 

3 He wasn't going to the dentist. 

4 He was eating an ice cream. 

5 He wasn't carrying an umbrella. 

6 He wasn't going home. 

7 He was wearing a hat. 

8 He wasn't riding a bicycle. 

UNIT 14 

14.1 

1 happened ... was painting ... 
fell 

2 arrived ... got... were waiting 

3 was walking ... met... was 
going ... was carrying ... 
stopped 

14.2 

2 was studying 

3 Did Paul call... called ... was 
having 

4 didn't go 

5 were you driving ... stopped 
... wasn't driving 

6 Did your team win ... didn't 
play 

7 did you break ... were playing 
... kicked... hit 

8 Did you see ... was wearing 

9 were you doing 

10 lost... did you get... climbed 

UNIT 15 

15.1 

2 She has/She's closed the door. 

3 They have/They've gone to 
bed. 

4 It has/lt's stopped raining. 

5 He has/He's had a shower. 

6 The picture has fallen down. 

15.2 

2 've bought / have bought 

3 's gone / has gone 

4 Have you seen 

5 has broken 

6 've told / have told 

7 has taken 

8 haven't seen 

9 has she gone 

10 've forgotten / have forgotten 

11 's invited / has invited 

12 Have you decided 

13 haven't told 

14 've finished / have finished 


UNIT 16 

16.1 

2 He's/He has just got up. 

3 They've/They have just 
bought a car. 

4 The race has just started. 

16.2 

2 they've/they have already 
seen it. 

3 fve/l have already phoned 
him. 

4 He's/He has already gone 
(away). 

5 I've/I have already read it. 

6 She's/She has already started 
(it). 

16.3 

2 The bus has just gone. 

3 The train hasn't left yet. 

4 He hasn't opened it yet. 

5 They Ve/They have just 
finished their dinner. 

6 It's / It has just stopped 
raining. 

16.4 

2 Have you met your new 
neighbours yet? 

3 Have you paid your electricity 
bill yet? 

4 Has Tom/he sold his car yet? 

UNIT 17 

17.1 

3 Have you ever been to 
Australia? 

4 Have you ever lost your 
passport? 

5 Have you ever flown in a 
helicopter? 

6 Have you ever won a race? 

7 Have you ever been to New 
York? 

8 Have you ever driven a bus? 

9 Have you ever broken your 
leg? 


286 





Key to Exercises 


17.2 

Helen: 

2 She's/She has been to 
Australia once. 

3 She's/She has never won a 
race. 

4 She's/She has flown in a 
helicopter a few times. 

You (example answers): 

5 l've/1 have never been to 
New York. 

6 I've/I have played tennis 
many times. 

7 I've/I have never driven a lorry. 

8 I've/I have been late for work 
a few times. 

17.3 

2-6 

She's/She has done a lot of 
interesting things. 

She's/She has travelled all over 
the world, or She's/She has 
been all over the world. 

She's/She has been married 
three times. 

She's/She has written ten books. 

She's/She has met a lot of 
interesting people. 

17.4 

2 been 6 gone 

3 gone 7 gone 

4 been 8 been 

5 been 

UNIT 18 

18.1 

3 have been 

4 has been 

5 have lived / have been living 

6 has worked / has been working 

7 has had 

8 have been learning 

18.2 

2 How long have they been 
there? or ... been in Brazil? 

3 How long have you known 
her? or ...known Amy? 

4 How long has she been 
learning Italian? 

5 How long has he lived in 

Canada? / How long has he 
been living... ? 

6 How long have you been a 
teacher? 

7 How long has it been raining? 


18.3 

2 She has lived in Wales all her 
life. 

3 TTiey have been on holiday 
since Sunday. 

4 The sun has been shining all 
day. 

5 She has been waiting for ten 
minutes. 

6 He has had a beard since he 
was 20. 

18.4 

2 I know 

3 I've known 

4 have you been waiting 

5 works 

6 She has been reading 

7 have you lived 

8 I've had 

9 is ... He has been 

UNIT 19 

19.1 

3 for 

4 since 

5 since 

19.2 

Example answers: 

2 A year ago. 

3 A few weeks ago. 

4 Two hours ago. 

5 Six months ago. 

19.3 

3 for 20 years 

4 20 years ago 

5 an hour ago 

6 a few days ago 

7 for six months 

8 for a long time 

19.4 

2 Jack has been here since 
Tuesday. 

3 It's been raining for an hour. 

4 I've known Sue since 2008. 

5 Claire and Matt have been 
married for six months. 

6 Laura has been studying 
medicine (at university) for 
three years. 

7 David has played / David has 
been playing the piano since 
he was seven years old. 


6 for 

7 for 

8 for ...since 


19.5 

Example answers 

2 I've been in the same job for 
ten years. 

3 I've been learning English for 
six months. 

4 I've known Chris for a long 
time. 

5 I've had a headache since I 
got up this morning. 

UNIT 20 

20.1 

2 I started (it) 

3 they arrived 

4 she went (away) 

5 1 wore it 

20.2 

3 I finished 

4 OK 

5 did you finish 

6 OK 

1 (Steve's grandmother) died 

8 Where were you / Where did 
you go 

20.3 

3 played 

4 did you go 

5 Have you ever met 

6 wasn't 

7 's/has visited 

8 switched 

9 lived 

10 haven't been 

20.4 

1 Did you have ... was 

2 Have you seen ... went... 
haven't seen 

3 has worked / has been 
working ... was... worked ... 
didn't enjoy 

4 've/have seen ... 've/have 
never spoken ... Have you 
ever spoken ... met 


287 





Key to Exercises 


UNIT 21 
21.1 

3 Glass is made from sand. 

4 The windows are cleaned 
every two weeks. 

5 This room isn't used very 
much. 

6 Are we allowed to park here? 

7 How is this word 
pronounced? 

9 The house was painted last 
month. 

10 My phone was stolen a few 
days ago. 

11 Three people were injured in 
the accident. 

12 When was this bridge built? 

13 I wasn't woken up by the 
noise. 

14 How were these windows 
broken? 

15 Were you invited to Jon's 
party last week? 

21.2 

2 Football is played in most... 

3 Why was the letter sent 

to... ? 

4 ... where films are made. 

5 Where were you born? 

6 How many languages are 

spoken ... ? 

7 ... but nothing was stolen. 

8 When was the bicycle 

invented? 

21.3 

3 is made 

4 were damaged 

5 was given 

6 are shown 

7 were invited 

8 was made 

9 was stolen ... was found 

21.4 

2 Sarah was born in 
Manchester. 

3 Her parents were born in 
Ireland. 

4 I was born in ... 

5 My mother was born in ... 


UNIT 22 

22.1 

2 A bridge is being built. 

3 The windows are being 
cleaned. 

4 The grass is being cut. 

22.2 

3 The window has been broken. 

4 The roof is being repaired. 

5 The car has been damaged. 

6 The houses are being 
knocked down. 

7 The trees have been cut 
down. 

8 They have been invited to a 
party. 

22.3 

3 has been repaired 

4 was repaired 

5 are made 

6 were they built 

7 Is the photocopier being used 
or Is anybody using the 
photocopier 

8 are they called 


9 

were stolen 



10 

was damaged 


hasn't been 


repaired 



UNIT 23 



23 

1.1 



3 

are 

7 

do 

4 

Does 

8 

Is 

5 

Do 

9 

does 

6 

Is 

10 

Are 

23.2 



2 

don't 



3 

'm/am not 



4 

isn't 



5 

don't 



6 

doesn't 



7 

'm/am not 



8 

aren't / 're not 


23.3 



2 

Did 

7 

were 

3 

were 

8 

Has 

4 

was 

9 

did 

5 

Has 

10 

have 

6 

did 



23.4 



2 

was 

6 

've/have 

3 

Have 

7 

is 

4 

are 

8 

was 

5 

were 

9 

has 


23.5 

3 eaten 

4 enjoying 

5 damaged 

6 use 

7 gone 

8 understand 

9 listening 

10 pronounced 

11 open 

UNIT 24 

24.1 

3 got 

4 brought 

5 paid 

6 enjoyed 

7 bought 

8 sat 

9 left 

10 happened 

11 heard 

12 put 

13 caught 

14 watched 

15 understood 


24.2 


2 began 

begun 

3 ate 

eaten 

4 drank 

drunk 

5 drove 

driven 

6 spoke 

spoken 

7 wrote 

written 

8 came 

come 

9 knew 

known 

10 took 

taken 

11 went 

gone 

12 gave 

given 

13 threw 

thrown 

14 forgot 

forgotten 


24.3 

3 slept 

4 saw 

5 rained 

6 lost ...seen 

7 stolen 

8 went 

9 finished 

10 built 

11 learnt/learned 

12 ridden 

13 known 

14 fell ...hurt 

15 ran ...run 


288 




Key to Exercises 


24.4 

2 told 8 

3 won 9 

4 met 10 

5 woken up 11 

6 swam 12 

7 thought 

UNIT 25 

25.1 

2 Richard is going to the 
cinema. 

3 Rachel is meeting Dave. 

4 Karen is having lunch with 
Will. 

5 Sue and Tom are going to a 
party. 

25.2 

2 Are you working next week? 

3 What are you doing 
tomorrow evening? 

4 What time are your friends 
coming? 

5 When is Lisa going on holiday? 

25.3 

3-6 Example answers 
I'm going away at the weekend. 
I'm playing basketball tomorrow. 
I'm meeting a friend this 
evening. 

I'm going to the cinema on 
Thursday evening. 

25.4 

3 She's getting 

4 are going ... are they going 

5 finishes 

6 I'm not going 

7 I'm going ... We're meeting 

8 are you getting ... leaves 

9 Are you coming ... does the 
film begin 

10 are you doing ... I'm working 

UNIT 26 
26.1 

2 I'm going to have a bath. 

3 I'm going to buy a car. 

4 We're going to play football. 

26.2 

3 'm/am going to walk 

4 's/is going to stay 

5 'm/am going to eat 

6 're/are going to give 

7 's/is going to lie down 


8 Are you going to watch 

9 is Rachel going to do 

26.3 

2 The shelf is going to fall 
(down). 

3 The car is going to turn (right). 

4 He's / He is going to kick the 
ball. 

26.4 

1-3 Example answers 

I'm going to phone Maria this 
evening. 

I'm going to get up early 
tomorrow. 

I'm going to buy some shoes 
tomorrow. 

UNIT 27 

27.1 


2 

she'll be 5 

she's 

3 

she was 6 

she was 

4 

she'll be 7 

she'll be 

27.2 


Example answers: 


2 

I'll be at home. 


3 

I'll probably be in 

bed. 

4 

I'll be at work. 


5 

1 don't know where I'll be. 

27.3 


2 

'll/will 5 

'll/will 

3 

won't 6 

11/will 

4 

won't 7 

won't 

27.4 



3 I think we'll win the game. 

4 I don't think i'll be here 
tomorrow. 

5 I think Sue will like her 
present. 

6 I don't think they'll get married. 

7 I don't think you'll enjoy the 
film. 

27.5 

2 are you doing 

3 They're going 

4 will lend 

5 I'm going 

6 will phone 

7 He's working 

8 Will you 

9 are coming 


spoken 

cost 

driven 

sold 

flew 


UNIT 28 
28.1 

2 I'll eat 5 I'll stay 

3 I'll sit 6 I'll show 

4 I'll do 

28.2 

2 I think I'll have 

3 I don't think I'll play 

4 I think I'll buy 

5 I don't think I'll buy 

28.3 

2 I'll do 

3 I watch 

4 I'll go 

5 is going to buy 

6 I'll give 

7 Are you doing ... I'm going 

8 I'm working 

28.4 

2 Shall I turn off the TV? 

3 Shall I make some 
sandwiches? 

4 Shall I turn on the light? 

28.5 

2 where shall we go? 

3 what shall we buy? 

4 who shall we invite? 

UNIT 29 

29.1 

2 i might see you tomorrow. 

3 Sarah might forget to phone. 

4 It might snow today. 

5 I might be late tonight. 

6 Mark might not be here next 
week. 

7 I might not have time to go 
out. 

29.2 

2 I might go away. 

3 I might see her on Monday. 

4 I might have fish. 

5 I might get/take a taxi, or ... 
go by taxi. 

6 I might buy/get a new car. 


289 




Key to Exercises 


29.3 

3 He might get up early. 

4 He isn't/He's not working 
tomorrow. 

5 He might be at home 
tomorrow morning. 

6 He might watch TV. 

7 He’s going out in the 
afternoon. 

8 He might go shopping. 

29.4 

1-3 Example answers 
I might buy some new clothes. 

I might go out with some 
friends. 

1 might have an egg for 

breakfast. 

UNIT 30 

30.1 

2 Can you ski? 

3 Can you play chess? 

4 Can you run ten kilometres? 

5 Can you drive (a car)? 

6 Can you ride (a horse)? 

7 I can/can't swim. 

8 I can/can't ski. 

9 I can/can't play chess. 

10 I can/can't run ten kilometres. 

11 I can/can’t drive (a car). 

12 I can/can't ride (a horse). 

30.2 

2 can see 

3 can't hear 

4 can't find 

5 can speak 

30.3 

2 couldn't eat 

3 can't decide 

4 couldn't find 

5 can't go 

6 couldn't go 

30.4 

2 Can/Could you pass the salt 
(please)? 

3 Can/Could I have these 
postcards (please)? 

4 Can/Could you turn off the 
radio (please)? 

5 Can/Could I borrow your 
newspaper (please)? 

6 Can/Could I use your pen 
(please)? 


UNIT 31 



31.1 

2 must meet 

5 

must go 

3 must wash 

6 

must win 

4 must learn 

7 

must be 

31.2 

2 1 must 

5 

1 had to 

3 1 had to 

6 

1 had to 

4 1 must 

31.3 

7 

1 must 


2 don’t need to rush 

3 mustn't lose 

4 don't need to wait 

5 mustn't forget 

6 don’t need to phone 

31.4 

2 C 4 B 

3 A 5 D 

31.5 

3 don't need to 

4 had to 

5 must 

6 mustn't 

7 must 

8 had to 

9 don't need to 
10 mustn't 

UNIT 32 

32.1 

2 You should go 

3 You should eat 

4 you should visit 

5 you should wear 

6 You should take 

32.2 

2 He shouldn't eat so much. 

3 She shouldn't work so hard. 

4 He shouldn't drive so fast. 

32.3 

2 Do you think I should learn 
(to drive)? 

3 Do you think I should get 
another job? 

4 Do you think I should invite 
Gary (to the party)? 

32.4 

3 I think you should sell it. 

4 I think she should have a 
holiday. 

5 I don't think they should get 
married. 


6 I don’t think you should go to 
work. 

7 I think he should go to the 
doctor. 

8 I don't think we should stay 
there. 

32.5 

Example answers: 

2 I think everybody should 
have enough food. 

3 I think people should drive 
more carefully. 

4 I don't think the police 
should carry guns. 

5 I think I should take more 
exercise. 

UNIT 33 

33.1 

2 have to do 

3 has to read 

4 have to speak 

5 has to travel 

6 have to hit 

33.2 

2 have to go 

3 had to buy 

4 have to change 

5 had to answer 

33.3 

2 did he have to wait 

3 does she have to go 

4 did you have to pay 

5 do you have to do 

33.4 

2 doesn't have to wait. 

3 didn't have to get up early. 

4 doesn't have to work (so) hard. 

5 don't have to leave now. 

33.5 

3 have to pay 

4 had to borrow 

5 must stop or have to stop 
(both are correct) 

6 has to meet 

7 must tell or have to tell 
(both are correct) 

33.6 

Example answers: 

2 I have to go to work every day. 

3 I had to go to the dentist 
yesterday. 

4 I have to go shopping 
tomorrow. 


290 




Key to Exercises 


UNIT 34 

34.1 

2 Would you like an apple? 

3 Would you like some coffee? / 
... a cup of coffee? 

4 Would you like some cheese? / 
... apiece of cheese? 

5 Would you like a sandwich? 

6 Would you like some cake? / 
... a piece of cake? 

34.2 

2 Would you like to play tennis 
tomorrow? 

3 Would you like to come to a 
concert next week? 

4 Would you like to borrow my 
umbrella? 

34.3 

2 Do you like 

3 Would you like 

4 would you like 

5 Would you like 

6 I like 

7 would you like 

8 Would you like 

9 Do you like 

10 I'd like 

11 I'd like 

12 do you like 

UNIT 35 

35.1 

3 Don't buy 

4 Smile 

5 Don't sit 

6 Have 

7 Don't forget 

8 Sleep 

9 Be ... Don't drop 

35.2 

2 let's take a taxi 

3 let's watch TV 

4 let's go to a restaurant 

5 let's wait a little 

35.3 

3 No, let's not go out. 

4 No, don't close the window. 

5 No, don't phone me 
(tonight). 

6 No, let's not wait for Andy. 

7 No, don't turn on the light. 

8 No, let's not go by bus. 


UNIT 36 

36.1 

2 He used to play football. 

3 She used to be a taxi driver. 

4 They used to live in the 
country. 

5 He used to wear glasses. 

6 This building used to be a 
hotel. 

36.2 

2-6 

She used to play volleyball. 

She used to go out most 
evenings. / She used to go 
out a lot. 

She used to play the guitar. 

She used to read a lot. / She 
used to like reading. 

She used to go away two or 
three times a year. / She used 
to travel a lot. 

36.3 

3 used to have 

4 used to be 

5 go / travel 

6 used to eat 

7 watches 

8 used to live 

9 get 

10 did you use to play 

UNIT 37 

37.1 

3 There's/There is a hospital. 

4 There isn't a swimming pool. 

5 There are two cinemas. 

6 There isn't a university. 

7 There aren't any big hotels. 

37.2 

3-6 Example answers 
There is a university in ... 

There are a lot of big shops. 
There isn't an airport. 

There aren't many factories. 

37.3 

2 There's/There is 

3 is there 

4 There are 

5 are there 

6 There isn't 

7 Is there 

8 Are there 

9 There's / There is. 

There aren't 


37.4 

2-6 

There are eight planets in the 
solar system. 

There are fifteen players in a 
rugby team. 

There are twenty-six letters in 
the English alphabet. 

There are thirty days in 
September. 

There are fifty states in the USA. 

37.5 

2 It's 

3 There's 

4 There's... Is it 

5 Is there ... there's 

6 It's 

7 Is there 

UNIT 38 

38.1 

2 There was a carpet 

3 There were three pictures 

4 There was a small table 

5 There were some flowers 

6 There were some books 

7 There was an armchair 

8 There was a sofa 

38.2 

3 There was 

4 Was there 

5 there weren't 

6 There wasn't 

7 Were there 

8 There wasn't 

9 There was 
10 there weren't 

38.3 

2 There are 

3 There was 

4 There's/There is 

5 There's been/There has been 
or There was 

6 there was 

7 there will be 

8 there were ... there are 

9 There have been 

10 there will be or there are 


291 





Key to Exercises 


UNIT 39 

39.1 

2 It's cold. 

3 It's windy. 

4 It's sunny/fme. or It's a nice 
day. 

5 It’s snowing. 

6 It's cloudy. 

39.2 

2 It's/It is 

3 Is it 

4 is it ... it's / it is 

5 It's / It is 

6 Is it 

7 is it 

8 It's/It is 

9 It's/It is 

39.3 

2 How far is it from the hotel to 
the beach? 

3 How far is it from New York 
to Washington? 

4 How far is it from your house 
to the airport? 

39.4 

3 It 6 it 

4 It... It 7 It... there 

5 There 8 It 

39.5 

2 It's nice to see you again. 

3 It's impossible to work here. 

4 It's easy to make friends. 

5 It's interesting to visit different 
places. 

6 It's dangerous to go out alone 

UNIT 40 

40.1 

2 is 

3 can 

4 has 

40.2 

2 'm not 

3 weren't 

4 haven't 

40.3 

3 doesn't 

4 do 

5 did 

40.4 

Example answers: 

2 I like sport, but my sister 
doesn’t. 


3 I don't eat meat, but Jessica 
does. 

4 I'm American, but my 
husband isn't. 


5 1 haven't been to Japan, but 
Jessica has. 

40.5 

2 wasn't 

7 has 

3 are 

8 do 

4 has 

9 hasn't 

5 can't 

10 will 

6 did 

40.6 

11 might 

2 Yes, 1 have, or No, 1 haven't. 

3 Yes, 1 do. or 

No, 1 don't. 

4 Yes, it is. or 

No, it isn't. 

5 Yes, 1 am. or 

No, I'm not. 

6 Yes, 1 do. or 

No, 1 don't. 

7 Yes, 1 will, or 

No, 1 won't. 

8 Yes, 1 have, or No, 1 haven't. 

9 Yes, 1 did. or 

No, 1 didn't. 

10 Yes, 1 was. or 

UNIT 41 

41.1 

2 Do you? 

3 Didn’t you? 

4 Doesn’t she? 

5 Do 1? 

6 Did she? 

No, 1 wasn't. 

41.2 

3 Have you? 

8 Aren't you? 

4 Can't she? 

9 Did you? 

5 Were you? 

10 Does she? 

6 Didn't you? 

11 Won't you? 

7 Is there? 

12 Isn't it? 

41.3 

2 aren't they 

5 don't you 

3 wasn't she 

6 doesn't he 

4 haven't you 

41.4 

7 won’t you 

2 are you 

6 didn't she 

3 isn't she 

7 was it 

4 can't you 

8 doesn't she 

5 do you 

UNIT 42 

9 will you 

42.1 

2 either 

5 either 

3 too 

6 either 

4 too 

7 too 


5 will 

6 was 


5 isn't 

6 hasn't 


6 does 

7 don't 

8 didn't 


42.2 

2 So am I. 

3 So have I. 

4 So do I. 

5 So will I. 

6 So was I. 

7 Neither can I. 

8 Neither did I. 

9 Neither have I. 

10 Neither ami. 

11 Neither do I. 

42.3 

1 So am I. 

2 So can I. or I can't. 

3 Neither am I. or I am. 

4 So do I. or I don't. 

5 Neither do I. or I do. 

6 So did I. or I didn't. 

7 Neither have I. or I have. 

8 Neither do I. or I do. 

9 So am I. or I'm not. 

10 Neither have I. or I have. 

11 Neither did I. or I did. 

12 Sodol. or I don't. 

UNIT 43 

43.1 

2 They aren't / They're not 
married. 

3 I haven't had dinner. 

4 It isn't cold today. 

5 We won't be late. 

6 You shouldn't go. 

43.2 

2 I don't like cheese. 

3 They didn't understand. 

4 He doesn't live here. 

5 Don't go away! 

6 I didn't do the shopping. 

43.3 

2 They haven't arrived. 

3 I didn't go to the bank. 

4 He doesn't speak German. 

5 We weren't angry. 

6 He won't be pleased. 

7 Don't call me tonight. 

8 It didn't rain yesterday. 

9 I couldn't hear them. 

10 I don’t believe you. 

43.4 

2 'm not / am not 

3 can't 

4 doesn’t 

5 isn’t /’s not 


292 




Key to Exercises 


6 don’t... haven't 

7 Don't 

8 didn't 

9 haven’t 

10 won't 

11 didn't 

12 weren't 

13 hasn’t 

14 shouldn't / mustn't 

43.5 

3 He wasn't born in London. 

4 He doesn't like London. 

5 He'd like to live in the 
country. 

6 He can drive. 

7 He hasn't got a car. or He 
doesn't have a car. 

8 He doesn't read newspapers. 

9 He isn't interested in politics. 

10 He watches TV most 
evenings. 

11 He didn't watch TV last night. 

12 He went out last night. 

UNIT 44 

44.1 

3 Were you late this morning? 

4 Has Kate got a key? or Does 
Kate have a key? 

5 Will you be here tomorrow? 

6 Is Paul going out this evening? 

7 Do you like your job? 

8 Does Nicola live near here? 

9 Did you enjoy the film? 

10 Did you have a good holiday? 

44.2 

2 Do you use it a lot? 

3 Did you use it yesterday? 

4 Do you enjoy driving? 

5 Are you a good driver? 

6 Have you ever had an 
accident? 

44.3 

3 What are the children doing? 

4 How is cheese made? 

5 Is your sister coming to the 
party? 

6 Why don't you tell the truth? 

7 Have your guests arrived yet? 

8 What time does your train 
leave? 

9 Why didn't Emily go to work? 

10 Was your car damaged in the 
accident? 


44.4 

3 What are you reading? 

4 What time did she go (to 
bed)? 

5 When are they going (on 
holiday)? 

6 Where did you see him? 

7 Why can't you come (to the 
party)? 

8 Where has she gone? 

9 How much (money) do you 
need? 

10 Why doesn't she like you? 

11 How often does it rain? 

12 When did you do it?/... the 
shopping? 

UNIT 45 

45.1 

2 What fell off the shelf? 

3 Who wants to see me? 

4 Who took your umbrella? / 
Who took it? 

5 What made you ill? 

6 Who is / Who's coming? 

45.2 

3 Who did you phone? 

4 What happened last night? 

5 Who knows the answer? 

6 Who did the washing-up? 

7 What did Jane do? / What did 
she do? 

8 What woke you up? 

9 Who saw the accident? 

10 Who did you see? 

11 Who has got your pen? / 
Who's got your pen? / 

Who has your pen? 

12 What does this word mean? / 
What does it mean? 

45.3 

2 Who phoned you ? 

What did she want? 

3 Who did you ask? 

What did he say? 

4 Who got married? 

Who told you? 

5 Who did you meet? 

What did she tell you? 

6 Who won? 

What did you do (after the 
game)? 

7 Who gave you a/the book? 
What did Catherine give you? 


UNIT 46 

46.1 

2 What are you looking for? 

3 Who did you go to the 
cinema with? 

4 What/Who was the film 
about? 

5 Who did you give the money 
to? 

6 Who was the book written 
by? 

46.2 

2 What are they looking at? 

3 Which restaurant is he going 
to? 

4 What are they talking about? 

5 What is she listening to? 

6 Which bus are they waiting 
for? 

46.3 

2 Which hotel did you stay at? 

3 Which (football) team does 
he play for? 

4 Which school did you go to? 

46.4 

2 What is the food like? 

3 What are the people like? 

4 What is the weather like? 

46.5 

2 What was the film like? 

3 What were the lessons like? 

4 What was the hotel like? 

UNIT 47 

47.1 

3 What colour is it? 

4 What time did you get up? 

5 What type of music do you 
like? 

6 What ki nd of car do you 
want (to buy)? 

47.2 

2 Which coat 

3 Which film/movie 

4 Which bus 

47.3 


Which 

8 

Who 

What 

9 

What 

Which 

10 

Which 

What 

11 

What 

Which 




293 




Key to Exercises 


47.4 

2 How far 5 How deep 

3 How old 6 How long 

4 How often 

47.5 

2 How heavy is this box? 

3 How old are you? 

4 How much did you spend? 

5 How often do you watch TV? 

6 How far is it from Paris to 
Moscow? 

UNIT 48 

48.1 

2 How long does it take by car 
from Milan to Rome? 

3 How long does it take by 
train from Paris to Geneva? 

4 How long does it take by bus 
from the city centre to the 
airport? 

48.2 

2 It takes... hours to fly from ... 
to New York. 

3 It takes... years to study to 
be a doctor in .... 

4 It takes... to walk from my 
home to the nearest shop. 

5 It takes... to get from my 
home to the nearest airport. 

48.3 

2 How long did it take you to 
walk to the station? 

3 How long did it take him to 
paint the bathroom? 

4 How long did it take you to 
learn to ski? 

5 How long did it take them to 
repair the car? 

48.4 

2 It took us 20 minutes to walk 
home. /... to get home. 

3 It took me six months to 
learn to drive. 

4 It took Mark/him three hours 
to drive to London. /... to get 
to London. 

5 It took Lisa/her a long time to 
find a job. /... to get a job. 

6 It took me ... to ... 


UNIT 49 

49.1 

2 I don't know where she is. 

3 I don't know how old it is. 

4 I don't know when he'll be 
here. 

5 I don't know why he was 
angry. 

6 I don't know how long she 
has lived here. 

49.2 

2 where Susan works 

3 what Peter said 

4 why he went home early 

5 what time the meeting 
begins 

6 how the accident happened 

49.3 

2 are you 

3 they are 

4 the museum is 

5 do you want 

6 elephants eat 

7 it is 

49.4 

2 Do you know if/whether they 
are married? 

3 Do you know if/whether Sue 
knows Bill? 

4 Do you know if/whether 
Gary will be here tomorrow? 

5 Do you know if/whether he 
passed his exam? 

49.5 

2 Do you know where Paula is? 

3 Do you know if/whether she 
is working today? /... she's 
working today? 

4 Do you know what time she 
starts work? 

5 Do you know if/whether the 
shops are open tomorrow? 

6 Do you know where Sarah 
and Jack live? 

7 Do you know if/whether they 
went to Jane's party? 

49.6 

Example answers: 

2 Do you know what time the 
bus leaves? 

3 Excuse me, can you tell me 
where the station is? 

4 I don't know what I'm going 
to do this evening. 


5 Do you know if there's a 
restaurant near here? 

6 Do you know how much it 
costs to rent a car? 

UNIT 50 

50.1 

2 She said (that) she was very 
busy. 

3 She said (that) she couldn't 
go to the party. 

4 He said (that) he had to go 
out. 

5 He said (that) he was learning 
Russian. 

6 She said (that) she didn't feel 
very well. 

7 They said (that) they would 
be home late. /... they'd be 

8 She said (that) she had just 
come back from holiday. /... 
she'd just come back ... 

9 She said (that) she was going 
to buy a guitar. 

10 They said (that) they hadn't 
got a key. / They said (that) 
they didn't have a key. 

50.2 

2 She said (that) she wasn't 
hungry. 

3 he said (that) he needed it. 

4 she said (that) she didn't 
want to go. 

5 She said (that) I could have it. 

6 He said (that) he would send 
me a postcard. /... he'd 
send ... 

7 Nicola said (that) he had 
gone home. /... he'd gone 
home. 

8 He said (that) he wanted to 
watch TV. 

9 She said (that) she was going 
to the cinema. 

50.3 


3 

said 

7 

said 

4 

told 

8 

told 

5 

tell 

9 

tell 

6 

say 

10 

say 

UNIT 51 



51 

1.1 



3 

phone 



4 

phone Paul 




294 







Key to Exercises 


5 co phone Paul 

6 co phone Paul 

7 phone Paul 

8 co phone Paul 

9 phone Paul 
10 phone Paul 

51.2 

3 gee 

4 going 

5 wacch 

6 flying 

7 liscening 

8 eac 

9 waicing 

10 wear 

11 doing... scaying 

51.3 


4 

CO go 

13 

having 

5 

rain 

14 

co have 

6 

co leave 

15 

hear 

7 

help 

16 

go 

8 

scudying 

17 

liscening 

9 

co go 

18 

co walk 

10 

wearing 

19 

co know 

11 

co scay 


cell 

12 

have 

20 

borrow 


UNIT 52 

52.1 

3 co see 

4 co swim 

5 cleaning 

6 co ask 

7 visicing 

8 going 

9 to be 

10 waicing 

11 co do 

12 to speak 

13 to go 

14 crying / co cry 

15 co work ... calking 

52.2 

2 co help 

3 co see 

4 reading 

5 to lose 

6 to send 

7 raining 

8 co go 

9 wacching / co watch 
10 co waic 


52.3 

2 going to museums 

3 co go 

4 driving/to drive 

5 co go (there) 

6 travelling by train 

7 walking 

52.4 

Example answers: 

1 I enjoy cooking. 

2 I don't like studying. 

3 If it's a nice day tomorrow, I'd 
like to go to the beach. 

4 When I'm on holiday, I like to 
do very little. 

5 I don't mind travelling alone, 
but 1 prefer co travel with 
somebody. 

6 I wouldn't like to live in a big 
city. 

UNIT 53 

53.1 

2 I want you co listen carefully. 

3 I don't want you to be angry. 

4 Do you want me to wait for 
you? 

5 I don't want you to call me 
tonight. 

6 I want you to meet Sarah. 

53.2 

2 A woman told me to turn left 
after the bridge. 

3 I advised him co go co the 
doctor. 

4 She asked me co help her. / 

... asked me if I could help her. 

5 I told him co come back in 
ten minutes. 

6 Paul let me use his phone. 

7 I told her not to phone 
before 8 o'clock. /... not to 
call (me) before 8 o'clock. 

8 Amy's mother caught her to 
play the piano. 

53.3 

2 to repeat 

3 wait 

4 to arrive 

5 to get 

6 go 

7 borrow 

8 to tell 

9 to make (or to get) 

10 think 


UNIT 54 

54.1 

2-4 

I went to a coffee shop to meet 
a friend. 

I went to the chemist to get 
some medicine. 

1 went to the market to buy 

some vegetables. 

54.2 

2 to read the newspaper 

3 to open this door 

4 to get some fresh air 

5 to wake him up 

6 to see who it was 

54.3 

Example answers: 

2 to talk to you now 

3 to tell her about the party 

4 to do some shopping 

5 to buy a motorbike 

54.4 

2 to 7 to 

3 to 8 to 

4 for 9 for 

5 to 10 for 

6 for 11 to 

54.5 

2 for the film to begin 

3 for it to arrive 

4 for you to tell me 

UNIT 55 

55.1 

3 to 

4 - (no preposition) 

5 for 

6 to 

7 on ... to 

8 for 

9 on 

10 to 

11 - (no preposition) 

12 on 

13 for 

14 on 

55.2 

2 went fishing 

3 goes swimming 

4 going skiing 

5 go shopping 

6 went jogging 


295 




Key to Exercises 


55.3 

2 to university 

3 shopping 

4 to sleep 

5 home 

6 skiing 

7 riding 

8 for a walk 

9 on holiday ... to Portugal 

UNIT 56 

56.1 

2 get your boots 

3 get a doctor 

4 get a taxi 

5 gets the job 

6 get some milk 

7 get a ticket 

8 gets a good salary 

9 get a lot of rain 
10 get a new laptop 

56.2 

2 getting dark 

3 getting married 

4 getting ready 

5 getting late 

56.3 

2 get wet 5 got lost 

3 got married 6 get old 

4 gets angry 7 got better 

56.4 

2 got to Bristol at 11.45. 

3 I left the party at 11.15 and 
got home at midnight. 

4 (Example answer) I left 
home at 8.30 and got to the 
airport at 10 o'clock. 


56.5 



2 

go: off 

4 

got on 

3 

got out of 



UNIT 57 



57.1 



2 

do 

7 

done 

3 

make 

8 

make 

4 

made 

9 

making 

5 

did 

10 

do 

6 

do 

11 

doing 

57.2 



2 

They're/They 

are 

doing 


(their) homework. 

3 He's/He is doing the 
shopping, or He is shopping. 

4 She's/She is making a jacket. 


5 They're/They are doing 
an exam. (or... taking an 
exam.) 

6 He's/He is making the/his 
bed. 

7 She's/She is doing the 
washing-up. or She is 
washing up. / She is doing the 
dishes. / She is washing the 
dishes. 

8 He's/He is making a 
(shopping) list. 

9 They're/They are making a 
film. 

10 He's/He is taking a picture/ 
photo/photograph. 

57.3 


make 

8 

make 

do 

9 

do 

done 

10 

making 

made 

11 

made 

doing 

did 

12 

make ... do 


UNIT 58 

58.1 

3 He doesn't have / He hasn't 
got 

4 Gary had 

5 Do you have / Have you got 

6 we didn't have 

7 She doesn't have / She hasn't 
got 

8 Did you have 

58.2 

2 She's/She is having a cup of 
tea. 

3 He's/He is having a rest. 

4 They're/They are having a 
good time. 

5 They're/They are having 
dinner. 

6 He's/He is having a bath. 

58.3 

3 Have a nice/good trip! 

4 Did you have a nice/good 
weekend? 

5 Did you have a nice/good 
game (of tennis)? 

6 Have a nice/good time! or 
Have a nice/good evening! 
or Have fun! 

7 Did you have a nice/good 
holiday? 


58.4 

2 have something to eat 

3 had a glass of water 

4 have a walk 

5 had an accident 

6 have a look 

UNIT 59 

59.1 

2 him 5 

3 them 6 

4 her 7 

59.2 

2 I ... them 6 

3 he ... her 7 

4 they ... us 8 

5 we ... him 

59.3 

2 I like him. 

3 I don't like it. 

4 Do you like it? 

5 I don't like her. 

6 Do you like them? 

59.4 

2 him 8 them 

3 them 9 me 

4 they 10 her 

5 us 11 them 

6 it 12 he ... it 

7 She 

59.5 

2 Can you give it to him? 

3 Can you give them to her? 

4 Can you give it to me? 

5 Can you give it to them? 

6 Can you give them to us? 

UNIT 60 
60.1 

2 her hands 5 their hands 

3 our hands 6 your hands 

4 his hands 

60.2 

2 They live with their parents. 

3 We live with our parents. 

4 Martina lives with her 
parents. 

5 I live with my parents. 

6 John lives with his parents. 

7 Do you live with your 
parents? 

8 Most children live with their 
parents. 


him 

them 

her 

she... them 
they... me 
she... you 


296 




Key to Exercises 


60.3 


2 their 

6 

their 

3 his 

7 

her 

4 his 

5 her 

8 

their 

60.4 

2 his 

8 

her 

3 Their 

9 

their 

4 our 

10 

my 

5 her 

11 

Its 

6 my 

12 

His... his 


7 your 

60.5 

2 my key 

3 Her husband 

4 your coat 

5 their homework 

6 his name 

7 Our house 

UNIT 61 
61.1 

2 mine 6 yours 

3 ours 7 mine 

4 hers 8 his 

5 theirs 

61.2 

2 yours 

3 my ...Mine 

4 Yours... mine 

5 her 

6 My... hers 

7 their 

8 Ours 

61.3 

3 of hers 

4 friends of ours 

5 friend of mine 

6 friend of his 

7 friends of yours 

61.4 

2 Whose camera is this? 

It's hers. 

3 Whose gloves are these? 
They're mine. 

4 Whose hat is this? It's his. 

5 Whose money is this? 

It's yours. 

6 Whose bags are these? 
They're ours. 


UNIT 62 

62.1 

2 Yes, I know her, but I can't 
remember her name. 

3 Yes, I know them, but I can't 
remember their names. 

4 Yes, I know you, but I can't 
remember your name. 

62.2 

2 He invited us to stay with 
him at his house. 

3 They invited me to stay with 

them at their house. 

4 I invited them to stay with 
me at my house. 

5 She invited us to stay with 
her at her house. 

6 Did you invite him to stay 
with you at your house? 

62.3 

2 I gave her my phone number, 
and she gave me hers. 

3 He gave me his phone 
number, and I gave him mine. 

4 We gave them our phone 
number, and they gave us 
theirs. 

5 She gave him her phone 
number, and he gave her his. 

6 You gave us your phone 
number, and we gave you 

ours. 

7 They gave you their phone 
number, and you gave them 
yours. 

62.4 


2 them 

6 

us 

3 him 

7 

her 

4 our 

8 

their 

5 yours 

9 

mine 

UNIT 63 



63.1 



2 myself 

6 

himself 

3 herself 

7 

yourself 

4 themselves 

8 

yourselves 

5 myself 




63.2 

2 When I saw him, he was by 

himself. 

3 Don’t go out by yourself. 

4 I went to the cinema by 
myself. 


5 My sister lives by herself 

6 Many people live by 
themselves 

63.3 

2 They can't see each other. 

3 They call each other a lot. 

4 They don't know each other. 

5 They're/They are sitting next 
to each other. 

6 They gave each other 
presents / a present. 

63.4 

3 each other 

4 yourselves 

5 us 

6 ourselves 

7 each other 

8 each other 

9 them 

10 themselves 

UNIT 64 

64.1 

3 Helen is Brian's wife. 

4 James is Sarah's brother. 

5 James is Daniel's uncle. 

6 Sarah is Paul’s wife. 

7 Helen is Daniel's 
grandmother. 

8 Sarah is James's sister. 

9 Paul is Sarah’s husband. 

10 Paul is Daniel's father. 

11 Daniel is James's nephew. 

64.2 

2 Andy's 5 Rachel’s 

3 Dave's 6 Alice's 

4 Jane's 

64.3 

3 OK 

4 Simon's phone number 

5 My brother's job 

6 OK 

7 OK 

8 Paula's favourite colour 

9 your mother's birthday 

10 My parents'house 

11 OK 

12 OK 

13 Silvia's party 

14 OK 


297 







Key to Exercises 


6 ... three children. 

7 Most of my friends are 
students. 

8 He put on his pyjamas ... 

9 OK 

10 Do you know many people 


UNIT 65 

65.1 

2 a 6 an 

3 a 7 a 

4 an 8 an 

5 a 9 an 

65.2 

2 a vegetable 

3 a game 

4 a tool 

5 a mountain 

6 a planet 

7 a fruit 

8 a river 

9 a flower 

10 a musical instrument 

65.3 

2 He's a shop assistant. 

3 She's an architect. 

4 He's a taxi driver. 

5 He's an electrician. 

6 She's a photographer. 

7 She's a nurse. 

8 I'm a/an... 

65.4 

2-8 

Tom never wears a hat. 

I can't ride a bike. 

My brother is an artist. 
Rebecca works in a bookshop. 
Jane wants to learn a foreign 
language. 

Mike lives in an old house. 
This evening I'm going to a 


party. 



UNIT 66 



66.1 

2 boats 

8 

sandwiches 

3 women 

9 

families 

4 cities 

10 

feet 

5 umbrellas 

11 

holidays 

6 addresses 

7 knives 

12 

potatoes 

66.2 

2 teeth 

5 

fish 

3 people 

4 children 

6 

leaves 

66.3 




3 ... with a lot of beautiful 

trees. 

4 ... with two men. 

5 OK 


11 1 like your trousers. Where 
did you get them? 

12 ... full of tourists. 

13 OK 

14 These scissors aren't... 


66.4 

2 are 

7 

Do 

3 don't 

8 

are 

4 watch 

9 

them 

5 were 

6 live 

10 

some 

UNIT 67 



67.1 




3 a jug 

4 water 

5 toothpaste 

6 a toothbrush 

7 an egg 

8 money 

9 a wallet 

10 sand 

11 a bucket 

12 an envelope 

67.2 

3 ...a hat. 

4 ...ajob? 

5 OK 

6 ... an apple ... 

7 ...a party... 

8 ... a wonderful thing. 

9 ...an island. 

10 ...a key. 

11 OK 

12 ... a good idea. 

13 ...acar? 

14 ... a cup of coffee? 

15 OK 

16 ... an umbrella. 

67.3 

2 a piece of wood 

3 a glass of water 

4 a bar of chocolate 

5 a cup of tea 

6 a piece of paper 

7 a bowl of soup 

8 a loaf of bread 

9 a jar of honey 


UNIT 68 

68.1 

2 a newspaper (or a paper), 
some flowers (or a bunch of 
flowers) and a pen 

3 some bananas, some eggs 
and some bread (or a loaf of 
bread) 

4 some toothpaste, some soap 
(or a bar of soap) and a comb 

68.2 

2 Would you like some coffee? 
(or ... a cup of coffee?) 

3 Would you like a biscuit? 

4 Would you like some bread? 
(or ... a piece of bread? / a 
slice of bread?) 

5 Would you like a chocolate? 

6 Would you like some cake? 
(or ... a piece of cake?) 

68.3 

2 some... some 

3 some 

4 a ... some 

5 an ... some 

6 a ... a ... some 

7 some 

8 some 

9 some ... a 

68.4 

2 eyes 

3 hair 

4 information 

5 chairs 

6 furniture 

7 job 

8 wonderful weather 

UNIT 69 

69.1 

3 a 

4 the 

5 an 

6 the ... the 

7 a ... a 

8 a ... a 

9 ... a student... a journalist 
... an apartment near the 
college ... The apartment is... 

10 ... two children, a boy and 
a girl. The boy is seven years 
old, and the girl is three ... in 
a factory ... doesn't have a 
job... 


298 






Key to Exercises 


69.2 

2 the airport 

3 a cup 

4 a nice picture 

5 the dictionary 

6 the floor 

69.3 

2 ... send me a postcard. 

3 What is the name of... 

4 ... a very big country. 

5 What is the largest... 

6 ... the colour of the carpet. 

7 ... a headache. 

8 ... an old house near the 
station. 

9 ... the name of the director 
of the film ... 

UNIT 70 

70.1 

3 ... the second floor. 

4 ...the moon? 

5 ... the best hotel in this 
town? 

6 OK 

7 ... the city centre? 

8 ... the end of May. 

9 OK 

10 ... the first time I met her. 

11 OK 

12 It's easy to get information 
from the internet. 

13 OK 

14 ... on the top shelf on the 
right. 

15 ... in the country about ten 
miles from the nearest town. 

70.2 

2 the same time 

3 the same age 

4 the same colour 

5 the same problem 

70.3 

2 the guitar 

3 breakfast 

4 television/TV 

5 the sea 

6 the bottom 

70.4 

2 the name 

3 The sky 

4 TV 


5 the police 

6 the capital 

7 lunch 

8 the middle 

UNIT 71 

71.1 

2 the cinema 

3 hospital 

4 the airport 

5 home 

6 prison 

71.2 

3 school 

4 the station 

5 home 

6 bed 

7 the post office 

71.3 

2 the cinema 

3 go to bed 

4 go to prison 

5 go to the dentist 

6 go to university/college 

7 go to hospital / are taken to 
hospital 

(American speakers say go to 
the hospital', 'are taken to the 
hospital’.) 

71.4 

3 the doctor 

4 OK 

5 OK 

6 OK 

7 the bank 

8 OK 

9 OK 

10 the city centre 

11 the station 

12 OK 

(American speakers say 'in 
the hospital'.) 

13 OK 

14 OK 

15 the theatre 

UNIT 72 
72.1 

2-8 Example answers: 

I don’t like dogs. 

I hate museums. 

I love big cities. 

Tennis is all right. 

I love chocolate. 


I don't like computer games. 

1 hate parties. 

72.2 

Example answers: 

2 I'm not interested in politics. 

3 I'm interested in sport. 

4 I don't know much about art. 

5 I don't know anything about 
astronomy. 

6 I know a little about 
economics. 

72.3 

3 friends 

4 parties 

5 The shops 

6 the milk 

7 milk 

8 basketball 

9 buildings 

10 The water 

11 cold water 

12 the salt 

13 the people 

14 Vegetables 

15 The houses 

16 the words 

17 pictures 

18 the pictures 

19 English... international 
business 

20 Money... happiness 

UNIT 73 
73.1 

3 Sweden 

4 The Amazon 

5 Asia 

6 The Pacific 

7 The Rhine 

8 Kenya 

9 The United States 

10 The Andes 

11 Bangkok 

12 The Alps 

13 The Red Sea 

14 Jamaica 

15 The Bahamas 


299 





Key to Exercises 


73.2 

3 OK 

4 the Philippines 

5 the south of France 

6 the Regal Cinema 

7 OK 

8 the Museum of Art 

9 OK 

10 Belgium is smaller than the 
Netherlands. 

11 the Mississippi... the Nile 

12 the National Gallery 

13 the Park Hotel in Hudson 
Road 

14 OK 

15 The Rocky Mountains are in 
North America. 

16 OK 

17 the United States 

18 the west of Ireland 

19 OK 

20 The Panama Canal joins 
the Atlantic Ocean and the 
Pacific Ocean. 

UNIT 74 

74.1 

2 that house 

3 these postcards 

4 those birds 

5 this seat 

6 These plates 

74.2 

2 Is that your umbrella? 

3 Is this your book? 

4 Are those your books? 

5 Is that your bicycle/bike? 

6 Are these your keys? 

7 Are those your keys? 

8 Is this your watch? 

9 Are those your glasses? 

10 Are these your gloves? 

74.3 


thac's 

6 

chis is 

This is 

7 

Thac's 

Thac's 

8 

chac's 

chat 




UNIT 75 
75.1 

2 I don't need one 

3 I'm going to get one 

4 I don't have one /1 haven't 
got one 


5 I've just had one 

6 there's one in Mill Road 

75.2 

2 a new one 

3 a better one 

4 an old one 

5 a big one 

6 a different one 

75.3 

2 Which ones? 

The green ones. 

3 Which one? 

The one with a/the red door. 

4 Which ones? 

The ones on the top shelf. 

5 Which one? 

The black one. 

6 Which one? 

TTe one on the wall. 

7 Which one? 

The tall one with long hair. 

8 Which ones? 

The yellow ones. 

9 Which one? 

The one with a/the 
moustache and glasses. 

10 Which ones? 

The ones I took at the party 
last week. 

UNIT 76 

76.1 

2 some 8 

3 any 9 

4 any 10 

5 any 11 

6 some 12 

7 any 

76.2 

2 some questions 

3 any pictures 

4 any foreign languages 

5 some friends 

6 some milk 

7 any batteries 

8 some fresh air 

9 some cheese 
10 any help 

76.3 

3 I have some / I've got some 

4 I don't have any /1 haven't 
got any /1 haven't any 

5 I didn't buy any 

6 I bought some 

7 I didn't drink any 


76.4 

2 something 

3 anything 

4 anything 

5 Somebody/Someone 

6 anything 

7 anybody/anyone 

8 something 

9 anything 

10 anybody/anyone 

UNIT 77 

77.1 

2 There are no shops near here. 

3 Carla has no free time. / Carla 
has got no free time. 

4 There's no light in this room. 

6 There isn't any milk in the 
fridge. 

7 There aren't any buses today. 

8 Tom doesn't have any 
brothers or sisters. / Tom 
hasn't got any brothers or 
sisters. 

77.2 

2 any 8 

3 any 9 

4 no 10 

5 any 11 

6 no 12 

7 any 

77.3 

2 no money 

3 any questions 

4 no friends 

5 no difference 

6 any furniture 

7 no idea 

8 any heating 

9 no queue 

77.4 

Example answers: 

2 Three. 4 

3 Two cups. 5 

UNIT 78 
78.1 

2 There's nobody in the office. 

3 I have nothing to do. / I've 
got nothing to do. 

4 There's nothing on TV. 

5 There was no-one at home. 

6 We found nothing. 


some 
some 
any... any 
some... any 
some 


no 

any 

no 

None 

any 


None. 

None. 


300 







Key to Exercises 


78.2 

2 There wasn't anybody on the 
bus. 

3 I don't have anything to read. / 

I haven't got anything to read. 

4 I don’t have anyone to help 
me. /1 haven’t got anyone to 
help me. 

5 She didn't hear anything. 

6 We don't have anything for 
dinner. / We haven't got 
anything for dinner. 

78.3 

3 a Nothing. 

4 a Nobody./No-one. 

5 a Nobody./No-one. 

6 a Nothing. 

7 a Nothing. 

8 a Nobody./No-one. 

3 b I don’t want anything. 

4 b I didn't meet anybody/ 
anyone. 

5 b Nobody/No-one knows 
the answer. 

6 b I didn’t buy anything. 

7 b Nothing happened. 

8 b Nobody/No-one was late. 

78.4 

3 anything 

4 Nobody/No-one 

5 Nothing 

6 anything 

7 anybody/anyone 

8 nothing 

9 anything 

10 anything 

11 nobody/no-one 

12 anything 

13 Nothing 

14 Nobody/No-one... 
anybody/anyone 

UNIT 79 

79.1 

2 something 

3 somewhere 

4 somebody/someone 

79.2 

2a Nowhere. 

3a Nothing. 

4a Nobody./No-one. 

2b I'm not going anywhere. 

3b I don't want anything. 

4b I'm not looking for anybody/ 
anyone. 


79.3 

3 anything 

4 anything 

5 somebody/someone 

6 something 

7 anybody/anyone... nobody/ 
no-one 

8 anything 

9 Nobody/No-one 

10 anybody/anyone 

11 Nothing 

12 anywhere 

13 somewhere 

14 anything 

15 anybody/anyone 

79.4 

2 anything to eat 

3 nothing to do 

4 anywhere to sit 

5 something to drink 

6 nowhere to park 

7 something to read 

8 somewhere to stay 

UNIT 80 
80.1 

2 Everyday 

3 every time 

80.2 

2 everyday 

3 all day 

4 everyday 

5 all day 

6 all day 

7 everyday 

80.3 

2 every 

3 all 

4 all 

5 Every 

80.4 

2 everything 

3 Everybody/Everyone 

4 everything 

5 everywhere 

6 Everybody/Everyone 

7 everywhere 

8 Everything 

80.5 

2 is 7 makes 

3 has 8 Is... Does 

4 likes 

5 has 

6 was 


4 Every room 

5 every word 


6 all 

7 every 

8 all 

9 every 


UNIT 81 


81.1 

3 Some 

4 Most of 

5 Most 

6 any of 

7 all or all of 

8 None of 

9 any of 

10 Most 

11 most of 

12 Some 

13 All or All of 

14 some of 

15 most of 

81.2 

2 All of them. 

3 Some of them. 

4 None of them. 

5 Most of them. 

6 None of it. 

81.3 

3 Some people... 

4 Some of the questions... 
or Some questions... 

5 OK 

6 All insects... 

7 OK (or ... all of these books) 

8 Most of the students... 
or Most students... 

9 OK 

10 ... most of the night. 


UNIT 82 


82.1 

3 Both 

4 Neither 

5 Neither 

6 both 

7 Either 

8 neither of 


9 Neither 

10 either of 

11 Both 

12 neither of 

13 Both 

14 either of 


82.2 

2 Both windows are open. 

3 Neither man is wearing a 
hat. or Neither of them is 
wearing... 

4 Both men have (got) beards, 
or Both of them have ... 

5 Both buses go to the airport, 
or ... are going to the 
airport. 

6 Neither answer is correct. 


301 





Key to Exercises 
82.3 

3 Both of them are students. 

4 Neither of them has a car. / 

... has got a car. 

5 Both of them live in London. 

6 Both of them like cooking. 

7 Neither of them can play the 
piano. 

8 Both of them eat seafood. 

9 Neither of them is interested 
in sport. 

UNIT 83 

83.1 

2 many 

3 much 

4 many 

5 many 

6 much 

7 much 

83.2 

2 much 

3 many 

4 many 

5 much 

6 many 

83.3 

2 a lot of interesting things 

3 a lot of accidents 

4 a lot of fun 

5 a lot of traffic 

83.4 

3 a lot of snow 

4 OK 

5 a lot of money 

6 OK 

7 OK 

8 a lot 

83.5 

3 She plays tennis a lot. 

4 He doesn't use his car much. 
(or ... a lot.) 

5 He doesn't go out much, (or 
... a lot.) 

6 She travels a lot. 

UNIT 84 

84.1 

2 a few 5 a little 

3 a little 6 a few 

4 a few 

84.2 

2 a little milk 

3 A few days 


8 many 

9 How many 

10 How much 

11 How much 

12 How many 


me 

mntries 

?ople 

ggage 

nes 


4 a little Russian 

5 a few friends 

6 a few times 

7 a few chairs 

8 a little fresh air 

84.3 

2 very little coffee 

3 very little rain 

4 very few hotels 

5 very little time 

6 Very few people 

7 very little work 

84.4 

2 A few 5 few 

3 a little 6 a little 

4 little 7 little 

84.5 

2 ... a little luck 

3 ... a few things 

4 OK 

5 ... a few questions 

6 ...few people 

7 OK 

UNIT 85 

85.1 

2 I like that green jacket. 

3 Do you like classical music? 

4 I had a wonderful holiday. 

5 We went to a Japanese 
restaurant. 

85.2 

2 black clouds 

3 long holiday 

4 hot water 

5 fresh air 

6 sharp knife 

7 dangerous job 

85.3 

2 It looks new. 

3 I feel ill. 

4 You look surprised. 

5 They smell nice. 

6 It tastes horrible. 

85.4 

2 It doesn't look new. 

3 You don't sound American. 

4 I don't feel cold. 

5 They don't look heavy. 

6 Maybe, but it doesn't taste 
good. 


UNIT 86 
86.1 

2 badly 

3 quietly 

4 angrily 

5 fast 

6 dangerously 

86.2 

2 work hard 

3 sleep well 

4 win easily 

5 Think carefully 

6 know her very well 

7 explain things very clearly/well 

8 Come quickly 

86.3 

2 angry 

3 slowly 

4 slow 

5 careful 

6 hard 

7 suddenly 

8 quiet 

9 badly 

10 nice (See Unit8SC) 

11 quickly 

86.4 

2 well 

3 good 

4 well 

5 well 

6 good... good 

UNIT 87 

87.1 

2 bigger 

3 slower 

4 more expensive 

5 higher 

6 more dangerous 

87.2 

2 stronger 

3 happier 

4 more modern 

5 more important 

6 better 

7 larger 

8 more serious 

9 prettier 

10 more crowded 

87.3 

2 hotter/warmer 

3 more expensive 


302 




4 worse 

5 further 

6 more difficult or harder 

87.4 

3 taller 

4 harder 

5 more comfortable 

6 better 

7 nicer 

8 heavier 

9 more interested 

10 warmer 

11 better 

12 bigger 

13 more beautiful 

14 sharper 

15 more polite 

16 worse 

UNIT 88 

88.1 

3 Kate is taller than Ben. 

4 Kate starts work earlier than 
Ben. 

5 Ben works harder than Kate. 

6 Ben has more money than 
Kate. / Ben has got more 
money... 

7 Kate is a better driver than 
Ben. 

8 Ben is more patient than Kate. 

9 Ben is a better dancer than 
Kate. / Ben dances better 
than Kate. 

10 Kate is more intelligent than 
Ben. 

11 Kate speaks French better 
than Ben. / Kate speaks better 
French than Ben. / Kate's 
French is better than Ben's. 

12 Ben goes to the cinema more 
than Kate. /... more often 
than Kate. 

88.2 

2 You're older than her. /... 
than she is. 

3 You work harder than me. / 

... than I do. 

4 You watch TV more than 
him. /... than he does. 

5 You're a better cook than me. / 
... than I am. or You cook 
better than me. I... than I do. 

6 You know more people than 
us. I... than we do. 


7 You have more money than 
them. /... than they have. 

8 You can run faster than me. / 
... than I can. 

9 You've been here longer than 
her. /... than she has. 

10 You got up earlier than them. / 
... than they did. 

11 You were more surprised 
than him. /... than he was. 

88.3 

2 Jack's mother is much 
younger than his father. 

3 My camera cost a bit more 
than yours. /... than your 
camera, or My camera was 
a bit more expensive than ... 

4 I feel much better today 
than yesterday. /... than I 
did yesterday. /... than I felt 
yesterday. 

5 It's a bit warmer today than 
yesterday. / ... than it was 
yesterday. 

6 Sarah is a much better tennis 
player than me. /... than I am. 
or Sarah is much better at 
tennis than me. /... than I am. 
or Sarah plays tennis much 
better than me. /... than I do. 

UNIT 89 

89.1 

2 A is longer than B, but not as 
long as C. 

3 C is heavier than A, but not 
as heavy as B. 

4 A is older than C, but not as 
old as B. 

5 B has got more money than 
C, but not as much as A. or 
... but less (money) than A. 

6 C works harder than A, but 
not as hard as B. 

89.2 

2 Your room isn't as big as 
mine. /... as my room. 

3 I didn't get up as early as you. / 
... as you did. 

4 They didn't play as well as us. / 
... as we did. 

5 You haven’t been here as long 
as me. /... as I have. 

6 He isn't as nervous as her. /... 
as she is. 


Key to Exercises 

89.3 

2 as 

3 than 

4 than 

5 as 

89.4 

2 Julia lives in the same street as 
Laura. 

3 Julia got up at the same time 
as Andy. 

4 Andy's car is the same colour 
as Laura's. 

UNIT 90 

90.1 

2 C is longer than A. 

D is the longest. 

B is the shortest. 

3 D is younger than C. 

B is the youngest. 

C is the oldest. 

4 D is more expensive than A. 

C is the most expensive. 

A is the cheapest. 

5 A is better than C. 

A is the best. 

D is the worst. 

90.2 

2 the happiest day 

3 the best film 

4 the most popular singer 

5 the worst mistake 

6 the prettiest village 

7 the coldest day 

8 the most boring person 

90.3 

2 Everest is the highest 
mountain in the world. 

3-6 

Brazil is the largest country in 
South America. 

Alaska is the largest state in the 
USA. 

The Nile is the longest river in 
Africa. /... in the world. 

Jupiter is the largest planet in the 
solar system. 

UNIT 91 

91.1 

2 enough chairs 

3 enough paint 

4 enough wind 


6 than 

7 as 

8 than 


303 






Key to Exercises 


91.2 

2 The car isn't big enough. 

3 His legs aren't long enough. 

4 He isn't strong enough. 

91.3 

3 old enough 

4 enough time 

5 big enough 

6 eat enough 

7 enough space 

8 tired enough 

9 practise enough 

91.4 

2 sharp enough to cut 

3 warm enough to go 

4 enough bread to make 

5 well enough to win 

6 enough time to read 

UNIT 92 

92.1 

2 too heavy 

3 too low 

4 too fast 

5 too big 

6 too crowded 

92.2 

3 enough 

4 too many 

5 too 

6 enough 

7 too much 

92.3 

3 It's too far. 

4 It's too expensive. 

5 It isn't/lt's not big enough. 

6 It was too difficult. 

7 It isn't good enough. 

8 I'm too busy. 

9 It was too long. 

92.4 

2 too early to go to bed 

3 too young to get married 

4 too dangerous to go out at 
night 

5 too late to phone Sue (now) 

6 too surprised to say anything 

UNIT 93 
93.1 

3 I like this picture very much. 

4 Tom started his new job last 
week. 


5 OK 

6 Jessica bought a present for 
her friend, or Jessica bought 
her friend a present. 

7 I drink three cups of coffee 
every day. 

8 OK 

9 I borrowed fifty pounds from 
my brother. 

93.2 

2 I got a new phone last week. 

3 Paul finished his work quickly. 

4 Emily doesn't speak French 
very well. 

5 I did a lot of shopping 
yesterday. 

6 Do you know London well? 

7 We enjoyed the party very 
much. 

8 I explained the problem 
carefully. 

9 We met some friends at the 
airport. 

10 Did you buy that jacket in 
England? 

11 We do the same thing every 
day. 

12 I don't like football very 
much. 

93.3 

2 I arrived at the hotel early. 

3 Julia goes to Italy every year. 

4 We have lived here since 1998. 

5 Sue was born in London in 
1990. 

6 Paul didn't go to work 
yesterday. 

7 Helen went to a wedding last 
weekend. 

8 I had my breakfast in bed this 
morning. 

9 Amy is going to university in 
September. 

10 I saw a beautiful bird in the 
garden this morning. 

11 My parents have been to the 
United States many times. 

12 I left my umbrella in the 
restaurant last night. 

13 Are you going to the cinema 
tomorrow evening? 

14 I took the children to school 
this morning. 


8 enough 

9 too 

10 too many 

11 too much 


UNIT 94 

94.1 

2 He always gets up early. 

3 He's/He is never late for 
work. 

4 He sometimes gets angry. 

5 He rarely goes swimming. 

6 He's/He is usually at home in 
the evenings. 

94.2 

2 Susan is always polite. 

3 I usually finish work at 5 
o'clock. 

4 Sarah has just started a new 
job. 

5 I rarely go to bed before 
midnight. 

6 The bus isn't usually late. 

7 I don't often eat fish. 

8 I will never forget what you 
said. 

9 Have you ever lost your 
passport? 

10 Do you still work in the same 
place? 

11 They always stay in the same 
hotel. 

12 Jane doesn't usually work on 
Saturdays. 

13 Is Tina already here? 

14 What do you usually have for 
breakfast? 

15 I can never remember his 
name. 

94.3 

2 Yes, and I also speak French. 

3 Yes, and I'm also hungry. 

4 Yes, and I've also been to 
Ireland. 

5 Yes, and I also bought some 
books. 

94.4 

1 They both play football. 
They're/They are both 
students. 

They've both got cars. / They 
both have cars. 

2 They're/They are all married. 
They were all born in England. 
They all live in New York. 


304 




Key to Exercises 


UNIT 95 

95.1 

2 Do you still live in Clare 
Street? 

3 Are you still a student? 

4 Have you still got a 
motorbike? / Do you still have 
a motorbike? 

5 Do you still go to the cinema 
a lot? 

6 Do you still want to be a 
teacher? 

95.2 

2 He was looking for a job. 
He's/He is still looking (for a 
job). 

He hasn't found a job yet. 

3 She was asleep. 

She's/She is still asleep. 

She hasn't woken up yet. / 

She isn't awake yet. or She 
hasn't got up yet. / She isn't 
up yet. 

4 They were having dinner. / 
They were eating. 
They're/They are still having 
dinner. /... still eating. 

They haven't finished (dinner) 
yet. / They haven't finished 
eating yet. 

95.3 

2 Is Helen here yet? or Has 
Helen arrived/come yet? 

3 Have you got your (exam) 
results yet? / Have you had 
your... / Have you received 
your... 

4 Have you decided where to 
go yet? / Do you know where 
you're going yet? 

95.4 

3 She's/She has already gone/ 
left. 

4 I've already got one. /1 already 
have one. 

5 IVe/l have already paid (it). 

6 he already knows. 

UNIT 96 

96.1 

2 He gave it to Gary. 

3 He gave them to Sarah. 

4 He gave it to his sister. 


5 He gave them to Robert. 

6 He gave it to a neighbour. 

96.2 

2 I gave Joanna a plant. 

3 I gave Richard a tie. 

4 I gave Emma some chocolates / 
a box of chocolates. 

5 I gave Rachel some flowers / 
a bunch of flowers. 

6 I gave Kevin a wallet. 

96.3 

2 Can you lend me an umbrella? 

3 Can you give me your address? 

4 Can you lend me twenty 
pounds? 

5 Can you send me more 
information? 

6 Can you show me the letter? 

96.4 

2 lend you some money 

3 send the bill to me 

4 buy you a present 

5 pass me the sugar 

6 give it to her 

7 showed the policeman my 
identity card 

UNIT 97 

97.1 

3 I went to the window and (I) 
looked out. 

4 I wanted to phone you, but I 
didn't have your number. 

5 I jumped into the river and (!) 
swam to the other side. 

6 I usually drive to work, but I 
went by bus this morning. 

7 Do you want me to come 
with you, or shall I wait here? 

97.2 

Example answers: 

2 because it was raining. / 
because the weather was bad. 

3 but it was closed. 

4 so he didn't eat anything. / so 
he didn't want anything to 
eat. 

5 because there was a lot of 
traffic. / because the traffic 
was bad. 

6 Sue said goodbye, got into 
her car and drove off/away. 


97.3 

Example answers: 

3 I went to the cinema, but the 
film wasn't very good. 

4 I went to a cafe and met 
some friends of mine. 

5 There was a film on television, 
so I watched it. 

6 I got up in the middle of the 
night because I couldn't 
sleep. 

UNIT 98 

98.1 

2 When I'm tired, I like to watch 
TV. 

3 When I knocked on the door, 
there was no answer. 

4 When I go on holiday, I 
always go to the same place. 

5 When the programme ended, 
I turned off the TV. 

6 When I got to the hotel, there 
were no rooms. 

98.2 

2 when they heard the news 

3 they went to live in New 
Zealand 

4 while they were away 

5 before they came here 

6 somebody broke into the 
house 

7 they didn't believe me 

98.3 

2 I finish 

3 it's 

4 I'll be ... she leaves 

5 stops 

6 We'll come ... we're 

7 I'll bring 

8 I'm 

9 it gets 

10 I'll tell ...I'm 

98.4 

Example answers: 

2 you finish your work 

3 I'm going to buy a motorbike 

4 you get ready 

5 I won't have much free time 

6 I come back 


305 





Key to Exercises 


UNIT 99 

99.1 

2 If you pass the exam, you'll 
get a certificate. 

3 If you fail the exam, you can 
do it again. 

4 If you don't want this 
magazine. I'll throw it away. 

5 If you want those pictures, 
you can have them. 

6 If you're busy now, we can 
talk later. 

7 If you're hungry, we can have 
lunch now. 

8 If you need money, I can lend 
you some. 

99.2 

2 I give 

3 is 

4 I'll call 

5 I'll be... get 

6 Will you go ... they invite 

99.3 

Example answers: 

3 ... you're busy. 

4 ... you'll feel better in the 
morning. 

5 ... you're not watching it. 

6 ... she doesn't study. 

7 ... I'll go and see Chris. 

8 ... the weather is good. 

9 ... it rains today. 

99.4 

2 When 

3 If 

4 If 

5 if 

6 When 

7 if 

8 when ... if 

UNIT 100 

100.1 

3 wanted 

4 had 

5 were/was 

6 didn't enjoy 

7 could 

8 tried 

9 didn't have 

100.2 

3 I'd go /1 would go 

4 she knew 

5 we had 


6 you won 

7 I wouldn't stay 

8 we lived 

9 It would be 

10 the salary was/were 

11 I wouldn't know 

12 would you change 

100.3 

2 I'd watch it /1 would watch it 

3 we had some pictures on the 
wall 

4 the air would be cleaner 

5 every day was/were the same 

6 I'd be bored /1 would be 
bored 

7 we had a bigger house / we 
bought a bigger house 

8 we would/couid buy a bigger 
house or 

we would/could have a 
bigger house 

100.4 

Example answers: 

2 I'd go to Antarctica 

3 I didn't have any friends 

4 Id buy a house if I had 
enough money. 

5 Id try and help 

6 there were no guns 

UNIT 101 

101.1 

2 A butcher is a person who 
sells meat. 

3 A musician is a person who 
plays a musical instrument. 

4 A patient is a person who is ill 
in hospital. 

5 A dentist is a person who 
takes care of your teeth. 

6 A fool is a person who does 
stupid things. 

7 A genius is a person who is 
very intelligent. 

8 A liar is a person who doesn't 
tell the truth. 

101.2 

2 The woman who opened the 
door was wearing a yellow 
dress. 

3 Most of the students who 
took the exam passed (it). 

4 The policeman who stopped 
our car wasn't very friendly. 


101.3 

2 who 

3 which 

4 which 

5 who 

6 which 

7 who 

8 who 

9 which 

that is also correct in all these 
sentences. 

101.4 

3 .. . a machine that/which 
makes coffee. 

4 OK (which is also correct) 

5 ... people who/that never 
stop talking. 

6 OK (who is also correct) 

7 OK (that is also correct) 

8 ... the sentences that/which 
are wrong. 

9 ... a car that/which cost 
£40,000. 

UNIT 102 

102.1 

2 I've lost the pen you gave me. 

3 I like the jacket Sue is wearing. 

4 Where are the flowers I gave 
you? 

5 I didn't believe the story he 
told us. 

6 How much were the oranges 
you bought? 

102.2 

2 The meal you cooked was 
excellent. 

3 The shoes I'm wearing aren't 
very comfortable. 

4 The people we invited to 
dinner didn't come. 

102.3 

2 Who are the people you were 
talking to? 

3 Did you find the keys you 
were looking for? 

4 Where is the party you're 
going to? 

5 What's the name of the film 
you were talking about? 

6 What's that music you're 
listening to? 

7 Did you get the job you 
applied for? 


306 







Key to Exercises 


102.4 

2 What’s the name of the 
restaurant where you had 
dinner? 

3 How big is the village where 
you live? 

4 Where exactly is the factory 
where you work? 

UNIT 103 


103.1 



3 

at 

ii 

at 

4 

on 

12 

in 

5 

in 

13 

on 

6 

in 

14 

on 

7 

on 

15 

at 

8 

on 

16 

at 

9 

at 

17 

at* 

10 

on 

18 

in 


* American speakers say 'on the 
weekend' 

103.2 


2 

on 

ii 

at* 

3 

at 

12 

on 

4 

in 

13 

in 

5 

in 

14 

at 

6 

in 

15 

in 

7 

on 

16 

on 

8 

on 

17 

in 

9 

in 

18 

at 

10 

at 

19 

at 


* American speakers say 'on the 
weekend'. 

103.3 

2 on Friday 

3 on Monday 

4 at 4 o’clock on Thursday 
(afternoon) / on Thursday 
(afternoon) at 4 o'clock 

5 on Saturday evening 

6 at 2.30 on Tuesday 
(afternoon) / on Tuesday 
(afternoon) at 2.30 

103.4 

2 I'll call you in three days. 

3 My exam is in two weeks. 

4 Tom will be here in half an 
hour. /... in 30 minutes. 

103.5 

3 in 

4 - (already complete) 

5 - (already complete) 

6 in 

7 at* 

8 - (already complete) 


9 - (already complete) 

10 on 

11 in 

12 at 

* American speakers say 'on the 

weekend'. 

UNIT 104 

104.1 

2 Alex lived in Canada until 
2009. 

3 Alex has lived in England 
since 2009. 

4 Karen lived in France until 
2011 . 

5 Karen has lived in Switzerland 
since 2011. 

6 Clare worked in a restaurant 
from 2010 to 2012. 

7 Clare has worked in a hotel 
since 2012. 

8 Adam was a teacher from 
2002 to 2008. 

9 Adam has been a journalist 
since 2008. 

11 Alex has lived in England for 
... years. 

12 Karen has lived in Switzerland 
for... years. 

13 Clare worked in a restaurant 
for two years. 

14 Clare has worked in a hotel 
for... years. 

15 Adam was a teacher for six 
years. 


16 

Adam has been a 

journalist 


for... years. 



104.2 



2 

until 

9 

since 

3 

for 

10 

until 

4 

since 

11 

for 

5 

Until 

12 

until 

6 

for 

13 

Since 

7 

for 

14 

for 

8 

until 



UNIT 105 



105.1 



2 

after lunch 



3 

before the end 


4 

during the course 

5 

before they 1 

went 

to Australia 

6 

during the n 

ight 


7 

while you're 

waiting 

8 

after the concert 



105.2 

3 while 

4 for 

5 while 

6 during 

7 while 

8 for 

9 during 
10 while 

105.3 

2 eating 

3 answering 

4 having/taking 

5 finishing/doing 

6 going/travelling 

105.4 

2 John worked in a bookshop 
for two years after leaving 
school. 

3 Before going to sleep, I read 
for a few minutes. 

4 After walking for three hours, 
we were very tired. 

5 Let’s have a cup of coffee 
before going out. 

UNIT 106 


106.1 


2 

In the box. 

3 

On the box. 

4 

On the wall. 

5 

At the bus stop. 

6 

In the field. 

7 

On the balcony. 

8 

In the pool. 

9 

At the window. 

10 

On the ceiling. 

11 

On the table. 

12 

At the table. 


106.2 

2 in 

3 on 

4 in 

5 on 

6 at 

7 in 

8 in 

9 at 

10 at 

11 in 

12 at 

13 on 

14 at 

15 on the wall in the living room 


307 






Key to Exercises 


UNIT 107 

107.1 

2 At the airport. 

3 In bed. 

4 On a ship. 

5 In the sky. 

6 At a party. 

7 At the doctor's. 

8 On the second floor. 

9 At work. 

10 On a plane. 

11 In a taxi. 

12 At a wedding. 


107.2 


2 in 

9 in 

3 in 

10 in 

4 at 

11 on 

5 at 

12 on 

6 in 

13 at 

7 at 

14 in 

8 at 

15 on 

UNIT 108 


108.1 


2 to 

6 to 

3 in 

7 to 

4 to 

8 in 

5 in 

108.2 

3 to 

4 to 

5 at home. 

6 at 

.. to work 

7 - (already complete) 

8 to 


9 at 



10 at a restaurant... to the hotel 

108.3 

2 to 

3 to 

4 in 

5 to 

6 to 

7 at 

8 to 

9 to 

10 at 

11 at 

12 to Maria's house ... at home 

13 - (already complete) 

14 meet at the party... go to the 
party 


108.4 

1 to 

2 - (already complete) 

3 at 

4 in 

5 to 

6 - (already complete) 

108.5 

Example answers: 

2 to work 

3 at work 

4 to Canada 

5 to parties 

6 at a friends house 

UNIT 109 

109.1 

2 next to / beside / by 

3 in front of 

4 between 

5 next to / beside / by 

6 in front of 

7 behind 

8 on the left 

9 in the middle 

109.2 

2 behind 

3 above 

4 in front of 

5 on 

6 by / next to / beside 

7 below / under 

8 above 

9 under 

10 by / next to / beside 

11 opposite 

12 on 

109.3 

2 The fountain is in front of the 
theatre. 

3 The bank/bookshop is 
opposite the theatre, or 
Paul's office is opposite the 
theatre, or The theatre is 
opposite... 

4 The bank/bookshop/ 
supermarket is next to ... 

5 Paul's office is above the 
bookshop. 

6 The bookshop is between the 
bank and the supermarket. 


UNIT 110 

110.1 

2 Go under the bridge. 

3 Go up the hill. 

4 Go down the steps. 

5 Go along this street. 

6 Go into the hotel. 

7 Go past the hotel. 

8 Go out of the hotel. 

9 Go over the bridge. 

10 Go through the park. 

110.2 

2 off 

3 over 

4 out of 

5 across 

6 round/around 

7 through 

8 on 

9 round/around 

10 into the house through a 
window 

110.3 

1 out of 

2 round/around 

3 in 

4 from here to the airport 

5 round/around 

6 on/over 

7 over 

8 out of / from 

UNIT 111 

111.1 

2 on time 

3 on holiday 

4 on the phone 

5 on TV 

111.2 

2 by 

3 with 

4 about 

5 on 

6 by 

7 at 

8 on 

9 with 

10 about grammar by Vera P. Bull 


111.3 


1 with 

6 by 

2 without 

7 on 

3 by 

8 with 

4 about 

9 at 

5 at 

10 by 


308 






Key to Exercises 


11 

about 

14 

with 

12 

by 

15 

by 

13 

on 

16 

by 

UNIT 112 



112.1 



2 

in 

5 

with 

3 

to 

6 

of 

4 

at 



112.2 



2 

at 



3 

to 



4 

about 



5 

of 



6 

of 



7 

from/to (You 

can 

also say 


different than 

•••) 


8 

in 



9 

for 



10 

about 



11 

of 




12 for/about getting angry with 
you 


7 of/about 

8 for 

9 on 

10 to 

11 for 

12 - (already complete) 

13 to 

14 on 

15 of/about 

113.3 

1 at 4 after 

2 after 5 at 

3 for 6 for 

113.4 

Example answers: 

3 It depends on the 
programme. 

4 It depends (on) what it is. 

5 It depends on the weather. 

6 It depends (on) how much 
you want. 

UNIT 114 


112.3 

2 interested in going 

3 good at getting 

4 fed up with waiting 

5 sorry for/about waking 

6 Thank you for waiting. 

112.4 

2 Sue walked past me without 
speaking. 

3 Don't do anything without 
asking me first. 

4 I went out without locking 
the door. 

112.5 

Example answers: 


2 

I'm 

scared of the dark. 

3 

I'm 

not very good at drawing. 

4 

I'm 

not interested in cars. 

5 

I'm 

fed up with living here. 

UNIT 

113 

113.1 


2 

to 

5 at 

3 

for 

6 for 

4 

to 


113.2 


2 

to 


3 

to 



4 - (already complete) 

5 for 

6 to 


114.1 

2 went in 

3 looked up 

4 rodeoff/away 

5 turned round/around 

6 got off 

7 sat down 

8 got out 

114.2 

2 away 

3 round/around 

4 going out ... be back 

5 down 

6 over 

7 back 

8 in 

9 up 

10 going away ... coming back 

114.3 

2 Hold on 

3 slowed down 

4 takes off 

5 getting on 

6 speak up 

7 broken down 

8 fall over / fall down 

9 carry on 

10 gave up 

11 went off 


UNIT 115 

115.1 

2 She took off her hat. or She 
took her hat off. 

3 He put down his bag. or He 
put his bag down. 

4 She picked up the magazine. 
or She picked the magazine 
up. 

5 He put on his sunglasses, or 
He put his sunglasses on. 

6 She turned off the tap. or 
She turned the tap off. 

115.2 

2 He put his jacket on. 

He put it on. 

3 She took off her glasses. 

She took them off. 

4 I picked the phone up. 

I picked it up. 

5 They gave the key back. 

They gave it back. 

6 We turned off the lights. 

We turned them off 

115.3 

2 take it back 

3 picked them up 

4 switched it off 

5 bring them back 

115.4 

3 knocked over 

4 look it up 

5 throw them away 

6 tried on 

7 showed me round 

8 gave it up or gave up ( without 
it) 

9 fill it in 

10 put your cigarette out 


309 





Key to Additional exercises 


1 

3 Kate is a doctor. 

4 The children are asleep. 

5 Gary isn't hungry. 

6 The books aren't on the table. 

7 The hotel is near the station. 

8 The bus isn't full. 

2 

3 she's / she is 

4 Where are 

5 Is he 

6 It's/It is 

7 I’m /1 am or No, I'm not. 

I'm a student. 

8 What colour is 

9 Is it 

10 Are you 

11 How much are they? 

3 

3 He's/He is having a shower. 

4 Are the children playing? 

5 Is it raining? 

6 They're/They are coming 
now. 

7 Why are you standing here? 
I'm/I am waiting for 
somebody. 

4 

4 Sam doesn't want 

5 Do you want 

6 Does Helen live 

7 Sarah knows 

8 I don't travel 

9 do you usually get up 

10 They don't go out 

11 Tom always finishes 

12 does Jessica do ... She works 

5 

3 She's/She is a student. 

4 She hasn't got a car. or She 
doesn't have a car. 

5 She goes out a lot. 

6 She's got/She has got a lot of 
friends, or She has a lot of 
friends. 

7 She doesn't like London. 

8 She likes dancing. 

9 She isn't/She's not interested 
in sport. 


1 Are you married? 

Where do you live? 

Have you got any children? 
or Do you have any 
children? 

How old is she? 

2 How old are you? 

What do you do? / Where do 
you work? / What’s your job? 
Do you like/enjoy your job? 
Have you got a car? or Do 
you have a car? 

Do you (usually) go to work 
by car? 

3 What’s his name? / What's he 
called? 

What does he do? / What’s 
his job? 

Does he live/work in London? 

7 

4 Sonia is 32 years old. 

5 I've got two sisters, or I 
have two sisters. 

6 We often watch TV in the 
evening. 

7 Amy never wears a hat. 

8 A bicycle has got two wheels. 
or ... has two wheels. 

9 These flowers are beautiful. 

10 Emma speaks German very 

well. 

8 

3 are you cooking 

4 plays 

5 I'm going 

6 It's raining 

7 I don't watch 

8 we're looking 

9 do you pronounce 

9 

2 we go 

3 is shining 

4 are you going 

5 do you go 

6 She writes 

7 I never read 

8 They’re watching 

9 She's talking 

10 do you usually have 

11 He's visiting 

12 I don't drink 


10 

2 went 

3 found 

4 was 

5 had 

6 told 

7 gave 

8 were 

9 thought 

10 invited/asked 

11 

3 He was good at sport. 

4 He played football. 

5 He didn't work hard at 
school. 

6 He had a lot of friends. 

7 He didn't have a bike. 

8 He wasn't a quiet child. 

12 

3 How long were you there? / 
How long did you stay there? 

4 Did you like/enjoy 
Amsterdam? 

5 Where did you stay? 

6 Was the weather good? 

7 When did you get/come 
back? 

13 

3 I forgot 

4 did you get 

5 I didn't speak 

6 Did you have 

7 he didn't go 

8 she arrived 

9 did Robert live 

10 The meal didn't cost 

14 

2 were working 

3 opened 

4 rang ... was cooking 

5 heard... looked 

6 was looking ... happened 

7 wasn't reading ... was 
watching 

8 didn't read 

9 finished ... paid ... left 

10 saw ... was walking ... was 
waiting 

15 

3 is playing 

4 gave 

5 doesn't like 


310 





Key to Additional exercises 


6 did your parents go 

7 saw ... was driving 

8 Do you watch 

9 were you doing 

10 goes 

11 'm/am trying 

12 didn't sleep 

16 

3 it’s/it has just finished/ended. 

4 l’ve/1 have found them, or 
I’ve got them. 

5 I haven’t read it. 

6 Have you seen her? 

7 I've/I have had enough. 

8 Have you (ever) been to 
Sweden? 

9 We've/We have (just) been 
to the cinema. 

10 They've/They have gone to a 
party. 

11 He’s/He has (just) woken up. 

12 How long have you lived 
here? or ... have you been 
living here? 

13 we’ve/we have known each 
other for a long time. 

14 It's/lt has been raining all day. 
or It has rained all day. or 

It has been horrible/bad all 
day. 

17 

3 's/has been 

4 for 

5 since 

6 has he lived / has he been / 
has he been living 

7 for 

8 've/have been 

18 

Example answers: 

3 I've just started this exercise. 

4 I've met Sarah a few times. 

5 I haven’t had lunch yet. 

6 I’ve never been to Australia. 

7 I’ve lived here since I was 
born. 

8 I've lived here for three years. 

19 

3 bought/got 

4 went 

5 've/have read or read or 
've/have finished with 

6 haven't started (ic) or 
haven't begun (it) 


7 was 

8 didn't see 

9 left 

10 's/has been 

11 was 

12 've/have never made 

20 

3 He’s/He has already gone. 

4 she left at 4 o'clock. 

5 How many times have you 
been there? 

6 I haven't decided yet. 

7 It was on the table last night. 

8 I’ve eaten there a few times. 

9 What time did they arrive? 

21 

1 When was the last time? or 
When did you go the last 
time? 

2 How long have you had it? 

I bought/got it yesterday. 

3 How long have you lived 
there / have you been there / 
have you been living there? 
Before that we lived in Mill 
Road. 

How long did you live in Mill 
Road? 

4 How long have you worked 
there / have you been 
working there? 

What did you do before that? 
I was a taxi driver, or I 
worked as a taxi driver. 

22 

Example answers: 

2 I didn't go out last night. 

3 I was at work yesterday 
afternoon. 

4 I went to a party a few days 
ago. 

5 It was my birthday last week. 

6 I went to America last year. 

23 

2 B 9 C 

3D 10 D 

4 A 11 A 

5 A 12 C 

6 D 13 B 

7 C 14 C 

8 B 15 A 


24 

1 was damaged ... be knocked 
down 

2 was built... is used ... is being 
painted 

3 is called ... be called ... was 
changed 

4 have been made ... are 
produced 

25 

2 is visited 

3 were damaged 

4 be built 

5 is being cleaned 

6 be forgotten 

7 has already been done 

8 be kept 

9 Have you ever been bitten 
10 was stolen 

26 

2 My car was stolen last week. 

3 All the bananas have been 
eaten. 

4 The machine will be repaired. 

5 We're/We are being watched. 

6 The housework has to be 
done. 

27 

3 pushed 

4 was pushed 

5 has taken 

6 is being repaired 

7 invented 

8 was the camera invented 

9 have been washed or were 
washed 

10 I've/I have washed them, or 
I washed them. 

11 did they send or have they 
sent 

12 be sent 

28 

2 B 8 B 

3 A 9 B 

4 C 10 A 

5 B 11 B 

6 C 12 C 

7 C 


311 






Key to Exercises 


1 I stayed 
did you do 
I watched 
Are you going 
I'm going 

are you going to see 
I don't know. I haven't 
decided 

2 have you been 
We arrived 

are you staying / are you 
going to stay 
do you like 
we're having 

3 I’m going ... Do you want 
are you going 

Have you ever eaten 
I've been ... I went 

4 I’ve lost... Have you seen 
You were wearing ... I came 
I'm not wearing 

Have you looked / Did 
you look 
I'll go 

30 

1 we met 

2 we sat / we were sitting 

3 We didn't know 

4 we became 

5 we liked 

6 we spent 

7 We left 

8 we meet 

9 has been 

10 she's working 

11 She's coming 

12 she comes 

13 we'll have / we’re going to 
have 

14 It will be 

31 

2 we’re staying 

3 we enjoyed 

4 We watched 

5 slept 

6 I don't sleep 

7 we're not doing / we're not 
going to do or we aren't 
doing / we aren't going to do 

8 we’re going 

9 to see 

10 We haven't decided 

11 wants 

12 to go 


13 I’ll send 

14 you're having 

15 are working / have been 
working 

16 he had 

17 he needs 

18 We’ve been 

19 We got 

20 seeing 

21 I liked 

22 we went 

23 we left 

24 had 

25 he wasn't injured 

26 was damaged 

27 We've changed / We changed 

28 we're leaving 

29 We’re staying / We’re going 
to stay / We’ll stay 

30 flying 

31 That will be / That's going to 
be 

32 finished 

33 I’ll let 

34 we get 

35 are looking 

36 We’re going 

37 we’ll send 

32 

2 A 

3 B 

4 C 

5 B 

6 C 

7 B 

8 A 

9 C 
10 A 

33 

2 a car 

3 the fridge 

4 a teacher 

5 school 

6 the cinema 

7 a taxi 

8 the piano 

9 cars 
10 the same 

34 

4 a horse 

5 The sky 

6 a tourist 

7 for lunch (-) 

8 the first President of the 
United States 


9 a headache 

10 remember names (-) 

11 the next train 

12 send emails (-) 

13 the garden 

14 the Majestic Hotel 

15 ill last week (-)... to work (-) 

16 the highest mountain in the 
world 

17 to the radio ... having 
breakfast (-) 

18 like sport (-)... is basketball 
(-) 

19 a doctor... an art teacher 

20 the second floor... the top 
of the stairs... on the right 

21 After dinner (-)... 
watched TV (-) 

22 a wonderful holiday in the 
south of France (-) 

35 


2 

in 

12 

at 


3 

on 

13 

at 


4 

at 

14 

in 


5 

on 

15 

at 


6 

in 

16 

on 


7 

since 

17 

by 


8 

on 

18 

for. 

.. on 

9 

by 

19 

to .. 

. in 

10 

in 

20 

at.. 

. in 

11 

for 





11 B 

12 A 

13 C 

14 B 

15 C 

16 A 

17 C 

18 B 


312 






Key to Study guide 


Present 


Verb forms 


Questions 


1.1 B 

1.2 A 

1.3 C 

1.4 A 

1.5 C, D 

1.6 B 

1.7 D 

1.8 C 

1.9 C 

1.10 A 

1.11 C 

1.12 A 

1.13 D 

1.14 C 

1.15 A 

1.16 D 

1.17 C,D 

1.18 A, D 

Past 

2.1 B 

2.2 E 

2.3 D 

2.4 B 

2.5 A 

2.6 D 

2.7 A 

2.8 C 

2.9 C 

Present perfect 

3.1 B, E 

3.2 D 

3.3 B 

3.4 D 

3.5 E 

3.6 B 

3.7 A 

3.8 C 

3.9 D 

3.10 E 

Passive 

4.1 D 

4.2 C 

4.3 E 

4.4 A 

4.5 A 


5.1 D 

5.2 B 

Future 

6.1 A 

6.2 A 

6.3 C 

6.4 A, B 

6.5 B 

6.6 C 

6.7 D 

6.8 C 

6.9 B 

Modals, imperative etc. 

7.1 C, D 

7.2 A, C 

7.3 A 

7.4 D 

7.5 B 

7.6 E 

7.7 B, D 

7.8 D 

7.9 C 

7.10 C 

7.11 A 

7.12 E 

There and it 

8.1 B 

8.2 E 

8.3 A 

8.4 A 

8.5 B 

Auxiliary verbs 

9.1 C 

9.2 A 

9.3 C 

9.4 B 

9.5 B 

9.6 C 

9.7 D 


10.1 D 

10.2 D 

10.3 A 

10.4 A 

10.5 B 

10.6 D 

10.7 B 

10.8 A 

10.9 C, E 

10.10 C 

10.11 A 

10.12 A, C 

Reported speech 

11.1 E 

11.2 A, B, D 

-ingand to ... 

12.1 B 

12.2 D 

12.3 B 

12.4 C 

12.5 B, C 

12.6 C 

12.7 A 

12.8 D 

Co, get, do, make and have 

13.1 A, D 

13.2 C 

13.3 C,D 

13.4 A, D 

13.5 B 

13.6 D 

Pronouns and possessives 

14.1 A 

14.2 C 

14.3 D 

14.4 B 

14.5 B, C 

14.6 A 

14.7 E 

14.8 A 

14.9 D 

14.10 C 


313 







Key to Study Guide 


A and 

the 

Adjectives and adverbs 

15.1 

C 

17.1 

A 

15.2 

B 

17.2 

C 

15.3 

A, C 

17.3 

C 

15.4 

B 

17.4 

D 

15.5 

B 

17.5 

B 

15.6 

A 

17.6 

B 

15.7 

D 

17.7 

A, C 

15.8 

C 

17.8 

E 

15.9 

B 

17.9 

A 

15.10 

B 

17.10 

B 

15.11 

E 

17.11 

D 

15.12 

D 

17.12 

A 

15.13 

B 

17.13 

D 

15.14 

A 

17.14 

C 

Determiners and pronouns 

Word 

order 

16.1 

C 

18.1 

B 

16.2 

C 

18.2 

C 

16.3 

B 

18.3 

B 

16.4 

B 

18.4 

A 

16.5 

C 

18.5 

A, D 

16.6 

16.7 

A, C 

D 

Conjunctions and clauses 

16.8 

B,D 

19.1 

C 

16.9 

A 

19.2 

A 

16.10 

B 

19.3 

D 

16.11 

E 

19.4 

E 

16.12 

B, D 

19.5 

B, C 

16.13 

A 

19.6 

A, B 

16.14 

A, B 

19.7 

B, D 

16.15 

D 

19.8 

A 

16.16 

A, C 



16.17 

D 



16.18 

B 



16.19 

A 




Prepositions 

20.1 

D 

20.2 

E 

20.3 

C,D 

20.4 

B 

20.5 

A, D 

20.6 

A 

20.7 

B 

20.8 

C 

20.9 

B 

20.10 

D 

20.11 

D 

20.12 

A 

20.13 

C 

20.14 

D 

20.15 

A 

20.16 

E 

20.17 

C 

20.18 

B 

20.19 

D 

20.20 

D 

Phrasal verbs 

21.1 

C 

21.2 

A, B 

21.3 

B 


314 




Index 


The numbers are unit numbers (not 
page numbers). 

a/an 65 

a and some 67-68 
a/an and the 69 

about 11 IE 
above 109E 

active and passive Appendix 1 
across 110 
adjectives 85 

adjectives and adverbs (quick/ 
quickly) 86 

comparatives (older / more 
expensive) 87-89 
superlatives (the oldest / the most 
expensive) 90 

get + adjective (get tired etc.) 56B 
possessive adjectives (mylyour/her 
etc.) 60,62 

something!anybody etc. + adjective 
79C 

adjectives + preposition (afraid of 
etc.) 112A 

adverbs 86 

word order (always!usually!often 
etc.) 94 

advise (advise somebody to ...) 53B 

afraid (of) 112A 
after 98,105 
ago 19B 
all 

all and every etc. 80 
all (of) 81 
word order 94 

along 110 
already 95C 

already + present perfect 16B 
word order 94 
also (word order) 94 

always 

always + present simple 5C 
word order 94 

am/is/are 1-2 

am Us! are -ing (present continuous) 
3-4, 23A, 25, 51C 
there is / there are 37 

an see a 
and 97 

angry (with/about) 112A 

another 65B 

any 

any and some 76 
not + any 77 
any and no 77 
any (of) 81 


anybody/anyone/anything 76D, 
78-79 

anywhere 79 
apostrophe (I'm, it's etc.) 

Appendix 4 

apostrophe's (my brother's car) 64 

are see am/is/are 

around 110,114-115, Appendix 7 

arrive 108C 

articles (a/anlthe) 65-73 
a!an 65,67-68 
a/an and the 69 
the 70-73 
as (not as... as) 89 
ask 

ask somebody to ... 53B 
ask somebody for... 113A 

at 

at 8 o'clock / at night etc. 103 
at the bus stop / at work etc. 

106-107 
at and to 108 
at the age of... 111B 
auxiliary verbs 23,40-42 
away 

run away / throw away etc. (phrasal 
verbs) 114-115, Appendix 7 

back 

come back/give back etc. (phrasal 
verbs) 114-115, Appendix 7 
be (infinitive of am/is/are) 
am/is/are 1-2 
am/is/are + -ing (present 
continuous) 3-4,23A, 25, 51C 
was/were 10 

was/were + -ing (past continuous) 
13,23A, 51C 

have/has been (present perfect) 
15-18 

passive 21-22, Appendix 1 
will be 27 

because 97 
been 

have/has been (present perfect) 
15-18 

been and gone 17C 
there has/have been 38B 
before 98,105 

begin (begin to ... or begin -ing) 52C 
behind 109A 
belong (to) 113A 
below 109E 


beside 109A 
best 90B 
better 87D 
between 109A 
bit (a bit older/bigger etc.) 88D 
born 21C 
both 82 
word order 94 
but 97 
by 111C 

by after the passive (I was bitten by 
a dog.) 21D 

by myself/ by yourself etc. 63C 
by (= beside) 109C 

can/can't 30 

comparative (older / more expensive 
etc.) 87-89 

conditional (if...) 
if I do... 99 
if l did... 100 
conjunctions 97-100 
and/but/or/so/because 97 
when,/before/while/after/until 98 
if 99-100 

continue (continue to ... or continue 
-ing) 52C 

contractions (short forms - I'm , it's , 
you've etc) Appendix 4 

could/couldn't 30C-D 
countable and uncountable nouns 
67-68 

depend (on) 113C 
did 

didn't in negatives 12,23D, 40C, 
43B, 51A 

did in questions 12,23D, 40C, 44B, 
51A 

different (from) 112A 
direct speech and reported speech 
50 

do and make 57 

don't/doesn't in negatives 6, 23D, 
40C, 43B, 51A 

do/does in questions 7,23D, 40C, 
44B, 51A 

don’t go / don't fall etc. 

(imperative) 35B 

down 110 

sit down! put down etc. (phrasal 
verbs) 114-115, Appendix 6-7 

during 105 


315 



Index 


each other 63D 
either 

either and too 42 A 
either (of) 82 

embedded questions (Do you know 
what...?etc) 49 
end (at the end of) 103B, 106B 

enjoy 

enjoy -ing 52B 

enjoy myself/yourself etc 63A 

enough 91 

enough and too 92D 

ever 

Have you ever... ? 17 
superlative + ever 90E 
word order 94 

every 80 

everybody/everyone/ 
everything/everywhere 80C 
expect 52A, 53B 

far 

How far is it? 39A, 47D 
far -^further 87B 

fast 86C 

fed up (with) 112A 
few / a few 84 
finish (finish -ing) 52B 

for 

for ten minutes I for three years etc. 
19,104D 

for and to... 54B 
go for a walk etc 55C 
for and during 105C 
from 104 A, 110 
front (in front of) 109A-B 
full (of) 112A 
further 87B 
future 25-28 

I'm working tomorrow, (present 
continuous) 25 

The concert starts at 7.30. (present 
simple) 25C 

(I'm) going to (do something) 26 
will 27-28 
shall 27D,28C 

future after when,/before/while etc 
98B 

future after if 99B 

geographical names with and 
without the 73 
gerund see -ing 
get 56 

get to (a place) 56C, 108C 
get on /get up etc. (phrasal verbs) 
114, Appendix 6 


give 

give something to somebody / give 
somebody something 96 
give up / give back etc. (phrasal 
verbs) 115, Appendix 6-7 

go 55 

go -ing (go swimming etc.) 55D 
go home / go to work / go to the 
cinema 71 

go in / go back etc. (phrasal verbs) 
114 

going to (I'm going to do something) 
26 

gone and been 17C 
good 

good and well 86D 
good at 112A 

got 

past of get 11C, 56 
have/has got 9, 58A 

had 

past of ha ve 11C 
had to 33B 

He said he had (done something) 

50, Appendix 1.1 

happen (to) 113A 
hard 86C 
has see have 
hate 52C-D 
have 9,58 

have got / has got 9, 58A 
have done / have been etc. (present 
perfect) 15-18, 23C 
have to 33 

have a nice time / have fun etc. 

35A 

there has/have been 38B 
have breakfast / have a shower etc. 
58B 

her 59-60,62 
hers 61-62 
herself 63 
him 59,62 

himself 63 

his 60-62 

holiday (on holiday) 55B, 111 A 
home 55A, 71 A, 108B 
get home 56C, 108C 

how 47 

How long have you ... ? (present 
perfect) 18 

how big? / how old? / how far? etc. 
47D 

How long does it take? 48 
how much? / how many? 83A 

l/you/he/she etc. (personal 
pronouns) 59,62 


if 99-100 

if we go / if you see etc. 99 
if and when 99C 
if I had / if we went 100 
Doyouknowif...? 49C 
imperative (do this i don't do that 
etc.) 35 
in 

in April / in summer etc. 103 
in a room / in hospital etc 106- 
107 

in five minutes / in three years etc. 
103E 

in and to 108 
put something in 110 
go in/fill in etc. (phrasal verbs) 
114-115, Appendix 7 
infinitive (do/see/play etc.) 
infinitive (do/see etc.) and to + 
infinitive (to do / to see etc.) 51, 
53 

can,/will,/should etc. + infinitive 
51A 

verbs + to + infinitive (I want to go 
etc.) 51B, 52-53 
infinitive and -ing (do/doing etc.) 
51-52 

I went to the shop to buy ... 

(infinitive for purpose) 54 
infinitive and/or... 54B 
adjective + infinitive (it's easy to 
...) 39B 

something to eat / nowhere to go 
etc. 79D 

-ing (doing/playing/going etc.) 
am/is/are + -ing (present 
continuous) 3-4, 23A, 25, 51C 
was/were + -ing (past continuous) 
13,23A, 51C 

-ing and infinitive (do/doing etc.) 
51-52 

verbs + -ing (enjoy -ing etc.) 

52B-C 

go -ing (go swimming etc) 55D 
prepositions + -ing 105D, 112B 

interested (in) 112A 
into 110 

irregular verbs 11C, 24B, Appendix 
2-3 

is see am/is/are 

it 39, 59B 

it is and there is 37B, 39A 
it's and its 60C 

its 60 

just 

just + present perfect 16A 
word order 94 


316 


Index 


kind (kind to somebody / kind of 
somebody) 112A 
know (Do you know where ... ?) 49 

learn (learn to ...) 52A 
left (on the left) 109A 
lend (lend something to somebody) 
96 

less 88C 
let 53D 

let's (lets go / let's dance etc.) 35C, 
53D 

lik e (What is it like?) 46B 
like (verb) 

would like 34, 52 D, 53A 
do you like? and would you like ? 

34C 

like to ... or like -ing 52C 

listen (to) 113A 
little / a little 84 
look 

look + adjective (look tired etc.) 

85C 

look at!for I after 113 B 

lot (a lot of ...) 83 
love 52C-D 

make 57 

make somebody do something 53D 
make and do 57 

many 

many and much 83 
not as many (as) 89B 
too many 92C 

married 

married to 112A 
get married 56B 

may 29D 

me/you/him etc. (personal 
pronouns) 59,62 
middle (in the middle of) 107A, 

109 A 

might 29 

mind (I don't mind -ing) 52B 
mine/yours/hers etc. (possessive 
pronouns) 61-62 
modal verbs (will,/can,/might etc.) 

27-34, 51A 
more 87C, 88 
most 

most (of) 81 

the most expensive / the most 
difficult etc. 90 

much 

much and many 83 
much bigger/much more expensive 
88D 

not as much (as) 89B 
too much 92C 


must 31 
mustn't 31C 

must and should 32E 
must and have to 33D 
my/your/his etc. (possessive 
adjectives) 60,62 

myself/yourself etc (reflexive 
pronouns) 63 

need 

don't need to ... 31D 
need to... 52A 

negatives 43 

negative questions 44C 
no and none 77 
not + any 77-78 

neither 

Neither am I / Neither do I etc 42 B 
neither (of) 82 

never 

never + present simple 5C 
never + present perfect 17B 
word order 94 
next to 109A 

nice (nice to somebody / nice of 
somebody) 112A 
no (no money / no friends etc) 
77A-B, 81B 

nobody/no-one/nothing 78-79 
no-one and none 77C 
none 77B-C,81B-C 
nor (Nor am I / Nor do l etc.) 42B 
nouns (countable and uncountable) 
67-68 

nowhere 79 
of 

the roof of the building etc. 64C 
the... of... 73E 

off 110 

get off / turn off etc. (phrasal verbs) 
114-115, Appendix 6 
offer (to do something) 52A 

often 

often + present simple 5C 
word order 94 

on 

on Monday / on 25 April etc. 103 
on the table/on the wall 106-107 
on the left/right 109A 
on holiday / on television etc. 111A 
go on (holiday/ a trip etc.) 55B 
get on / put on etc (phrasal verbs) 
114-115, Appendix 6-7 
one/ones 75 
opposite 109B 
or 97A-B 
ought to 32F 
our 60,62 


ours 61-62 
ourselves 63 
out 

out of 110 

go out / put out etc (phrasal verbs) 
114-115, Appendix 6-7 

over 110 

climb over / knock over (phrasal 
verbs) 114-115, Appendix 6-7 

pair (a pair of...) 66B 
passive 21-22,23B, Appendix 1 
present simple (is done) and past 
simple (was done) 21 
present continuous (/$ being done) 
and present perfect (has been 
done) 22 

will/can/must (etc) be done 
Appendix 1.2 

past (Co past the cinema ...) 110 
past continuous (was/were + -ing) 
13-14, 23A, 51C 

past continuous (I was doing) and 
past simple (/ did) 14 
past continuous passive Appendix 
1.1 

past participle (cleaned,/done/seen 
etc.) 24A 

present perfect (I have cleaned) 15, 
23C 

passive (the room was cleaned) 
21-22, 23B, Appendix 1 
regular (cleaned) and irregular 
(seen) 24B, Appendix 2-3 

past perfect 

He said he had (done something) 50 
active and passive Appendix 1.1 
past simple (did/cleaned,/saw etc) 
11-12 

negative (didn't...) 12,43B 
questions (did ... ?) 12,44B 
was/were 10 

regular (cleaned) and irregular verbs 
(saw) 11B-C, Appendix 2-3 
past simple + ago 19B 
past simple (I did) and present 
perfect (I have done) 20 
past simple (I did) and past 
continuous (I was doing) 14 
past simple passive (the room was 
cleaned) 21, 23B, Appendix 1.1 
if+ past simple (if I had / if we 
went) 100 
people 66C-D 

personal pronouns (l/me/you etc) 
59, 62 

persuade (persuade somebody to 
...) 53B 


317 


Index 


phrasal verbs (get up / put on etc.) 

114-115, Appendix 6-7 
plural {cup —» cups / man —> men 
etc.) 66 

police (plural) 66D 

possessive adjectives 

{my/your/his etc.) 60,62 

possessive pronouns 

{mine/yours/his etc.) 61-62 
prefer 52C-D 
prepositions 103-113 
at/on/in (time) 103 
for/since 19,104 
until 104A-B 

before/after/during/while 105 
in!at!on (places) 106-107 
toHn/at (places) 108 
on 103,106-107,109A, 111A 
at 103,106-108,11 IB 
under/behind/opposite etc. 
(position) 109 

up lover/through etc. (movement) 
110 

by 109C, 111C 
with! without 11 ID, 112B 
about 11IE 

prepositions + -ing {in -ing /without 
-ing etc) 105D, 112B 
adjective + prepositions {afraid of 
etc.) 112A 

verb + preposition {listen to / wait 
for etc.) 113 

prepositions at the end (Who is she 
talking to?) 46 

prepositions in relative clauses ( the 
man she is talking to) 102B 
present continuous (am/is/are + 
-ing) 3-4, 23A, 51C 
negative (I'm not -ing) 3 
questions (are you -ing?) 4 
present continuous (I am doing) 
and present simple (I do) 8 
present continuous passive 22A, 
Appendix 1.1 

present continuous for the future 
(What are you doing tomorrow?) 
25 

present perfect (I have done) 

15-20, 23C 

present perfect + just 16A 
present perfect + already 16B 
present perfect + yet 16C, 95B 
Have you ever... ? 17 
gone and been 17C 
How long have you ... ? 18 
present perfect + for/since 18-19 
present perfect continuous (I have 
been -ing) 18B 


present perfect (I have done) and 
past simple (I did) 20 
present perfect passive 22B, 
Appendix 1.1 

regular and irregular verbs 15B, 24, 
Appendix 2-3 

present simple (/ work / she works 
etc.) 5-7, 23D 

negative (don’t!doesn’t) 6,43B 
questions (do!does ... ?) 1, 44B 
present simple + always/usually/ 
never etc. 5C 

present simple (I do) and present 
continuous (I am doing) 8 
present simple passive (the room is 
cleaned) 21, 23B, Appendix 1.1 
present simple for the future (1he 
concert starts at 730.) 25C 
present simple after when/while 
etc. 98B 

present simple after if 99B 

promise (promise to ...) 52A 

pronouns 

personal pronouns (l/me/you etc.) 
59,62 

possessive pronouns (mine/yours 
etc.) 61-62 

reflexive pronouns (myself/yourself 
etc.) 63 
one/ones 75 

relative pronouns (who/which/that) 
101-102 

put 

put something in ... 110 
put on / put out etc. (phrasal verbs) 
115, Appendix 7 

questions 44-47 
am/is/are...? 2 
do/does ... ? (present simple) 7, 

44B 

did ... ? (past simple) 12,44B 
Why don't... ? / Why isn't ... ? etc. 
44C 

Who saw you? / Who did you see? 

45 

preposition at the end (Who is she 
talking to?) 46 
What / Which / How ... ? 47 
How long does it take? 48 
Do you know where ... ? (embedded 
questions) 49 

reply questions ( Have you? / Are 
you? etc.) 41A 

question tags (... do you? I... isn't it? 
etc.) 41B 


reflexive pronouns (myself/yourself 
etc.) 63 

regular and irregular verbs 11, 24, 
Appendix 2-3 
relative clauses 101-102 
relative pronouns (who/which/that) 
101-102 

reply questions (Have you? / Are 
you?) 41A 

reported speech 

He said that ... / He told me that 
... 50 

He told me to ... 53B-C 
right (on the right) 109A 

round 110 

turn round / show round (phrasal 
verbs) 114-115, Appendix 7 

s (apostrophe s) 64, Appendix 4.5 

same 70B, 89E 

say/said 

He said that... (reported speech) 

50 

say and tell 50B 

scared (of) 112A 
shall 27D, 28C 

short forms (I’m / it’s /you’ve etc) 
Appendix 4 

should 32 

simple past see past simple 
simple present see present simple 
since 19A, 104C 
singular and plural (flower —> 
flowers) 66 
so 

so am I / so do I etc. 42B 
I was tired , so I went to bed. 97 

some 

some and a/an 67-68 
some and any 76 
some (of) 81 

somebody/someone/ 
something/somewhere 76, 79 
sometimes 

sometimes + present simple 5C 
word order 94 

sorry (sorry about and sorry for) 

112A 

speak (to) 113A 

spelling Appendix 5 

start (start to ... and start -ing) 52C 

still 95 

word order 94 
stop (stop -mg) 52B 
suggest (suggest -ing) 52B 
superlative ( the biggest / the most 
expensive etc.) 90 


318 


Index 


tags (question tags) 41B 
take (How long does it take?) 48 

talk (to) 113A 
tell/told 

He told me that... 50 

tell and say 50B 

Can you tell me where... ? 49A 

He told me to ... 53B-C 

tenses 

active and passive Appendix 1.1 
present continuous (I am doing) 
3-4, 23A, 25, 51C 

present simple (I do) 5-7, 23D, 25C 
past simple (I did) 11-12,14, 20, 
23D 

past continuous (I was doing) 
13-14, 23A,51C 
present perfect (I have done) 

15-20,23C 

be/have/do in present and past 
tenses 23 
than 88-89 
that 74 

He said that... (reported speech) 
50C 

that and this 74 
a thing that... (relative clauses) 

101 

the 69-73 
the and a/an 69 
the same 70B 
the sun / the sky etc. 70C 
the cinema / the theatre / the bank 
etc. 71B 

flowers / the flowers 72 
the in names of places 73 
the biggest / the most expensive 
etc. 90 
their 60,62 
theirs 61,62 
them 59,62 
themselves 63 
there 

there is/are 37 
there was/were 38A 
there has/have been 38B 
there will be 38C 
there is and it is 37B 
these 74 

think (think about / think of) 113A 

this 74 
those 74 
through 110 
till (= until) 104B 


to 

time 104A 
places 108,110 
goto... 55A, 108A 
get to... 56C, 108C 
to + infinitive (to go / to be etc.) 

see infinitive 
too 92 

too and either 42A 
turn (turn round / turn on etc.) 
(phrasal verbs) 114-115, Appendix 
7 

uncountable nouns 

(salt/water/music etc.) 67-68 
under 109D, 110 
until 98B, 104A-B 
up 110 

get up / pick up etc (phrasal verbs) 
114-115, Appendix 6-7 
us 59,62 

used (I used to ...) 36 

usually 

usually + present simple 5C 
word order 94 

verbs 

present tenses 1-9,23, 25 
past tenses 10-14,20,23 
present perfect 15-20, 23 
passive 21-22, Appendix 1 
regular and irregular verbs 24, 
Appendix 2-3 
future 25-28 

modal verbs (will,/can,/should etc.) 

27-34, 51A 
negatives 43 
questions 44-47 
reported speech 50 
verbs + -ing 51-52 
verbs + to ... (infinitive) 51-53 
verbs + preposition (look at / speak 
to etc) 113 

phrasal verbs (get up / put on etc.) 
114-115, Appendix 6-7 

wait (for) 54C, 113A 

want 

want to... 52 A 

want somebody to ... 53A 

was/were 10 

was/were + -ing (past continuous) 
13, 23A, 51C 

was/were done (passive) 21, 23B 
there was/were 38A 
if I was/were ... 100B 


well 86D 
were see was 
what 

What...? and Who ... ? 45C 
What... like? 46B 
What...? 47 

What... ? and Which ... ? 47C 

when 98 

when and if 99C 

whether 49C 
which 

Which...? 47 

Which ... ? and What... ? 47C 
Which one/ones? 75B 
a thing which ... (relative clauses) 
101 

while 98,105 
who 

Who... ? 45 

a person who ... (relative clauses) 
101 

whose (Whose is this?) 61D 
will 27-28 
will and shall 27D, 28C 
won't 21k 
there will be 38C 
with/without 11 ID 
with/without + -ing 112B 
won't (= will not ) 27A 
word order 
questions 44-46 
present continuous questions 4B 
present simple questions 7B 
past simple questions 12D 
passive 21-22 

Do you know where ... ? (embedded 
questions) 49 
verb + object 93A 
place and time 93B 
always/usually/often etc. 94 
after give/lend/send etc. 96 
worse 87D 
worst 90B 
would 

Id like / would you like? 34 
would like Hove etc. 52 D 
He would buy a car if he had the 
money. 100 

yet 95B 

yet + present perfect 16C 
you 59,62 
your 60, 62 
yours 61-62 
yourself/yourselves 63 


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Essential Grammar in Use 

With answers • Fourth Edition 

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